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Science NetLinks Purpose To investigate how electrical energy can be produced from a variety of energy sources and then transformed to almost any other form of energy.Context This lesson is part of the Energy in a High-Tech World Project, which examines the science behind energy.

Energy in a High-Tech World is developed by AAAS and funded by the American Petroleum Institute Besides physically preparing the lecture slides/notes (which can take several hours for a 50-minute lecture if starting from scratch), at least 1 hour before each class/lab   In particular, I feel like my ability to frame lectures, write exam questions (writing good exam questions was a surprisingly time-consuming process for me),  .Energy in a High-Tech World is developed by AAAS and funded by the American Petroleum Institute.

For more lessons, activities, and interactives that take a closer look at the science behind energy, be sure to check out the Energy in a High-Tech World Project page.This lesson will introduce electricity as the flow of electrons.In some cases, electricity can be the flow of positive charges or both positive and negative charges.This lesson will focus on the more typically defined flow of electrical current as that of electrons.

Students should have some basic knowledge of atoms and their structure.However, as part of their online readings, students will investigate the basics of atomic structure (nucleus, protons, neutrons, electrons).Thus, this lesson provides a good opportunity to clarify misconceptions about atoms and to ensure that all students understand basic atomic structure.According to the Benchmarks for Science Literacy, students of all ages show a wide range of beliefs about the nature and behavior of particles.

They lack an appreciation of the very small size of particles; attribute macroscopic properties to particles; believe there must be something in the space between particles; have difficulty in appreciating the intrinsic motion of particles in solids, liquids, and gases; and have problems in conceptualizing forces between particles.

) This misconception is important to keep in mind when talking about electricity as the flow of electrons.Students may think that the electrons are in the copper wire and not the copper atoms that make up the wire.It is important to stress this point with students so that they develop an understanding that substances are composed of atoms, rather than atoms residing as a separate entity within substances.

Electricity is the flow of charged electrons through a conductor (the cross section of a wire, for example).The flow of these free and moving charged electrons is referred to as electric current.Electricity is generated from the conversion of primary energy sources, such as coal, oil, natural gas, nuclear power, and other natural sources.Burning or combustion of these primary energy sources provides energy in the form of heat, which is converted to the electrical energy that produces a current.Primary energy sources used to make electricity can be either renewable or nonrenewable.

Electricity—electric current—should be distinguished from voltage and from power.Electric current is the amount of electric charge which is flowing in a conductor, and is expressed as an amount of charge per amount of time.Power, on the other hand, is the rate at which energy is used, or the amount of energy expended, for a given unit of time.Electric power is the rate at which electrical energy is converted to or from another form of energy, such as heat or light.The ratio of power to current is called the voltage.

Voltage expresses the amount of energy expended per amount of electric charge.Energy expended is determined by multiplying power by kilowatts by time in kilowatt-hours.Your electric meter does this automatically.In the middle-school grades, students should be introduced to energy through energy transformations.Students should trace where energy comes from and moves next in examples that involve different forms of energy along the way: heat, work, light, motion of objects, position of objects, chemical, and elastically distorted materials.

According to the Benchmarks for Science Literacy, in the early grade levels, there may be some confusion in students’ minds between energy and energy sources.Food, gasoline, and batteries are all sources of energy.When they are used, the energy they contain does not disappear; it is changed into other forms of energy.Similarly, their matter also changes form but does not disappear.In terms of where the energy goes, a sophisticated approach is one in which students realize that whenever some energy shows up in one place, some will be found to disappear from another.

At this stage, students do not need to focus on the quantitative aspect of energy transformations.However, students should be able to trace the movement of energy as it transforms, and thereby notice that some is changed to heat and/or work.Some resources will state that energy is “lost” to heat; however, the use of this term implies that we do not know where the energy is.It is clearer to talk about “change” rather than “loss” in energy transformations.Work is done any time there is motion against some opposing force.For instance, when a block is pushed along a table, we must do work on the block to move it, and some of the energy we put into the effort is changed to heat due to friction.The work we put in, less the energy changed to heat, goes into making the block move—the block’s energy of More Motivation Begin by showing students the pendulum.Pull the bob or mass of the pendulum to one side such that it is parallel to the table or ground.Ask students: Here at the top, does the bob have stored energy or motion energy? (It has stored energy.) What is another name for this stored energy? (Potential energy is another name for this stored energy.Potential energy comes from the position of the bob above the ground, against the earth’s gravity.) Why? What will happen to the bob when I release it? (The bob will start to swing back and forth.(It was transformed into motion energy.) What’s another name for motion energy? (Kinetic energy.) What happened to the kinetic energy of the bob? (It stopped because it is no longer moving.) What energy does the bob have now? (It has potential energy.) Hold the bob to one side but this time at a lower position (for example, at a 45 degree angle).

Ask students: Does the bob still have potential energy? (Yes.) Does it have less or more potential energy than when it is held higher? (The bob has less potential energy when it is lower than when it is higher off the ground.) Tell students that the potential energy of an object can be more or less depending on its position.Provide them with other examples, such as a roller coaster or car starting to coast down a hill.

Have them consider how potential energy affects how much kinetic energy will be generated when the object starts moving.

For example, if the bob were released from a lower point, the kinetic energy generated would be less since there is less potential energy with which the bob is starting.This is also true of a car or roller coaster on a hill.The higher the position of the object on the hill, the greater its potential energy and the greater kinetic energy will be generated once it begins to move.Reiterate to students that energy transformations can go back and forth.Potential energy can become kinetic and kinetic energy can become potential energy.

Now, ask students to imagine a vehicle, such as a car or a bus.Ask them: “How does the vehicle move?” Students may have a variety of answers such as “the accelerator,” or “the human that is driving it.” Encourage them until they say “gasoline.” Ask them: Why is the gasoline the thing that ultimately allows the car to move? (If you press the accelerator of a car with an empty tank, it won’t move.If a human tries to start the car without any gas, it won’t start.

Thus, gasoline is ultimately what is needed in the car.) Tell students that gasoline is a chemical and is liquid.Ask them: “How does gasoline make a car move?” Encourage students to brainstorm and guide them towards the idea that gasoline is a form of energy that is transformed into kinetic energy or movement of the car.When the gasoline burns, some of the chemical energy in the bonds that make up the gasoline’s molecules is released, creating a gas under pressure in the engine’s cylinders.When this gas expands, the pistons move.

Another name for this energy is internal energy.Internal energy comes from the physical state of the gas in the engine’s cylinders.Now, ask students: (The moving car is an example of moving energy.) What is another name for moving energy? (Kinetic energy is another name.) Reiterate to students that internal energy is converted to kinetic More Development In this part of the lesson, students will investigate how electrical energy can be produced from a variety of energy sources and then transformed into almost any other form of energy.

Ask students: Are the moving blades of this fan an example of potential or kinetic energy? (They are an example of kinetic energy.) Why? Where did the blades get the energy to move? (Students will mention that the fan was plugged into an outlet.) What type of energy is in the outlet? (Electrical energy is in the outlet.) When we turn the fan on after it has been plugged into the outlet, what happens to the electrical energy? (It is converted into kinetic energy by means of an electric motor.

A motor works when an electric current passes through a wire in a magnetic field.The wire turns, and some of the electric energy is turned into kinetic energy.) What does the fan do? (The fan’s blades move air around the room.The kinetic energy of the moving blades does work in moving air through the fan blades.) Is all of the electric energy expended in the fan turned into the work that moves the air? If not, what happens to the rest? (It’s given off as heat.

The fan converts electric energy into kinetic energy that does work, and it converts some electric energy into heat.Ask students: What type of energy is coming from the bulb? (Students should mention light energy.Some may also mention heat energy from their past experience with incandescent light bulbs.) A bulb on its own does not start to glow or release heat.

So where is the light and heat energy coming from? (Students should mention that electricity is used by the bulbs to generate light and heat energies.) What happens to the light and heat energy? (It’s absorbed by the light bulb, and by the molecules of air into which it dissipates).On the board, write out the following chart representing what is happening energetically with both the fan and the light: Electrical energy (electricity) → kinetic energy Electrical energy (electricity) → Light energy and heat energy Ask students: (It is being transformed to other types of energy.) Where does electrical energy come from? (Allow students time to brainstorm ideas about where electricity comes from.Some may mention that electricity is generated or that it is made in a power plant.

) Have students do the first part of the Transforming Energy student esheet using Forms of Energy.They can answer questions about this resource on the Transforming Energy student sheet.Answers to these questions can be found on the Transforming Energy teacher sheet.Once students have worked through the resource, revisit the fan and the light that was mentioned in the Motivation.Ask students: Where did the kinetic energy of the fan’s blades come from? (The electricity was converted into kinetic energy.

) Electrical energy is a secondary source of energy.What does that mean? (Electricity is generated from another energy source and is used to store and carry energy.) In the United States, where does most of our electricity come from? (It comes from coal.) (The energy source cannot be replaced and thus, it is available in limited supplies.

) We have just learned that electricity is the flow of electrons.What is an electron? (It is one of the basic structures of the atom, a negatively charged particle that travels around the nucleus.) What are some other structures that make up an atom? (Protons and neutrons.) Have students continue with the Transforming Energy esheet.After they have completed the esheet, show students the transparency of Electricity generation by conventional coal combustion.

Using the answers from the student sheet, go over each step of electricity generation in coal power plants.Ask students the major types of energy being utilized and what energy transformations are taking place at each More Assessment To assess student understanding, ask them to use their student esheet to read and observe the How does electricity work? interactive.They should then answer the questions on their student sheet.Ask students these four questions posed by the Heat, light and motion part of the Tech Museum of Innovation site: A toaster obviously converts electrical energy to heat energy.But what makes the toast pop up? (A timer is set by most toasters.

Our energy pushes bread into a toaster, usually with springs.This energy is converted to potential energy in the springs.When the timer goes off, the springs pop up, in which potential energy is converted to kinetic energy and sound.) Most cars run on gasoline, but they also have batteries.What type of energy is a car battery? What types of things do you think a car battery is used to run in a car? (The battery is chemical energy.

The chemical energy is converted into electric energy and the electric energy into light and heat energy for the headlights and sound for the radio.) Some ovens use electricity converted into heat energy to cook food.What kind of energy do non-electric ovens and stoves use? (Non-electric stoves and ovens use gas energy, a chemical energy.) What types of energy does a computer convert electricity into? (Light, sound, motion, and heat.

) Extensions The Science NetLinks lesson, Converting Energy, serves as an excellent introduction to this lesson plan.A good follow-up activity from Science NetLinks is Power Play in which students examine energy transformations through the process of building virtual machines.TESLA for Teachers, from PBS, offers a set of three lessons on energy appropriate for middle-school use.The second and third lessons use hands-on methods to show how mechanical energy can be converted to electrical energy and vice versa.

Have students investigate how electric vehicles work by going to A Student’s Guide to Alternative Fuel Vehicles.This will give them an understanding of how different types of energy, besides chemical energy in the form of petroleum, can be used to produce the kinetic energy needed to operate a vehicle.Students can learn about the basics of circuits from Tech Topics: Electricity: Circuits.DAILY ANSWER WRITING CHALLENGE This page is created to motivate and push seriousUPSC civil services aspirants to practiseanswer writingto improve their chances of getting good marks in the Mains exam.Every day2 to 4 questions will be posted – framed or taken from previous years papers strictly based on the New Syllabus.

You have to write your answers in the comment box at the bottom of the Post.Dos and Don’ts Write your answers in the comment box below by specifying the Question date and number.If possible read some materials, take your time and then answer in your own words.Stick to word limit even if you know lot about the topic.

Take only Half an hour to write both the answers.Don’t worry about Grammar or Vocabulary much, and don’t hesitate – just answer.Aspirants/readers with better understanding will correct you.Comment on others’ answers too – be nice, gentle, humbleand encouraging (This behaviour will fetch you 200+ in The Personality Test , trust me!) Please don’t use abusive language – be constructive.If you can’t control the urge to use abusive language, please use your Facebook Wall for the purpose.After answering the questions within half an hour, Please don’t stay on the page.Come back next morning and see if anyone has commented on your answers.Please spend one hour on reading others’ answers and contribute if someone has missed important points, or note down if someone has given better points than you.

Every day, questions will go online in the Evening.

PS: You may feel like just skipping this page, but try once.If questions asked are below your standard, please feel free to point it out.We believe writing takes you to the Personality Test. Why not give it a try? No Name, No Fees, No Registration; Only Your Interest and Determination is Required – Once you start, don’t give up halfway as most of ‘them’ do Question 1 Edward Snowden, an intelligence analyst, working on contractual basis with the National Security Agency of the USA recently revealed that the USA has been spying on various nations of the world by secretly collecting information about patterns and manners of internet usage.

This, he has said, that USA has been doing in the name of “its own” cyber security.The revealation has created shockwaves across the world.Many countries have expressed their shock and disapproval to such unacceptable acts of the USA.It is to be noted that the USA, till recently, has been complaining about hackers of China invading its cyber security.The revealation by Snowden has questioned the credibility of the USA’s accusations.

Moreover, besides China, many nations of the Europe and the rest of the world which are in good diplomatic terms with the USA have expressed disapproval of such snooping acts.Besides the snooping acts accusation and its disapproval, the Snowden saga made more implications in the international arena.Snowden who may face trial in the USA for treason is currently seeking political asylum.Many countries in the fear of antogonising the US relationship has refused asylum to him.Few countries like Equador, Venezuela and Russia have told that they are ready to grant asylum.

However, whether the Snowden saga has brought out underlying tensions in the international diplomacy to the fore is a matter of question.The Snowden Saga has indeed raised questions about cyber security of developing nations.Countries like India have revealed Cyber Security -policy post Snowden revelations.However, the China- US diplomatic tussle over hacking, the Latin American countries’ taking a stand against the hegemony of the US or the Russian offering to Snowden are not new elements surfacing as a result of Snowden’s revealations.In fact there are underlying reasons for each.

China’s growth as economic superpower even amidst tough economic conditions and its emergence as an alternative area of power to the West has been creating uneasiness in EU and in the US for quite few years 2.The Latin American Opposition to the US is basically because of the socialist-capitalist ideological divide between them and the result of US hegemony in the South America 3.Russia has historically been a potential alternative to US dominated world polity and has expressed itself this stand whenever situations necessitated it.A recent example is the vetoing of external military intervention in Syria in the US Security Council.

So considering the past and the recent developments in world polity, we can conclude that the tensions in international diplomacy have been prevalent since few years and Snowden saga has not created anything new.The West Asia and the Northern african region has been a seething cauldron of politics since last 5 years.There have been civilian uprise, overthrowing of government, military takeovers etc.Tunisia, Libya and Egypt witnessed civilian uprisings.

In Libya and Egypt, military dictatorships came to an end and other forms of government were experimented.Recently in Egypt the elected president Muhammad Morsy has been brought down and an interim govt is going to be formed.Turkey is witnessing civilian protests against a authoritarian though democratic government.Syria is undergoing a turmoil, armed conflict between the government forces and the rebels who want to ouster the Bashar al Assad government.Afghanistan is going to face elcetions in 2014.

This is particularly significant considering the presence of fundamentalist Taliban and the recent US exit.Democracy is the form of government in which the people of the country are entrusted with the power to decide who should rule them.It also means the existence of political rights like right to peaceful protest, freedom of speech, right of peaceful assemble and a free press.Such democratic governments with all political rights ensured in letter and spirit have been examples of assuring the people a meaningful, rights-based, secure life even in multi-cultural, multiethnic and multilinguistic societies.Examples are South Africa, Brazil, India, France, United States.

In case of WANA nations, a true democracy with assured fundamental political rights is the best way of giving a hope for peaceful existence.Though a few countries in the WANA region have democratically elected governments like Turkey, Syria, Afghanistan, the people of these countries are divided by religious schism, ideological divides etc.In many countries minorities are not given freedom to express their opinion.There is flagrant existence of fundamentalism, hegemony of the rulers over the ruled, crushing of freedom of press etc.Syria witnesses armed clashes between Shia and Sunni sects of Islam.

Egypt is facing pro-Morsy and anti-Morsy clashes.Turkey’s Erdogan governament has been too harsh on civilians who claimed the right for free spaces in crowded cities, Afghanistan has been reeling under the frequent attacks of the FUndamentalist Taliban who are totally against women’s education, modernisation of country etc.Considering all these aspects, it would be right to say that the immediate requirement of th WANA nations is a ‘real’ democracy which ensures it citizens the choice of electing their rulers, basic politcal rights and freedom, watchful oppositions and a free press.A few observations (please take them sportively): 1) You were asked to write answer in 200 words – your both answers cross 400 words.

You know the importance of sticking to word limit – it saves lot of time.In Mains GS writing more costs many marks – because in the end you don’t get time for answering easy questions.2) In both answers your depth of knowledge is reflected.3) In the first answer, as the question demanded ‘critical examination’ – you have done exactly that coming out with a good judgement which is original (that Snowden saga has not created anything new) 4) Second answer could have been straight to the point.5) Please visit again and take the initiative.

Asha Goud Question 1 : 1) “The Snowden saga has brought out underlying tensions in the international diplomacy”.Answer : Diplomatic relations between countries are largely based on the fundamental principle of respecting the sovereignty of nations and non interference.Nations reiterate their commitment towards creating a multipolar world and general wellbeing.However in the background nations maintain clandestine negotiations with other nations to protect encroachment to their authority.

In a crisis like situation similar to the one that arose when an American national Edward Snowden released in public domain classified documents, diplomatic relations become vulnerable to pressures.Snowden episode challenged the American authority therefore granting an asylum to him would attract hostile future relations with America in future.The Snowden episode made very clear that in the current international environment nations are no longer free from diplomatic pressures in their decision making.Their decisions are no based solely on national laws.Powerful nations use their strong position to their advantage.

The response of certain European nations is a sign of this.Also such situations bring to surface confrontational relations between nations.The divide between the USA and Latin American nations was clearly visible here.The use of pressure and confrontations is not healthy for maintaining peaceful and cordial relations in the world.Such practices can bring in tensions and further accentuate them leading to negative consequences for the world.

Sovereignty of all nations should be respected.Asha Goud Q) Is democracy a viable alternative form of government for some of the countries in the WANA region? Substantiate your answer in the light of recent developments in the region.Answer : The region of West Asia and North Africa is of huge geopolitical importance.This region is resource rich and strategically placed.The resource attracted the colonial rule in the region and colonial rule got replaced with authoritarian and dictatorial regimes.

Essentially these regimes are exploitative in nature.The region has become a geopolitical playground of Western as well as Asian Countries.Few countries in the region like Tunisia, Egypt, Libya have experienced civil uprising largely led by the people, demanding a representative model of government.Countries like Syria, Turkey already have democracy in place, however here too people have come out on the streets demanding a “Functional Democracy.” People are demanding that politics in their country should not be influenced by external forces and should work for the betterment of their people.

The civil movements has led to successful over throw of authoritarian rulers and Egypt, Libya, Tunisia have adopted a democratic set up.However recently the democratically elected President of Egypt has be removed with the intervention of military.The rebels in Syria have adopted violent means against the government.Such armed rebellion led to over throw of Muammar Qaddaffi in a violent clash.Democracy is a right of every citizen of the nation in WANA region but civil uprisings should not disrupt peace in the region and democratic form of government should be given enough time to stabilize.

2) First answer needed some depth regarding international uproar it initially caused.3) You have written awesome introduction for the second question.4) However, the question demanded you to take a stand and substantiate it – which is missing (read concluding statement) 5) Keep up the good work! Asha Goud Thank you Sir, I would improve next time.And i would admit that i did not stick to the half an hour for both answers.This answer writing challenge is a great initiative, eagerly waiting for more of these.Edward Snowden of USA National, a young aged employee of USA’s national security agency’s (NSA) program PRISM which is working with a aim of restricting terrorist activities on USA’s soil.But the said programme was derailed its objectives & caused to violation of human rights of its own people along with many other countries of the world, both developed & developing countries by secretly accessing private information of all countries people through their internet access accounts like Facebook, Google, yahoo,etc.

This was exposed by n and he feared the threat of USA, so he went to Hongkong.Later many Latin American countries like Equador, Bolivia, Venejuela, Nicaragua and Argentina came into picture which are invited asylum for Snowden and indirectly these countries shown their character against USA.When Snowden reached Mascow airport and stayed there, because there is no alter native route to Latin America or Iceland, because European countries are ready to grab him on orders of America.This shows once again cold war situation of USA lead NATO against Soviet lead eastern countries like china.

Though and voiced their priorities of trade relationships and want to backside the issue of Snowden, the actual situations appears otherwise and it is truly brought the international differences in the light.

WANA region countries consists of West Asia and North Africa Countries.The North African counties are Morocco from west to Sudan and Ethiopia in the south east, Turkey in the north area to Afghanistan in east part.These countries are geographically located at water scarcity zone and except few Arabian countries; many of these countries are suffering from poverty and unemployment from decades.One of the main reasons for this is ever levels of poverty due to lack of good governance.

These countries are under dictatorship of various autocratic rulers since decades.The Arab spring which started in Tunisia in 2011, was spread to all surrounding countries of Libya, Egypt, Morocco, Jordan, Bahrain, Sudan and Arabia as well.The wave of protests caused to dethrone all these autocratic rulers and the transition phase existed.The rebels are continuously trying to recapture and the struggle is still going on in many countries.But in this globalized world this is the only way for development, because without democracy, the right people will not be get the right social schemes because of widespread corruption.

Democracy with good governance will address the issues of these countries which are suffering from at most poverty and unemployment Biman Ghosh The much contentious “Snowdon Saga” starts with a revelation of a significant US surveillance program,named PRISM by Snowden, a US nationalist and a former employee of National Security Agency(NSA).Snowden has unleashed the covert US surveillance program,under which the US, mines user’s used data from all internet giants,like google,facebook,youtube,etc.without the prior consent of has been seen by people as a gross breach of privacy of netizens by the not only caused of discontent in US nationals but also across the ,the US see the entire issue as it’s internal matter and is upset over the concerns,shown by other countries,the anti-US countries envisaged this opportunity to unleash double standard of US policies and compared them with the “tooth of elephant”.Snowden revealed his identity from Hongkong,an administrative region of china,after fleeing from his own US hostile countries,especially Latin america,Russia,China etc.

have sought this opperunity as a major against the US,which is being touted as the savior of human rights and values for a long time.Now,Snowden has filed his political asylum in multiple countries,including gave born a new stabilization factor in current diplomatic Latin Americans offered asylum to snowden,while some US pro countries rejected it immediately,such situations underlined the most sensitive diplomatic relations among the US-pro and the US-anti rejected it and shown a very pragmatic approach in entire story.3) Introduction for the second question is factual – your opinion is required there and in next paragraphs you have to substantiate it.4) Second question was asked in the light of overthrowing Democratic government by the military – so example of Egypt was needed.

Is democracy a viable alternative form of government for some of the countries in the WANA region? Substantiate your answer in the light of recent developments in the region.The West Asian and North African (WANA) countries are perhaps the most toughest region to administrate or govern in the very reason lies in the nature of society,over present is a huge bipolarity in the WANA countries, one is hardcore conservative Islamist and other one is liberal and desired to see their country in the queue of “Prosperous and peaceful” lly,its often easy to see deadly clashes between them to takeover the groups have their own philosophies and they want to impose these on country’s ideology and policies.Before “Arab Spring”,most of WANA countries used to be under dictatorship of a cruel ruler,who ran country on his interests,suppress oppositions and caused to be violent community clashes.

”Arab-Spring” brought a ray of hope by ousting such in some countries,democracy also had been established but as above said,the intense of bipolarity was much larger then the sentiments of countries,like Egypt,Afghanistan, the abolishing of irrational government signaled for a fair the failure of Mursy’s government in Egypt and the Karzai’s government in Afghanisthan crushed people’s hope a crawling economy and suffered communistic polity,they are still struggling with their handicapped a part of population,religious beliefs are supreme nad they will not allow any government to breach the Islamist law for sake of any issue,while other part is die hard willing to see their political and economy freedom at any cost,be it violent deadly clashes they don’t such crucial situations,democracy alone cannot bring peace and stability in these with democracy,they need the strong will to change the scenario of their own must come up with the feeling of unity and nation’s love.Biman, 1) You have written good answers for both the questions but you need to split them into paragraphs.2) 2-3 sentences paragraph improves readability.3) Thanks for taking part in this writing challenge.i really facing paucity of words to explain your more than a boon for poor students,like us,who are not able to afford the mountainous fees structures of IAS coaching inst…hats off to you!!.hope fr more answer writing guidelines from INSIGHTS! NITISH TRIPATHI “The Snowden saga has brought out underlying tensions in the international diplomacy”.(20 JULY 2013 Q-1) Edward Snowden the infrastructure employee of NSA has disclosed the of survelliance project of US which is named as PRISM.

US has clarified that it was undergoing to combat terrorist activities across the world.This survelliance of world network by the US and breaking out their official and private content without any information is not front on terrorism on the cost of the privacies of whole world is not really they have concern about terrorism they mustnegotiate it a multinational dialouge rather then taking it g one crime by doing many crimes is not a balancing task.The terrorism is still a major challenge to world inspite of these survelliances so the intention of US through this project is still has take anti US stand whereas India shown a middle ground approach with the lack of inclusion of China,Japan and other countries in the debate will surely demarcate the world in two sides with growing tension.Hence the survelliance has brought the tension again on geopolitical hot bed and it has raised questions on the intra security of networks of the nations.Is democracy a viable alternative form of government for some of the countries in the WANA region? Substantiate your answer in the light of recent developments in the region.

(20 july Q-2) The WANA region consist of west asia and north africa region with major countries of the region are Afghanistan,Syria,UAE,Pakistan,Egypt,Iran,Iraq of the countries of this region are suffering from internal turmoil and disturabances with the resulting drop down of economy and nuclear insecurtiy of Iran,NATO withdrawal in Afghanistan,polictical turmoil in Egypt and violence in syria.Most of the countries have autocratic rule or military rule and the suffering of people is on worse day by countries should seek lesson from the rest world countries where similar situation was dominant in past 40-50 year like India and democracy is only suitable and viable form of goverment which can lead the country toward inclusion of peaople in the decision making process will save their there must be inclusion of every front of the society through democratic goverment to make the nation a welfare state in short span of time.There should be ideal of democratic governance in the countries and all the major decision must include the interest of their nation must have social growth as its first priority not the economic democratic goverment has capacity to lead the development by taking all fronts of society together.Hence the democratic form of goverment is the only a alternative for the WANA region countries.Splitting into many paragraphs would improve readability.🙂 manish “The Snowden saga has brought out underlying tensions in the international diplomacy”.Answer – The word “Information” itself a very critical and sensitive one and if the information is about personal and International matters, especially if information is about Economy of the country, it is matter of concern .

Snowden, the whistleblower in the USA’s national security agency (NSA), has revealed the methods how the government of USA is continuously snooping International arena and also it’s citizen not from few days back but since the formation of NSA.Earlier it was done through the ECHELON program , few country was partner in it.NSA, through Internet Corporation for assigned names and numbers (ICANN) – the only hub in controlling internet servers, is being collecting data of all the routes – Asia, Africa, south America.Among the different countries, USA’s mostly eyed on – India, China, Russia, Arab countries.These country are currently using the server facilities of big giants like – Microsoft, yahoo etc.

, which is under the control of American government.The Snowden revelation’s has created panic among the country who are depend on these giant server for their day to day life.The country like India – in which various ministries even Prime Minister Office are using these server for transfer of various sensitive information – is worried over the snooping program of USA.This program not only capable to made economic disaster in the nation but also able to create tension between or among the countries by manipulating various policies of the concerned nation.As the Internet communication evolved, need is arrived – how much a nation is secure? Depending on the foreign services doesn’t mean that one has got permission for snooping.

Even, snooping on citizen of USA is violation of law.Both in absolute and relative terms, the growth of the indian economic class during the colonial period was subtantial.In absolute terms, from the period between 1910-1947 the share of Indian enterpises in the domestic economy was around 70%, which is a significant achievement.In relative terms with the colonial capitalists, this is a further big achievement as Indian enterprises received no support from the colonial government, not to mention the Government’s favourable inclination towards British capitalists.

This considerable achievement of the Indian enterprises gain more significance because, unlike the growth of domestic enterprises in other colonial countries, the Indian enterprise’s growth was not because of its pro-imperialist character.In fact, it would be right to say that it achieved this growth despite being against imperialism.In 1927 the Federal Indian Chamber of Commerce and Industry was started by Indian Industrialists like JRD Tata, GD Birla, Purushottamdas Thakurdas, Jamnalal Dwarkadas etc.It functioned as an institution which served as a lobby for securing the interests of Indian capitalists.However, it did not act as a subservient to the colonial governement in any way.

In fact, it too opposite stands against the government in many instances.One such example is its opposition to the Public Safety Bill.The Indian capitalists achieved substantial growth mainly by means of import substitution, carving out a place for themselves in the domestic indusrty and edging out British capitalists where they could.Thus it is evident that though the Indian capitalists and enterprises were not socialistic, they were definitely not subsevient to imperialistic policies and their colonial masters.The growth they achieved during the 1st hald of the 20th century is mainly because of their entrepreunership skills, indigenous growth and a united network.

India and Japan have maintained cordial relations in the past.Japan has assisted India in the infrastructure sector substantially and India’s consumers have created a good market for Japanese enterprises.India’s PM visited Japan in May 2013 and a strategic dialogue between the two countries followed.They discussed about economic integration, nuclear cooperation, maritime security etc.

Observers believe that growing ties between India and Japan shows increasing importance of India in Asia Pacific region.However, it is not exactly as it is because of the following observations: 1.The Nuclear Cooperation proposed between India and Japan is to be seen in the light of post Fukushima scenario in Japan.Japanese enterprises of Nuclear energy are looking for new markets as there is stiff resistance to Nuclear energy in Japan.It is not exactly to strengthen ties with India 2.

The China-Japan tussle over the Senkaku islands is hovering since last year.India in spite of being a prominent actor in Asian politics has not taken a solid stand in the issue.Even regarding China’s aggressive claims in South China sea where India has stakes in petroleum exploration, India has not taken a tough stand stating international seas are to be governed by UNCLOS and not by traditional claims.India itself witnessed Chinese agression recently in its Daulat Begi sector of Jammu and Kasmir.

After a two week drama, the militaries of both sides went back to maintaining status quo.In 2011, India and Japan signed a Comprehensive EconomicPartnership Agreement.Even then trade balance between India and Japan is mainly inclined towards Japan.Moreover, India’s volume of trade with China is more than that of Japan In the view of above arguments, we can conclusively say that though India Japan relations are reaching a new scale and are expected to benefit both countries, it does not mark the ascend of India to a major player in Asian Politics.Asian politics is still being dominated by China.

1) Again answer 1 has 270+ words and answer 2 has 350+ words – though answers contain all valid points, it is important to stick to word limit as it saves lot of time.But you should have emphasized more on why it grew and how it opposed colonialism (good point is given by Anjali below); mention of evolution of economic class as a political entity, their support of Gandhiji and Congress, Bombay Plan, funding national movement etc.

3) second answer, point 1 is wrong – long before Fukushima, not Japan, India itself tried to convince Japan to sign civilian nuclear pact (after 2005 Indo-US), but Japanese parties opposed it.

Even now they are opposed, but Shinzo Abe is said to friend of India, so he is pushing for a nuclear deal.2) Joe Biden who is in India, will be giving a talk on India’s importance in the Asia Pacific region.3) India is the largest ‘democracy’ in the region – from Japan to Australia, everyone wants India in the region – for trade and strategic reasons.4) It is India which is cautious, but certainly, its importance is on the rise in the region because of its economy and democratic credentials.

2: Business class support to national movement, Bombay plan etc came to my mind.However, I thought it would be better not to mention those points as they would be irrelevant to the question’s context.The question is about the growth of Indian economic class in spite of colonialism, so it would be unnecessary to involve its association/relationship with the national movement.About the second question, I would like to know the difference between “critically examine” “critically comment” and “critically analyse”.

How different should be the answers in viewpoint in these 3 cases? Biman Ghosh “critically examine” refers to inspect the issue very closely,conclusion is must in such questions.””critically comment” urge to comment on the significance of issue, associated be it negative or positive,but aspirants r advised to keep their comment a absolute balance between both.1) The question demands both ‘in spite of’ and ‘in opposition to’ – so the support of economic class to the national movement should be emphasized as it shows they were opposed to colonialism.2) Critically Analyze, Critically Examine are the common phrases we encounter in Mains questions.There is a fine difference between them.

Critically:, Critically means making a careful, unbiased, fair judgement about the good and bad qualities of something.Examine : it is a careful study (inspection/observation) of something trying to know if there is anything wrong and find the cause of the problem.Analyze: to examine methodically the structure or nature of something by separating it into parts and studying their relationship.When you are asked to analyze, you have to examine each part of the problem.Now, when you are asked to, critically examine: you are asked to make a fair judgement by observing or inspecting both good and bad qualities, and find their causes.Example: “In the context of the growing demands for the ban of endosulfan in the country,’critically examine‘ the issues , in your view, should be done in the matter?” (2012, Paper-I) Here, you need to carefully judge whether ban on endosulfan is justified.Both good and bad of endosulfan use and its ban.After observing the problem, find the cause and offer solution.Critically Analyze: You need to judge based on the examination of all parts of the question/problem.

Example: “Analyze critically the ‘interlinkages’ between the Convention on Biodiversity and FAO treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture.” As analysis involves separating something into parts and examining their relationship, the question directly demands the same.So, first examine CBD and FAO treaties separately, then observe if both are in harmony with each other or there is any conflict between them (they are in harmony).Then conclude your answer with your fair judgement.

You have explained with examples so difference between examine and analyse is clear.Keerthi Narayan Pallavi Thanks for analysis Its very easy to waver in subject questions like this.Its important that candidate should stick to the crux of the question and gives facts to support his answer than vague emotions Asha Goud Q 1 “The growth of the Indian economic class in the colonial period was substantial that too in spite of and in opposition to colonialism” Comment.Colonialism has an exploitative nature.

Extracting resources of the country for the benefit of the mother country.Colonial government doesn’t allow its subjects to use the structures and institutions for their advantage and growth.As in case of India we have seen earlier the East India Company and later the British Government kept trade within its control.Indian crafts were subjected to competition from subsidized products from Britain on the one hand and heavy duties were levied on Indian products when exported.Even in such guarded economic structure certain class of Indians was able to make their place, like zamindars, high officers in civil services, traders, mill and factory owners etc.

These people who were allowed grow along with colonial system were some who ensured their growth supported colonial government and others ensured not being antagonistic to colonial interest.Names of entrepreneurs like Jamnalal Bajaj, G D Birla, Ambalal Sarabhai is taken with immense respect for their contribution in creating a place for themselves even in the highly rigid and exploitative colonial government.Through cooperative effort, persuasion and innovation they were able to strengthen their position and later even held strong anti imperialistic stand against exploitation of India.The presence of colonial government did not allow the Indian economic Class to grow to its true potential, so Indian economic class did grow however its growth was checked and not allowed to flourish.Q 2) ” The changing bilateral equations between India and Japan reflects the increasing importance of India to the Asia-Pacific region”.

India Japan relations have reached new heights at the moment.The relation has a strong economic as well as strategic dimension.Japan’s economy is at low and PM Shinzo Abe looks at India as a market for export of technology and infrastructure.

At the same time India Japan partnership has developed further with the growing gulf between Japan and China.

This reflects the importance of India for Japan has grown in the current scenario.However in the South Asian region India has a long history of its importance.The Indian Ocean is an important trade route and considered as energy corridor for the South East Asian countries as it serves as route for oil from the Gulf.India maintains maritime security cooperation with South Asian nations.India has strong economic and trade relations with ASEAN and avenues for further cooperation are being explored.

Also India contributes towards regional development and maritime security in cooperation with small island nations in the Indian Ocean.This shows a multidimensional role of India in the region.Also India maintains healthy relations with the USA which is a major player in the Pacific region.Japan also has strong relations with USA.Together with Japan and USA, India has ensured its position in the Pacific.

Therefore the growing India Japan relations have only further increased the already important position that India held in the Asia Pacific region.Anjali Motghare comment on Kirti’s answer.Colonial rule was mainly focused on making India subservient to their needs so always they protected their interests with certain checks and balances.Indian capitalists growth was substantial because after 1905 swadeshi movement which is launched against colonial rule provided a opportunity which is augmented by World War II crisis of shortage of common goods.After China India is the emerging power in Asia Pacific region, Japan is looking towards India as it needs India’s market to spur its economy and to contain China India is only option with it.

Growing India Japan relations prove the significance of India’s importance in the Asia-Pacific region.! I should have given reason for its growth during the period, yes.! I too, at first instance, thought of writing a pro-India answer.However, after seeing the words “Critically analyse”, I thought of and structured my answer in critical tone.

I would like to know the difference between “critically examine” “critically comment” and “critically analyse”.How different should be the answers in viewpoint in these 3 cases? Anjali Motghare critically means in depth, examine means explain and then conclude, comment means just put your points and analyse means looking at pro and cons and inferring their relevance to point given Keerthi Narayan Sorry.This is a reply to Insight’s comment and not to Anjali’s.please note insights) MAHENDRA NATH GORLE 21 July, 2013 1.Colonialism in India lasts about two centuries with an aim of economic prosperity of British.As soon as the British entered in to India, they started to make alliances with week rulers and with big zamindars to set up their factories and settled gradually.In later periods, British starts to exploit the economy of India, who are mainly targeting the agricultural class and poor people.Economic classes of India acted as break waters for looting of British.

Because of this advantage British not much harmed these people even though they voiced against them for some times.More over Economic classes are hugely benefitted with British inputs like education, English and western technology to Indian capitalists.Economic classes are the only people of India who have access to education in colonial period.Education helps them to better understand the policies and outer world.It also helps them to get some noble positions in British Empire.

In early periods, British encouraged zamindars and these zamindars pays fixed sum to British, though they collect huge and exorbitant rents from poor peasants.In this way the economic classes of India are quite prosper in colonial period.India and Japan had traditional friendship since long in terms of historical, cultural, economical and in military as well.Except very few years in different periods, the relationship with Japan was always stable.

With growing globalisation and trade wars, India’s position became so critical in many corners.In this crucial period the relationship with a country like Japan is so important in both strategic point of view as well as in economical point also.India an Japan both facing different type of problems at a single location of South China Sea.While Japan tries to strengthen its sovereignty over Senkaku Islands, India tries to secure its energy interests in hydrocarbons of South China Sea.In both the cases China is bitterly opposing and making its claims.

In economic point of view Japan aid to India is biggest among all and it is in continuous process.The capital inflows from Japan companies are also not in negligible position and it is very important in Indian point of view.The Comprehensive Economic Partnership Agreement with Japan also ready to yield its results.All these will position in India in a game changing position in Asia pacific region.

The size of the economies of these two countries also makes some interest notes to many countries.

MAHENDRA NATH GORLE Thank you sir for this type of opportunity for us.Actually as you asked 200 words, so in mains it can fetch as 15 to 16 marks questions.So I put my self 8 minutes to each answer on a work book and strictly adhered to it.If you guys want I can give feedback on your answers.I actually want discussion between participants and readers.🙂 mahendra Casio Karan Let’s start off by consulting the map .

Japan and India lie along a vast outer maritime crescent enclosing continental East Asia.That external position, plus the long lines of communication connecting the two countries and the potentially contested terrain lying in between.india and japan underscored their commitment to freedom of navigation and unimpeded commerce, as well as agreeing to promote cooperation on maritime issues.The recent 20-day standoff between Chinese and Indian soldiers and japan’s and china’s ships clustering around a series of disputed islands only brought India and Japan closer in bilateral ties.Most significant, there is new seriousness in Indian foreign policy toward the larger Asian region, India has been hesitant in engaging Japan for fear of upsetting China.

New Delhi is slowly shedding this ambivalence, and Japan has been one of the strongest votaries of a tighter Delhi-Tokyo embrace.Recently New Delhi announced that Japan is a “natural and indispensable partner” for cooperation in the Indo-Pacific and emphasized India and Japan’s “shared commitment to the ideals of democracy, peace and freedom New Delhi and Tokyo not only agreed to institutionalize and increase the frequency of joint naval exercises, but also Japan would offer its advanced seaplane US-2 to India.A joint working group has been set up to decide terms of cooperation.In 1967 Japan voluntarily relinquished international trade in defence equipment under the “Three Principles on Arms Exports.” Relaxation of these norms has been slow in coming and, India could become the second country after the U.

Moreover Japan doesn’t enjoy decisive hegemony over north East Asia or say Asia pacific altogether.This state of affairs only bring India in to a new stage of Asia pacific where New Delhi was a bit taken aback after Beijing denounced plans by an Indian Company to develop oil fields in the south china sea.Biman Ghosh Amid the growing turbulence in Asia-Pacific region,especially in China sea and Indian Ocean Region(IOR),India and Japan headed to significant coalition ’s assertive claims over disputed region adds fuel in fire and makes wary to some Asian giants,including Japan,South Korea, envisages India as a key trustful partner to counter China’s irrational behavior over the knows it very well,that it is India who can play a massive role to secure Japanese interests in east china has been playing a significant role to constrain growing Chinese power with it’s successful “Look-east Policy” for a long other words,India’s emerging as a key player in Asia -Pacific maritime region fueled Japan to tie its bilateral treaties with India.

Though Indian Economic growth rate has decreased in a very short span and rupee is still struggling with its volatility,yet Indian economy is one of the largest strong economies in Asia with its mammoth domestic ’s market still remains the apple of eyes of developed also has a great reputation in “ASEAN” on economic also invested a substantial pie in ASEAN,which enables her to access the high potential market of significantly,India also have Free Trade Agreement(FTAs) with most south Asians.Recognizing the importance of Indian economic power,the Japanese was fast to establish CEPA with Indian also try to make greater access to Indian market as well as in other Asian nations through growing bilateral ties with Japan,more or less signals that Asia Pacific region has die need of Indian role to play out.Sathyananda Moodya R navodit verma japanese prime minister shinzo abe has revived the samurai spirit again by extending hands towards india for friendship.recently he invited indian prime minister to visit japan.many agreements were made such as defense cooperation, joint naval exercise , reviving civil nuclear cooperation programme, mumbai metro project japan has promised to develop infrastructure in india.

this clearly infers that asia pacific region including japan is giving importance to india.non peaceful rise of china in asia is seen as disturbance of balance of power in asia, further china -japan terrorial disputes has compelled tokyo to confront beijing’s millitary assertiveness.china’s illegitimate claims over south china sea .

the strategic location of india in indian ocean is one of the factors.india is also seen as a country for investments in infrastructure , rails, road etc.india has been for long following ” CHINA -FIRST ” policy, but it is not bringing the positive results.

depsang valley incursion was a good example for this.more ever if we see the 4th angle, china is pushing up for economic corridor through pok with pakistan despite india’s concerns.india must consolidate its relationship with other countries in pacific asia and south asia .it will consolidate india’s position in asia .also it will boost economic development in india.

further india should also try to make cordial relations with china because going very fast with japan can provoke is still having weaker border infrastructure and also having huge dis balance of trade in favour of china.Gandhian constructive programme was the mantra of socio-economic development.In his view India’s greatest curse was poverty and hunger.

To combat this he evolved the constructive programme, originally addressed to the members of Indian national congress.

This programme otherwise callad construction of purnaswaraj or complete independence by truthful and non violent means.Constructive work played an important role in the Gandhian strategy.It played a crucial role during the passive phase in filling the political space left vacant by the withdrawal of mass movements.It provided an alternative of continuous and effective work.Parliamentary and intellectual work could be done by relatively few, constructive work could involve millions.

From the nineteen twenties until his death in 1948, Gandhiji gradually shifted the emphasis of his work from non-violent resistance to constructive schemes for the welfare of all.The constructive programme focused upon constructive ways of rebuilding a demoralized society.The constructive programme includes nurturing communal unity, abolishing untouchability, fostering adult education, systematic improvement of village, upliftment of the peasant, development of Non-violent labour unions, promotion of cottage and small scale industries,eradication of social evils.,promotion of khadi,promotion of basic education,upliftment of women,promotion of education in health and hygiene,propagation of rastrabhasa,treatment of lepers.

Gandhiji devised his constructive programme and setup a number of constructive work organizations.From this created the capacity to offer non-violent resistance called non-cooperation and civil disobedience.This work would raise the statusof people and bring home to them the power of non-violent social change for the ending of exploitation.The outcome of this programme involves for revival of cottage and village industries, All India Village industries was formed, untouchability has been abolished by law after independence, women of India participated in satyagraha, harijanas and adivasis joined in freedom struggle etc.The constructive programmes if carried out in the right direction, Gandhiji believed would result in the ideal Sarvodaya Samaj.

thanks sir for this thrilling experiment lakshmi prasanna lakshmi prasanna manish 22 July 2013 2)“She is a goddess to millions yet helpless on the streets.The solution is in the mindset not laws”.Answer – The word “Culture” is derived from Latin word cult meaning – cultivating and refining – cultivating and refining a thing to such an extent that its end product brings admiration and respect.It’s Hindi word “Sanskriti” which is derived from word kriti meaning – to do.

“Kriti” leads to formation of 3 word “Prakriti” – basic matter, Sanskriti – refined matter and Vikriti – modified matter.Today, our society is modified and bringing “Vikriti” of minds than Sanskriti.This is the Vikriti which are establishing their feet in the society and are looking at woman as an asset rather than as goddess.Looking at the root level why our society is being modified – reason – a) Poverty – Family are helpless to nurture culture and provide good education (what is right and what is wrong) b) Violence – A child who has brought up in the environment where he only learnt violence, he is liable to see violence in future and will commit crime.c) Westernization – The effect of other culture which is mingling with out culture.

Taking consideration of above point, government of India has introduced many Laws to curb crime against women.Infact there are statutory bodies – National commission for women, Ministry of women and children development has come with many strict laws and rules but still they are ineffective.Focus should be to eradicate the crime not the criminal, and that could not be done by laws.Even Supreme court of India in the special case of “Delhi Gang Rape” has ruled out reducing the age of juvenile, which has sent clear message that by only reducing age will not solve the problem.Solution lies on nurturing the basic matter to make it Sanskriti.

It is the responsibility of society how and in which environment a born child is taking shape.Geetika Enani 22nd july 2013 Ques:”she is a goddess to millions yet helpless on the solution is in the mindset not laws” Ans: the above comment fully describes the importance of a girl,her helplessness and the change that could improve her image in the society.In this the girl has been compared with the goddess,the one who have given birth to humans just as mother do.Despite of this similarity,both are seen with different a goddess is being worshipped in all houses and streets,a girl is always dominated and humilated by man in houses and seen with bed intentions on the streets,where she seems to be helpless, The fault of this discrimination is of our of India have mindset that Indian society is a man dominated to bring change in society,one has to change his mind,no laws can do anything and then an equal status will be achieved by a woman.Anjali Motghare Along the side of Non Cooperation movement Gandhiji launched the constructive program.

His aim was to make people emotionally stronger and aware about their rights.Gandhiji’s strategy was of satyagraha nearly passive resistance, for that one needs to be strong withing to face any adversities without enmity towards opponent.So on the constructive side he urged people to develop spirit of discipline and self-sacrifice.With that he wanted to make people economically independent, so he asked people to set up spinning hand weaving and use of Swadeshi goods.This is the first phase and in second phase after Civil Disobedient movement, he mainly focused his constructive work on the upliftment of harijans.

Gandhiji’s constructive programme ushered enthusiasm in people.In the silent phase of national movement it prepared people for the next movement.It improved economic standard of people made women economically independent.People started using swadeshi goods so it helped Indian industry grow.In the second phase it helped in making harijans aware of their rights.

Asha Goud Q During the Indian national movement , constructive work played an important role in Gandhian strategy.During the Indian national movement different ideologies like socialist, communist, moderates, extremist developed.

One among these was the Gandhian Ideology.

Gandhian Ideology gave preference to connect with the masses and work towards a united society.Gandhiji after his return from South Africa took up fight for the rights of peasants, workers who were until now neglected.Gandhiji developed a non violent method of struggle, Satyagrah.Gandhiji always stayed connected to the masses and worked with the masses.During the Non cooperation movement he called for boycott of foreign goods and called people to take up khadi and spinning.

He took up cause of the muslims during Khilafat and urged for shunning the religion based divide among people.During 1933-34 he took up the cause of untouchables and propagated the removal untouchability.All these ideals were together Gandhian ideology that unity among the masses.Serving the downtrodden, helping the poor, upliftment of the status of women, spread of education etc.These ideals were taken up by the no-changers, and they conducted such constructive work on large scale at the ground level.

The leaders and masses were brought closer to each other which led to spread of ideas of freedom, unity, brotherhood, democracy and it led to formation of a stronger and more united society.Large scale participation of the masses was witnessed during non cooperation, civil disobedience, quit India movement, and it can be largely attributed to the constructive work done at ground levels.Biman Ghosh you are most welcome sir!…its my humble request you to keep evaluating our answers…it would encourage us as well as make us again! Keerthi Narayan Keerthi Narayan 1.The Indian National Movement can be clearly distinguished into 3 phases.The Moderate, The Extremist and the Gandhian phase.

Of the 3, it was during the Gandhian phase that it reached its mass character, widespread outreach and brought common people into the struggle.The Gandhian phase was so successful because of crucial strategies like non violent satyagraha and constructive work amidst the rural folk.Constructive work: Gandhiji clearly understood the nature of mass movements.He said by their nature itself, mass movements are not possible to sustain for prolonged periods.People’s ability to sacrifice and undergo repression are not unlimited.

Hence to keep up the spirits of the people and to keep the lamp of nationalistic sense glowing during the non-struggle years, he suggested constructive work among the masses.Constructive work: During the times of freedom struggle, there were lots of social problems in the Indian society like poverty, untouchability, child marriage, gender inequality.Gandhiji advised that Congress should take up such constructive work amidst the masses which would help in overcoming these social problems and use such opportunities to infuse nationalistic spirit among the masses.He taught people the use of the spinning wheel or Charka and helped them to make money from handwoven cloth.He campaigned against gender inequality.

He toured the country and brought in awareness about the inhuman practice of untouchability.Effects: The strategy of constructive work yielded fruitful results.While keeping the masses engaged in constructive work during non-struggle phases of the national movement, it also brought in significant changes in the social problems addressing.Particularly, Women of the country became politically aware, participated in the national movement events widely.

Though significant change was not seen in eradicating untouchability, the inhumaneness of the social evil was realised by the untouchables themselves and other sections of the society.Above all, the strategy of constructive work brought in rural folk into large numbers into the national movement and gave it a true mass character 2.The statement reflects the paradox pervading the Indian society.In India, on one hand, feminity and womenness are worshipped in the form of women goddesses, sacred rivers are given feminine names, on the other hand, the real women who come down to the streets as a part of their daily life undergo physical and mental abuse.Worshipping womenhood, sanctifying a women’s various stages of life like attaining puberty, marriage, attaining motherhood through various rituals are part of Indian culture.

Indians have been worshipping mother goddesses since time immemorial.However, there is a marked difference about how Indians view a women as a society and as an Individual.As a society she is revered, considered as a symbol of fertility.But as an individual male, an Indian man’s way of seeing a women on the street, a co-worker and a film actress are not so decent.Laws cannot be effective in curbing those acts which are taken as ‘normal’ and ‘casual’ by the underlying mindset.

Hence, more importance should be given in changing the attitude that takes women for granted.Such change in mindset should be brought in in the family and in the schools, the basic premises of teaching morality.When this is achieved, stringent laws combined with good policing can bring in safety and peace to the millions of women in India.1) Beautiful answer for the first question.Again, you would have said all those things within 200 words.

(sorry i will keep reminding you – this times you used 332 words! ) 2) Second answer fulfills all criteria – good structure, content, precision, basic understanding and word limit (+/- 20 is ok 🙂 Anjali Motghare Keerthi Narayan That’s the + of doing this.We all can learn a lot from each other, refine ourselves.MAHENDRA NATH GORLE Biman Ghosh Britain,that ruled and exploited economically India for over 200 years is twenty times smaller than India and ten times lesser in population compared to could be possible only,due to very success of their notorious “Divide and Rule” succeeded in their policies year by year resulted deteriorating economic and political situations of India day by British govt used the significant “vacant unity space” among the people as their handy tool to consolidate their cruel rule for over the centuries in subcontinent Gandhiji is among the ones,who recognised earlier the mind of Britishers behind their held the lackness in unity among Indian people as the success of British regime.

He knew very well that,its well aware mammoth Indian mass,which will do his job to expel Britishers from Indian also got the point,that his task is only to construct a well informative and aware masses,which are aware about their rights,about their freedom and ultimately, about the “game-plan” of the Britishers to keep them apart from their brothers and prevent their unity,which was inevitable for getting threw his entire energy to crate masses and induct them into movements against British was well familiar about the power of mass based was an important characteristic of Indian national movements,led by Gandhiji.

he fell in full swing to educate people about the exploitation being done by the British rulers and it’s also emphasised on community and religions unity People also learnt well by the magnificent Gandhian ideas and lectures and gave reply flooded in streets with a ultimate goal – “to get freedom at any cost”.British rulers left no stone unturn to suppress movements,but it was too late for was not possible for them to suppress such large scale mass movements with determined nationalism nt mass based movements weakened the foreign regime and compelled them to flee from tely,they understood that Indian people is not in mood to tolerate them anymore.Gandhiji was done with his job and resulting we got our Independence in 1947.Some specifics like – what exactly were constructive works? – fight against untouchability, development of Harijans, Setting up of Ashramas across the nation to train ‘constructive workers’, Hindu Muslim unity (you have mentioned this), promotion of khadi and village industries,etc.

All these factors prepared a band of constructive workers who mobilized people at the grassroots.People trained in his ashrams later became prominent national leaders within and outside INC.Biman Ghosh Its nothing more than hypocrisy,that one side we organise most of our Pujas as “Goddess pujas” with utmost majesty and holiness and on the other side our police stations flooded with hundreds of women harassment cases mes it create major disputes over some mere “obscene paintings” of goddess,while we make women feel obscene by our offences against them and force them raise their voice to be ensure their safety in public most unfortunate and frustated to see growing crimes against the women day by day.Recent trend of growing crimes against women compelled our lawmakers to enact strict laws agains offenders of such it seems that,its hardly going to grag down the figure of crimes against the e the roots of such gravious crimes lies in the mindset of our clear by the research that,a such offender hardly think about the consequences of his heinous simply goes to commit,what he had in his generally,it has been seen that he had enough reasons to back his wrong mind retains the ambiguous reasons in support of his attitudes rare not sudden product of his mind,instead such thoughts develop over the period of raphy,religious thoughts,conservative outlook towards women,lackness of proper education,etc.are a few of such factors to influence and motivate a man towards such crimes considering such a large population of our country,it would be futile to impose more strict punishments in IPC,rather than to culminate moral values about women and their majesty in the we are done to cultivate moral values in our generation,it would help people to change their mentality towards would start to pay more respect to women,whom they see as their ideal and offer pray with immense holiness in life in form of various “Goddess”.

Asha Goud Q “With the disintegration of USSR and an end to the cold war, the international diplomacy took a new turn”.With the fall of Soviet Union in 1991, came to an end Socialism.A Bipolar world led by USSR and USA characterized by high military expenditure, espionage, stock piling of nuclear weapons, proxy wars, was replaced by a unipolar world led by USA and capitalists.

End of cold war is also seen as the victory of capitalism over socialism.The Capitalist countries like USA and European countries popularized the ideas of economic Liberalization and Globalization.The capitalist countries identified the lack of Good Governance as the reason for under development of many Asian and African countries that were victims to proxy wars and ethnic conflicts.As the ideas of globalization and liberalization were adopted, trade relations developed and now diplomatic relations were driven by economic relations unlike the earlier trend of military cooperation.With globalization and opening up of trade relations, people to people interactions increased.

Spread of Internet led to discussions and knowledge sharing among people and organizations.As a result issues relevant to less developed countries like environment, governance, human development raised in international forums.However critics view Globalization and Liberalization as Neo-imperialism.The market and resources the less developed countries are drained away and lead to development else where.The international forums, like the UNSC, are dominated by the capitalist countries.

Therefore with coming of globalization, international diplomacy is now participatory and discussion oriented but the world is led by the capitalist interests.Asha Goud Q The latest census shows us declining sex-ratio in some of the states – Discuss the socio-cultural factors contributing to this disturbing trend.The Census is not merely a statistical exercise.It brings into light state of various human development indicators like literacy rate, population growth, sex ratio, mortality rates, and helps policy makers in policy making.

The latest census exercise conducted in 2011 indicated a growth in over all sex ratio ( number of females per 1000 males ) in the country from 927 to 940.However a few states have shown a decline in sex ratio like state of Bihar, Gujarat, Jammu and Kashmir.Even more disturbing is the steep decline in the Child sex ratio ( between the age group 0-6), at all India level Child sex ratio has fallen from 927 in 2001 to 914 in 2011.It is an indicator of the preference of male child in our society.The states having low sex ratio like Haryana, Punjab, Rajasthan, Gujarat, Bihar lie in the northern belt.

These northern states are patriarchal societies giving importance to male child as heirs.Female child is seen as a burden and the region has in past witnessed practices like female infanticide.The northern belt is also the agricultural belt and they show preference of male child as a helping hand whereas female child has less economic value.Southern states have performed better than their northern counterparts in sex ratio.At the same time it is worth noting that backward states like Chattisgarh, Jharkhand, and many north eastern states have fared better in sex ratio.

These states have majority tribal population which do not have a culture preference of male child.Anjali Motghare Comment on Asha’s answer.From your answer I learned some facts, its nice.I feel question demands more stress on socio -cultural factors.Asha Goud Hi Anjali, there was so much i wanted to put in answer 2 but due to word limit had to cut down, it becomes difficult 🙂 also i wanted to put how northern states differ from southern states and the states having majority tribal population.

In the census of 2011 we child sex ratio of 914 which is less than 2001’s.Reasons are many, but main factors are socio-cultural as follows 1.

He is more respected than other members of the family, so society always has inclination towards son.Son contributes in the earning of family, and daughter given households work.Son will take care of parents in the old age, so he is considered as investment for old age pension, as daughter has to leave her house after marriage.Parent has to pay dowry for their daughters wedding, so girl considered as burden.Now days wedding’s has got more costlier as girls parents has to pay dowry as per boy’s status.Its traditional belief system son will continue lineage of the family.Their name will continue even after parents death as girl’s name is changed after marriage.So all these factors come into consideration while giving birth to a child, though people are more educated, more liberal in thinking now but deep rooted thing dominates their mind, and as more techniques are available so girl fetus is put to death before she is born.Sreekanth Soman 23/07/2013 1) The phase of the world history after the second world war was characterized by what is known as “cold war” between the two super powers, the United States and the USSR.The struggle for hegemony between them brought many other countries like Cuba, Vietnam, and Yugoslavia into internal war or war-like situations.

It was expected of any country of the world to join either of the groups led by the powers.If not, a country could be considered an enemy.Thus even countries which were part of the non-aligned movement also were not kept out of the effects of the cold war.The social, economic, and cultural aspects of the world were also affected due to cold war apart from political sphere.With the disintegration of the USSR by 1990 as a result of economic problems and reaction to reforms introduced by Gorbachev, Perestroika and Glasnost, there happened a radical change in world power equations.

as the lone super power, came to occupy commanding heights in world politics and international institutions like United Nations, World Bank, IMF, WTO etc.became a playground for pursuing the interests of US and other NATO countries.NATO was able to interfere in Gulf War, Balkan crisis and other international issues very easily and enforce their decisions.The world economy became extremely dependent on the developed countries for markets, capital and aid.

Thus there was major transformation in international diplomacy based on the new situation.2) The 2011 census data revealed some disturbing aspects of Indian society.It was the declining sex ratio, particularly the child sex ratio at 914, that establishes the preference for male child among Indians even in 21st century.The sex ratio is very much skewed in some states in north-west India like Haryana, Punjab and Rajasthan.It is to be understood that the social evils of female infanticide, female foeticide and possibly honour killings contribute to this problem.

The utlimate cause for the skewed sex ratio is the low status of women in the society preserved from ancient times.Before marriage, a woman is considered as a burden to her parents as it is thought that she cannot earn enough for the family and also huge money required to marry off her.After marriage, a woman is subjected to abuse and domestic violence leading to suicides over matters of dowry.Such attitudes are entrenched in the above mentioned states.Though education can help in eradicating this evil, it is a matter of deep concern that even among the urban elite, there is preference for the male child.

Advances in diagnostic techniques help in sex selective abortions aided by unscrupulous medical practitioners.Only by the strict enforcement of the Pre Conception and Pre-Natal Diagnostic Techniques Act by the concerned agencies, sensitizing efforts of the civil society and pro-active role of the media can these evils be removed from our society.Biman Ghosh “With the disintegration of USSR and an end to the cold war, the international diplomacy took a new turn”.In 1992,the disintegration of USSR, followed by the end of prolonged “cold war” between the then two superpowers,was a significant event in the world changed the structure of entire world diplomatic equation, dramatically.

During cold war,the world was Bipolar in terms of diplomatic was leading one front with it’s touted pro-liberal views,while USSR held the other one with socialist fronts were in cut-throat competition to influence major world affairs and international institution’s country had to make a clear choice to enter in any of the two world war 2 onwards,the world was being young and various processes were taking place,like de-colonization,industrialization,liberalization, situations opened a greater space for both superpowers to play greater roles out amid the cold war’s tensions.Major emerging countries,like India,china,South africa,South Asians nations were also in greatest need of help of these countries also directed their foreign policies to absorb maximum assistance from US led or USSR led envisaged these situations ripe to shape their economy with the massive help,they got from either US or USSR,as per their foreign policy admitted.but with the sudden collapse of the USSR,entire diplomatic equation took a new turn,most scenario was world was shifted from bipolar to uni polar with the mighty US, alone superpower in the lly,for a few years,some countries were clueless about their future diplomatic steps,eg; situations were more or lees,a dilemma for entire world community.Now,the countries,who earlier would had been with USSR,have to decide about their future countries preferred to be with the Russian federation,a successive state of USSR,while some countries gradually changed their priorities and approached to US for further US had become one and only one superpower with enormous powers to influence any activity in any corner of the world diplomacy had been country’s priorities and foreign policies had been changed.Even though the word ‘cold war’ is virtually memorizing many times at present international arena, the actual theme got faded out with disintegration of USSR in early nineties.With this disintegration the USSR, so many independent nations are created with their own principles and own interests.However all this shifted the power to one side, i.Even though the USSR splits apart into many, still Russia is still world’s biggest country.But it was unable to manage the balance of power.The main reasons are economic and geographical.Economically the main energy security of USSR is lies in the western part, which is now in Turkmenistan, Kazakhstan, Baltic countries and surrounding countries.With splitting the vast quantities of Oil and Gas reserves and minerals lost to these countries.

Geographically Russia lies in temperate zone and northern part lies at tundra zone which are not favorable to agriculture.Russia mainly depends on other countries for many agricultural needs and as well as for energy needs.It only manages by military technology so far.On the other way USA and NATO countries are very advanced in these sectors and continually expanding their economic territories by various agreements with different states.So Russia almost ends up its cold war actions and concentrating on its own security.

The latest census of 2011 shows the sex ratio as 940, which means there are 940 women for 1000 men.Even though it was slightly improved compared to census of 2011, still it is a big concern because the alarming low levels of certain states and decreasing ratio of child sex ratio at 914.As the trend continuous for Kerala and Puduchcherri at top levels, the traditionally low sex ratio states of Haryana, J & K, Punjab, Union Territories of Delhi and Chandigarh continue their dismal form.The main reasons for low sex ratio are the mind set of people, liberal government attitude, no strict implementation of laws (like predetermination of sex during pregnancy) at ground level by Doctors.

In India the birth of female child still not welcomed by many people irrespective of their economic status.The main concern is even educated are not thinking in positively at many instances.One of the main reason for this may be the social evil of Dowry.People are considered the birth of female child as a burden for them till their marriage and feel un protective compared to male child.The increasing violence on females also may be one of the reason.

Government also has to act very strictly on the culprits who bypass the respective laws and have to penalize the hospitals who ever allows the sex determination tests.Sex ratio is one of the important parameter that reflects the status of women in society.Sex ratio decline in India is fact, but important thing is, that decline with sociocultural, educational and economic development.In India sex ratio is 933 in 2001 and it is 940 in 2011, which is one of the lowest in the world.

In 1901 the states like Bihar, Kerala, Orissa, and Tamil Nadu had sex ratio 1061, 1004, 1037 and 1044 respectively while UT’s like Chhattisgarh, Goa, Jharkhand, Lakshadweep, Manipur, Meghalaya and Mizoram had Sex ratio 1046, 1091, 1032, 1063, 103, 1037, 1036 and 1113 respectively.from 1951 to 1961 the position of all the above states and UTs was good but from 1971 to 2001 the declining trend in sex ratio was shown except Kerala and Pondicherry.But in 2011 Census it is seen that in all states except Bihar, Gujarat and Jammu Kashmir the sex ratio is increased, it is also increased in UTs except Dadra & Haveli and Daman & Diu.

Reasons for decline includes preference of son, practice of dowry, Increasing ultrasound clinics and the ability to pay for abortions, education, poverty, male dominancy, lack of women empowerment, and social status of women.Collective work of government and society is needed for seeing healthy sex ratio in future census Geetika Enani re singh date 24/07/2013 question 2) Has UN been successful in maintaining the world peace in the post cold war scenario? Critically discuss.UN is the brain child of the western world that evolve after the second world war which purposes are make a world peaceful where international issues are bring at a place and resolve them peacefully and also resolve all concern of the newly independent states.After the end of world war new version of war were emerged a proxy war (cold war).

At this scenario UN also plays an important role and after 1990,at the end of the cold war, UN and its agencies makes world peaceful and brings world to be more globalized.UN and its agencies plays important role in the economic oriented new world where each countries are economically depend to one another.UN works for more liberalized the world and take action against conservatism.UN sending its secretaries and agent to the conflicted areas of the world and trying to resolve the problem with conversation between rival groups.It also sending peace army to the conflicted zones and disaster affected areas and also supplying resources to the poor and poverty affected areas.

Its security council are playing important role to stop the terrorism and nuclear expansions through keep banning on research and development on nuclear.UN have doing so many grateful and successful jobs.But along this jobs it also criticizes for its leanness to the western country.security council is mostly criticized for its leanness to developed world.After the cold world war new economies were emerging then they start demand for making UN more open and stop biased activity.

Developing countries are demanding for expand security council and also liberalized nuclear policy for power generation.And new demand for more responsibility and transparency increases.this is a brief story of UN but the requirement of the globalized world is more so there are so many changes are required in the right direction through which the world become more peaceful.In modern world history, the period from post second world war till the 1990s is marked by the polarisation of nations into two distinct blocks.

Nations aligned themselves either in sync with the capitalist United States or the socialist USSR.This scenario underwent a change when the USSR disintegrated into pieces.The world after the USSR collapse was not at all bipolar.It has been largely unipolar so far and may become multi polar in the near future.International diplomacy or a nation’s foreign policies are framed taking into consideration a lot of factors.

During the cold war era, one important factor in determining its foreign policy was the economic, military, moral and ideological support it would derive by either inclining towards USA or the USSR.But this major factor determining a country’s foreign policy changed after the USSR collapse.Many nations liberalised and integrated themselves with the global trading network.So nation’s foreign policies were determined by its potential to prosper by establishing trade links, joint naval exercises to combat piracy.Also the international scenario witnessed a lot of flexing of muscles by the two block during the cold war.

The Cuban Missile crisis, the formation of NATO, CENTO, SEATO and the Commintern, nuclear tests, inter continental ballistic missile tests etc are examples.Post cold war scenario did not witness such such muscle flexing.It can be said that post cold war, the USA alone dominated the world political scenario and nations were either pro-USA or anti-USA(like Cuba, Venezuela) during this time period.of females per 1000 males in the country’s population.In India, sex ratio is measured during every census.The recent census shows that India’s sex ratio has been improving since the previous decades.However few states like Bihar and Gujarat have seen decline in sex ratio in the 2001-2011 period.

This clearly indicates the preference of male children over female children in these states.The following could be the reasons for this dangerous trend: 1.Sex determination during pre-natal stage has become more popular in this communication-technology decades than during the 80s.Female foetuses are aborted before birth.The PCPNDT act amendments made few years back may bring in some positive change in the forthcoming decade.

General belief in the society that female children are a economic burden to the family as the entire expense of bringing her up, educating and marrying does not yield any return.This is a fundamentally flawed opinion and educations and experience will bring about a change in this attitude.Considering women and her sanctity as a mark of family’s honour, fear of safely marrying her to a family of same caste, fear of her falling in love with someone else.

All these factors not only affect the sex ratio, but also demean women and prevent economic prosperity, right to freedom and a honorable growth of women and society.The myth that male children take care of the parents during old age and female children don’t/can’t.Male children viewed as carriers of family’s tradition, honour, lineage.

The first World War came to an end in 1919 with the defeat of Germany, Austria Hungary, Italy to the England-France-Russia-USA alliance.A post war treaty called the Treaty of Versailles was signed in the palace at Versailles near Paris.The treaty of Versailles was basically an unfair treaty.It fixed the sole responsibility for the first World War on Germany.

It was basically the intention of France and England to punish Germany to such an extent that it would never cause trouble again.The treaty consisted of harsh conditions like: Demilitarisation of Rhineland Loss of territories in the east to Russia Loss of Germany’s African colonies to the League of Nations Germany was not supposed to build any more war ships Germany’s military strength is to be confined to 100000 Huge war indemnity of 6600 million pounds was imposed on Germany Germany should not impose compulsory military training upon its citizens All these conditions were imposed to ensure that Germany has to undergo moral humiliation and economic, military subordination to the r, the intention backfired.The very conditions imposed on Germany forcibly was the major reason for the rise of German nationalism under Hitler.German people were so humbled that Hitler’s every move against the Treaty of Versailles was welcomed by the German public with great cheer.Thus, the Treaty of Versailles, with which peace was supposed to be established in Europe planted the seeds of hatred among German minds leading to the second world war.

The United Nations Organisation is an international body whose primary responsibility is to maintain world peace.it was with this primary objective that it was formed post the second World War.To assess the success of the UNO in maintaining world peace it becomes necessary to define the term “world peace” in the present context.

During 1900-1950 the world witnesses two major and horrible wars which resulted in a innumerable loss of lives and property.

Concepts like democracy, development and international trade have gained roots and invasion of territory, missile power demonstration, spy network superiority have lost ground.The world has become more civilised now politically.Hence dangers to world peace are not exactly invading of nations by a powerful nation anymore.So in the present scenario, the UN’s success should be assessed by how far it has been successful in maintaining the world nations’ sovereignty.

UNO has been successful in preventing large outbreak of territorial wars.(mostly because countries have understood the ill effects of a full blown war) 2.The post cold war era has seen invasion of many nations’ sovereignty by a superior nation and the UN has failed to prevent such events.In the name of eradicating terror cells of Al Quaeda, the US entered Afghansitan post 9/11 attacks.In the name of ousting dictatorship and establishing democracy the US entered Iraq.In the name of removing an autocratic regime (though it is democratically elected), the US is supporting the anti-Syrian forces in Syria.So if viewed in terms of avoiding major wars, the UN has been successful.However, the fundamental edifice of modern polity called sovereignty of a country and its people has been forcibly breached many a times by the prime funder of the UN and the UN has appallingly failed in this regard.

Asha Goud Q ” The seeds of the World War II were sown at a peace treaty held in a grand Palace in France.The given statements refers to the Treaty of Versailles signed after the World War 1.Imperial Germany with Austria lost against the allies countries.

With the fall of imperial power in Germany parliamentary government was established which signed the Peace treaty at Versailles.The treaty put the entire responsibility of World War 1 on Germany and Germany was now asked to pay for the destruction during the war to the Allies.The treaty did not go down well with the German people who considered it unfair and German government failed to maintain people’s support.13% of German territory was occupied by Allies, its resource rich regions like Rhineland, Ruhr and German colonies too were taken away.These harsh provisions of the treaty lead to an economic slow down and condition of hyperinflation along with large scale unemployment in Germany.People had lost faith in the government.In such situation of political and economic instability, Hitler was able to raise his Nazi party to power and turn into dictator.He gained the support of people by bringing the economy back on track.He declared the German people as the higher race and restored the lost dignity of the people.

Therefore Hitler was able to win support of German population and he acquired such powers that no one could oppose him.He justified his acts as an attempt to regain the lost dignity to his people.Asha Goud Q Has UN been successful in maintaining the world peace in the post cold war scenario? Critically discuss A: In the Post Cold war scenario characterized by absence of the persistent danger war between the conflicting powers.The nature of conflicts is now majorly ethnic and secessionist.United nations has gained significance an a major platform for deliberations and discussions between nations in with end of cold war.

UN aims to achieve and maintain balanced world order and peace.Its peace keeping arm being UNSC which authorizes peace keeping missions to conflict torn regions.During Cold War neither USA nor USSR supported the UN peacekeeping however with end of cold war USA and Russia readily support peacekeeping.UN currently maintains its peacekeeping missions in various countries and the number of peacekeeping missions has increased post cold war.The nature of peacekeeping is no more only military but has enlarged to include humanitarian assistance.

The failure of UN peacekeeping is that as it requires a consent of UNSC it sometimes becomes difficult to take up issues where the UNSC permanent members put their veto, like the Israel-Palestinian conflict.With the support of all UN members the peace keeping missions are successful in playing a major role towards maintaining peaceful world order.Anjali Motghare ” The seeds of the World War II were sown at a peace treaty held in a grand Palace in France.Paris Peace Conference was convened with the aim of restoring peace in World and not to repeat those mistakes which led to World War I.However the very treaty of Versailles one of which concluded in Peace Conference sowed the seed of dissension and draw World to second World War.At the Paris Peace Conference Germany was not treated in befitting manner.Because of Treaty Of Versailles she had to loose one eighth of her of her territories in Europe and 7 million people together with all her colonies, her naval force destroyed and her army was reduced to one lakh, economically her resources confiscated and she had to pay war indemnity of 5 billion.

This treaty was a dictated peace so after some time German nationalist started violating it.

Italy and japan was also discontented with the paris peace treaties.Italy joined the revisionists and Japan adopted expansionist policies.France wanted to reduce Germany to a state of extinction but Britain wanted to see her prosperous nation able to maintain balance in Europe,.Thus Germany got an opportunity to violate the conditions of treaty of Versailles and she took the full advantage of that and took up arms against allied powers to seek vengeance.2) Has UN been successful in maintaining the world peace in the post cold war scenario? Critically discuss.With the end of Cold War, a World become a unipolar and U.remained sole super power contributing nearly 25 per cent of fund to United Nations.

So whenever USA wanted it acted in its own interests flouting UN’s norms, leading to failure of UN.Though UN has been successful in bringing happiness and prosperity through its welfare measure like education, water, sanitation by its various arms but it failed on major issues, which are as follows.UN ineptly handled Somalia crisis, the war torn country is yet to recover.In Rwanda genocide, UN itself admitted it failed to safeguard the peoples lives.UN failed to prevent second Congo War where eight nations and twenty five groups were involved and million civilians perished.UN also failed in Sudan were more than five million people killed in civil war of independence.

UN’s failed to prevent genocide which took place in Srebrenica, a place in Bosnia & Herzegovina.could simply wish aside global opinion.UN failed to bring North Korea and Iran on a path of non proliferation despite of many sanctions.

Recently in Syria UN has not been able to bring reconciliation between government and opposition and war is continue for more than a year which lead to more than 60,000 civilian deaths and much more become refugee.Keerthi Narayan Somalia, Rwanda are cases of internal problems, aint they? How do they pose a problem to ‘world’ peace? And in Iran’s case, there has been no proof so far that its nuclear programs are meant for making warheads.If non-proliferation is a case for threatening world peace, even India is a threat to world peace, know? Anjali Motghare Thanks Kirti, good question, see we are living in a globalized world, each country is a part of whole world.In India Kashmir is not at peace so can we say India is at peace? Similarly if trouble is in any part of the world means world is not at peace.

Anjali Motghare For Kirti, There is no proof against Iran, but it has shown intentions to develop it.Nuclear proliferation is a threat to world peace, so UN is imposing sanctions on her.India faced so many sanctions when it went nuclear, and till date some country don’t trade with India in nuclear material like Japan & Australia.India is not threat to world peace because it pledged no first use doctrine.One observation: You should use numbers to make points in your answers only when question demands it.What are the fundamental duties enshrined in the constitution? Enumerate.When you are asked to ‘enumerate’, using numbers is justified.

In the above answer, just use bullets/stars/hyphen, or just single line paragraphs.Keep it up guys! Anjali Motghare August Pegu 2) Has UN been successful in maintaining the world peace in the post cold war scenario? Critically discuss answer;- Since the end of the cold war,there has been a dramatic shift in the number of peace keeping operations as well as maintaining world UN has contributed to the settlement of numerous regional conflicts, including the Iran-Iraq War, the South African presence in Namibia, the Soviet presence in Afghanistan and the Vietnamese presence in Cambodia.UN has provided a framework for the expulsion of Iraq from Kuwait .Second, given a choice, states contemplating the use of force beyond their borders often prefer to do it in a multilateral, especially in UN, context.

UN or multilateral approach helps to neutralize domestic political opposition, increases the opportunities to acquire useful allies, reassures the international community that operations have limited and legitimate goals and reduces therisks of large-scale force being used by adversaries or rival powers.Third, the UN has some notable advantages over regional organizations in tackling security problems threatening world peace: UN is universal now; it has a reputation, even is it is now under threat, for impartiality; and it has a more clear set of arrangements for making decisions on security issues than do most regional organizations,including even the powerful North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO).Since the end of the Cold War, the evolution of UN peace operations has created some consequences for the organisation.In some cases it has shown itself unprepared to adapt to change, while in other instances it has found itself having to deal with situations seemingly beyond its control.

Yet we have to admit the fact that UN has been more or less able to maintain world peace at numerous most important being preventing the world from a nuclear third world war.

Rahul ” The seeds of the World War II were sown at a peace treaty held in a grand Palace in France.The end of World War I led to the signing of the treaty of Versailles, where the Allied powers led by Britain, France and America forced Germany to sign the peace treaty.Germany was forced to surrender a major portion of its territory to the Allied countries.Moreover, they could not keep aircrafts, navy and the number of soldiers were limited to 1 lakhs.

Germany was humiliated and extremely harsh conditions were imposed on her.The signing of treaty of Versailles led also to the fall of the Ottoman Empire, Austrian, Russian empires and creation of a set of weak independent countries.The first WW was ‘a war to end all war’’.However, the treaty failed to achieve this.Many victories countries also felt cheated as their hopes were not fulfilled.

Imperialism, in fact did not end with the signing of the treaty although it led to the creation of the Leaque of Nations.The reparations that the defeated nations had to pay as per the treaty of Versailles caused enormous bitterness in Germany.It was at this time that the Nazi party, a nationalist party took the advantage to form a base in Germany and ultimately form the government under Hitler which rejected many post war changes.2) Has UN been successful in maintaining the world peace in the post cold war scenario? Critically discuss.Post cold war, the UN has recalibrated its traditional field operations into complex multi dimensional enterprise.

It has also enlarged its base ; interstate conflicts to civil wars.Un peacekeepers are presently undertaking various missions from to build sustainable government institutions, to monitor human rights violation, to security sectors reforms etc.However, its record in peacekeeping missions to Rwanda, Somalia and former Yugoslavia were criticized as it failed to adhere its peacekeeping mission or the peacekeeprs were themselves not provided better resources or political support.As civilians causalities rose, the reputation of the UN peacekeepers also dipped considerably.The setback during those missions led to the Security council to limit the number of peacekeeping missions and begin a process of self reflection so the mistakes are not repeated again.

With continuing crisis in a number of countries the essential role of peacekeeping was soon reaffirmed although a major exercise followed to initiate reforms.The UN peacekeepers were deployed in countries like Burundi, Liberia, Chad, Sudan, Ethiopia, Sierra Leone, Congo, Haiti, East Timor etc.They were stretched like never before in remote locations, uncertain operating conditions, volatile political contexts and many more operational challenges.World war l was the major shock for the world.

It left Europe in debt and victors looking for revenge.That was the victors’ downfall at the Paris Peace Conference in 1919.The delegates of allies made a treaty called treaty of Versailles signed on June 28 1919 aiming specifically to weak Germany.The treaty includes: Distribution of German territory to other countries to cause loss of resources industries and breaking unity of people, restrictions on transport to effect trade and commerce, giving German ships to allies targeting mercantile marine, restrictions on military and importing war materials and reparations injuring German economy caused inflation.Allies succeed in troubling Germany with all these restrictions.

Treaty resulted unemployment, poverty and famine among people of Germany.People got anger and outraged against treaty and government for accepting it.From this outrage Hitler emerged as leader who took measures to effect consequences of treaty and started uniting German territory.He started Nazi party which got support from people He invaded Poland; two days later World war ll began.Therefore treaty of Versailles was major cause of World war ll.

If the delegates of allies had been more concerned about future of Europe rather punishing Germany, World war ll may have never occurred.lakshmi prasanna NPT was found in 1970 for a time period of 25Y saying after that it would be amended according to the current situation.Prior to the NPT conference in New York in 1995, India believed the proposed CTBT would prevent the emergence of new nuclear weapons states and limit proliferation of existing states.India was forced to sign NPT this china issued a National Statement on Security Assurance.

Indian analysts found difference in phrases used in1982 assurance and current one in former they mentioned unconditional where as in later they used at any time or any circumstances which implies assurance is given only who signs NPT In 1995 UN Security Council passed resolution 984 which says security guaranties to those non nuclear weapon states which acceded to NPT.India therefore refused to accede NPT and reiterated the reasons for doing s: by making to classes of nations NPT is discriminatory; also the treaty did not encourage the existing nuclear powers to move towards nuclear discrimination.New Delhi pointed out that extending the treaty signified acceptance of prevailing unequal order.The NPT, India noted, required the nuclear disarmament of specified non-nuclear states while legitimizing the nuclear weapons status of permanent members of the Security Council.Also, the treaty allows an exporting country to withhold supplies if it user license for the exports are questionable, or national records on the use of ammunition are not satisfactory.

If supplies are withheld, as occurred during the Kargil conflict in 1999, there could be serious consequences for India.Finally, India is currently the world’s largest arms importer.It relies on imports to modernize its military forces.The arms treaty would, effectively, put this process at risk But India is willing to have a consensus over CTBT in country only if some of her demands are conceded.

Such as, it demands that India should be included in the club of Nuclear weapon states and the countries having nuclear arms should go for a comprehensive programme for disarmament with specific time bound resolution.

But no proper attention has been given to our demands and India has refused to become a party of the treaty.Sorry crossed word limit Q What role did Parliament played in finalizing the India-US nuclear deal? Discuss.A: The Indo-US nuclear deal has 3 components.A Separation Plan under which India would separate its civilian and military nuclear complexes.The civilian nuclear complexes would be put under IAEA inspection.

Lastly a waiver from NSG to import nuclear fuel and technology despite being a non NSG member.On finalization India would be able to import nuclear fuel and technology form other countries.The deal became highly controversial for its various implications on India’s strategic interests.The issue was raised in Parliament and discussed in detail.It was raised here that the deal would indirectly bring India under purview of NSG and US laws that would not allow India to conduct nuclear test in the future.

Left pulled out its support of government and it was asked to prove its majority on the floor of the house.Government survived by a thin 19 votes majority.The issue of nuclear test was discussed by both the parties and later clarified that the moratorium on nuclear test was unilateral an voluntary and there was no pressure on India from outside.The event shows the important role Parliament plays in safeguarding the interest of country.However it should be ensured that interest of the country and stability of government are not compromised for party politics.

ecebloggers yes i exceeded the word limit.i didn’t read the instructions properly.next time shall stick to the limit Anjali Motghare 1) What role did Parliament play in finalizing the India-US nuclear deal? Discuss.During the finalization of India – US nuclear deal government faced the stiff opposition in Parliament.Government had to face no-confidence motion but finally it won.

Many of the members of Parliament were against the some provisions of Hyde act, accordingly government made a series of hard negotiations to neutralize the negative implications of it through a bilateral agreement.Both the countries finally concluded a 123 agreement which provided the legal basis to two countries to cooperate in the civil nuclear field.Due to differences on the issue India got time and space to bargain with the US to get more and more benefits.There were two important concerns first, right of reprocessing of imported spent nuclear fuel and second was an uninterrupted supply of nuclear fuel to imported reactors.As India took time US addressed the second concern and agreed to help India in obtaining fuel from the suppliers and to create a stockpile to mitigate the effects of any interruption.

Parliament provided an opportunity for better negotiations and more benefits.2) On what grounds India is opposing both NPT and CTBT.India opposes NPT on the following grounds treaty imposes safeguards only on the non-weapon states; under the treaty weapon states have right to explore peaceful uses of nuclear material; it doesn’t have impressive commitment by weapon states; it doesn’t address security concerns of non-weapon states.India is against CTBT due to following reasons, it is neither comprehensive nor it bans all types of testing such as sub critical and computer/laboratory testing.

As both its neighbors Pakistan and China are weapon state India wanted to retain its strategic flexibility.It favours five nuclear powers, it allowed them to keep their nuclear arsenals; It provides for an agency which was to monitor the implementation was a breach on sovereignty.India maintain a position that both the treaties are discriminatory, they imposes a ban on new tests but doesn’t do anything to eliminate the existing nuclear weapons.India is right in opposing the treaties, as any treaty should provide equal provision for all the signatories.It should address the concerns of all the member nations.

But both the treaties doesn’t address India’s concern.Though India agrees to sign the treaties if they are modified and if a clause is added to address the concern of non weapon states.Asha Goud Second answer covers all points, good one.What role did Parliament play in finalizing the India-US nuclear deal? Discuss.The signing of the Indo-US nuclear deal better known as 123 agreement meant that US could push for civilian nuclear cooperation with India.

This deal led India to separate its military and civil nuclear facilities and to place all its civil nuclear facilities under the supervision of IAEA.Also, granting of waiver from the NSG, a nuclear suppliers group to trade civil nuclear technology with India took place.This deal was opposed in the parliament by a number of political parties.The left finally pulled out of the government which led to a no confidence motion for the Congress.However, it managed to overcome this crisis but by a small margin.

The opposition to the deal mainly came from the fact that India could no longer have a strategic reserve of fuel supply and could not test a nuclear device.If it does so, the NSG waiver would be withdrawn and shutting of US nuclear deal would be imminent.Thus the country would compromise on its sovereignty and independent nuclear testing policy.Thus there was wide discussion and deliberation before signing of the India US nuclear deal in the parliament.

On what grounds India is opposing both NPT and CTBT.

The NPT is an international treaty which prevents the spread, non proliferation and disarmament of nuclear arsenal in future and the right to peaceful use of nuclear technology.The NPT has been ratified by almost all countries in the world barring a few like India, Pakistan, Isreal, N Korea, S Sudan.CTBT, on the other hand is a treaty to ban nuclear tests of all kinds both civilian and military in near future.

This treaty is yet to come into force due to non ratification of eight specific states.India’s stand is that it would ratify the treaty only after US ratifies it.President Obama has vowed to ratify the treaty at the earliest possible practical date.So India’s ground is valid in opposing both these treaties as both Pakistan and China is armed with nuclear weapons and India cannot afford to voluntarily ratify both the treaty.Moreover, China has proliferated the nuclear arms to both Pakistan and N would lead to a state of insecurity in the defence establishment and administration in India.

Given India’s impeccable record in non proliferation of nuclear arms and the right to peacefully use civilian nuclear technology, it can pursue its civilian nuclear capabilities without ratifying both the NPT and CTBT.ASER findings have exposed serious shortcomings in the quality of education provided to our children in spite of RTE implementation.What measures do you suggest to overcome these shortcomings? The report highlights the inability of Class 5 students to solve even class 2 level reading and mathematical questions and hence poses serious question on level of education provided.RTE which entitles children of the age group of 6-14 the right to free and compulsory education is a boon for the students from weaker section of the society.

Its provisions like mandate on the private schools for reserving 25% of their class strength for the weaker section, ban on donation and capitation fee, a fixed student and teacher ratio, norms for teachers training and qualifications are very sound.As the act is very recent it will take time to yield results yet only when the guidelines are strictly adhered to.Mere enrollment in school should not suffice and to keep up with fast developing world the basic minimum skills must be acquired at due age otherwise it will perpetuate poor performance.The need of the hour is to make teachers perform.Teachers must be restricted to do personal work during school hours and must not involve students for their personal work in quid pro quo for favourable results.

Regular and continuation evaluation of teachers, students and school infrastructure; strict incentive -disincentive mechanism for performing and non performing teachers and schools, creating fearless ambience wherein students don’t fear to ask questions, nurturing attitude of parents and teachers, and financial assistance by the state when genuinely needed can ameliorate the situation.Why did India sign the Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage and what were its consequences? Analyze critically the political and diplomatic implications of this step by India.India has signed the Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage (CSC), which seeks to establish a uniform global legal regime for the compensation of victims in the event of a nuclear accident.It provides for establishment of an international fund to increase the amount available to compensate victims and allows for compensating civil damage occurring within a State’s exclusive economic zone, including loss of tourism or fisheries related income.

It also sets parameters on a nuclear operators financial liability, time limits governing possible legal action, requires that nuclear operators maintain insurance or other financial security measures and provides for a single competent court to hear claims.The opposition parties have criticized India’s signing of CSC on the ground that it removes India’s flexibility in charging international nuclear operators in the event of an accident.But, it must be remembered that what international investors prefer is predictability and they will invest only when they are assured that in the event of an accident their liability will be confined to internationally reckoned best practices and not on domestic policies which vary from nation to nation.So, signing the treaty is a welcome diplomatic step.We need investment in this sector which is perhaps the only large scale harness able energy source which is sustainable, environmentally benign and cost effective and though there are risks attached with nuclear technology the latest designs are far better, accident proof and with mechanism to deal in the event of accident.

Anjali Motghare For riddhu, some of the measures in first one you suggested are really nice.but in second answer India signed the CSC because it was promised US when it signed nuclear agreement with it.and for world class liabillity measure government brought up Nuclear Liability Bill.riddhu Thanks Anjali for correcting me.I do feel that I do not know many aspects asked in second question.

I will be thankful to you if you throw light on diplomatic and political consequences of signing CSC.Anjali Motghare I m also short of knowledge on it but I know this points, The international convention provides for compensation in case of trans-national implications of a nuclear accident and has been signed by 14 countries, including India.But it has not come into force yet as required number countries have not ratified it.first, precursor to this convention Country needs a world class N-liability law, So India brought up N-liability bill which fixes liability on operator in case of accident and compensation within time limit to victims.And in case of insufficient fund India can get fund from international corpus.

second, NPCIL got eligible to negotiate with two major nuclear material supplier American companies because of CSC.Obviously it Pleased US so India is getting US support on many nuclear issue like entry into various nuclear groups and in FMCT.riddhu Thank you so much Anajali for your guidance as the news papers have reported the issue of signing in such a intricate way i could never get the again.Rahul Singh Hi , can we aggrandise this aspect in this case it might be possible that there may occur a question regarding >>> Critically Analyse the proposed dilution of section 17 b) With the unfolding of recent controversy of proposed dilution of section 17 (b) of civil nuclear liability law which exclusively hold suppliers responsibility in any unforeseen nuke accident Correct me ….

Kirthi 1) “The growth of the Indian economic class in the colonial period was substantial that too in spite of and in opposition to colonialism” Comment.India has missed out on industrial revolution being a colony under British.India under British capitalism, has turned into a supplier of raw materials and markets for cheap, manufactured goods and avenue for investing foreign capital.Any modern industry worth it’s name took its roots in india during mid 19 Th.

Initially it was mainly confined to jute, cotton mill industries and sugar, centered mainly in Bombay and Calcutta.However plantations are controlled by British, railways machinery were imported, access to finance was mainly in British hands, railways were so constricted to serve the interests of British capitalists for markets and connecting resource rich areas to ports.The exchange rate was so controlled,so as to favor Britain industrialists interests.Indian exports faced exorbitant tariff rates in Britain unlike imports at zero alism has had an adverse impact on Indian industrialists in every area- finance, connectivity, tariffs, markets, taxes, working hours etc.However, Indian economic class- capitalists and trade worker- two new classes emerged during mid 19 th century, has endured the difficulties.

This, they did, by including their demands in and supporting nationalist movements.By 1920s, forays have been made to basic industries like iron and steel, cement etc.unlike capitalists of other countries who often side with colonialists, indian industrialists were fully convinced of the fact that they can truly prosper only under an Indian government.This can further be seen when Indian national movement under Indian national congress threatened a left turn, industrialists didn’t take shelter under British but instead influenced the movement to its side.Their take and support to public sector has been clear in Bombay plan and national planning committee reports.

Indian economic classes- capitalists and workers – have both grown substantially taking help of national movement led by ideologically diverse, pluralistic INC and further left their imprint on the national movement, opposing the colonialism all through the way.It is facilitated by a foundation called Pratham and is endorsed by the Planning commission.Asha Goud Q ASER findings have exposed serious shortcomings in the quality of education provided to our children in spite of RTE implementation.What measures do you suggest to overcome these shortcomings? Discuss.A: The Annual Status of Education Report is a outcome of a large scale survey conducted by NGO Pratham among rural children in the age group 6 to 14, the same age group comes under RTE.

The report reveals state of primary education in India.Some of the revelations made by the report are, a decrease in enrollment in government schools, decline in attendance, lack of adequate classrooms and the most disappointing is the lack of basic arthematic and reading skills among the children.Currently more focus is on spending money on infrastructure, black boards, uniforms, books etc which is important but more important are the teachers and teaching methods.Teacher training to fulfill child’s learning needs should be focused.It should be ensured that child is enrolled in school at proper age so that important learning years are not lost.

Focus should on elementary education and even teaching in mother tongue can be provided according to child’s requirement.Classrooms, toilets, library, playgrounds are basic necessity for schools.Also it is revealed that student attendance is low therefore a child friendly environment should be created at schools.Lastly It is important to hold regular inspections and proper supervision by authorities to maintain quality Enrollment is increasing in private schools therefore quality of education should be improved in government schools.It is very important to focus more on outcomes rather than outputs.

Anjali Motghare 1) ASER findings have exposed serious shortcomings in the quality of education provided to our children in spite of SSA and RTE implementation.What measures do you suggest to overcome these shortcomings? Discuss Ans: Some important negative findings of ASER are: Teacher Classroom ratio is declining; Declining basic reading levels; Children’s attendance has declined; More than half of all Std 2 and Std 4 classes sit together with another class.Over these issues I would suggest following remedial measures, Declining teacher classroom ratio simply suggest scarcity of teachers, for this more appointment needs to be done, government need to invest more money in this.Declining basic reading level and declining arithmetic level suggests students are not getting quality education, for this purpose we need a innovative and vigilant teacher.A vigilant teacher will find out which student is lying behind the required level of education stage and innovative teacher will implement good methods to rectify.

To make teacher innovative and vigilant we need a good teacher training.For this purpose government should implement new methods in training the teacher which are pertinent to curriculum and are with the need of time.To make students active we need a keen teacher To teacher work enthusiastically his/her performance should be linked to incentives.By evaluating teachers preformance at the end of the year, as per performance he/she should be given pay hike.By this teacher will have a motto to work in a smart way.

Students of different class sitting together simply suggest shortage of class-rooms.For this we will need more buildings and government need to put some more money into this.Where students attendance declining, parent should be taken into confidence and required to make them aware about importance of education so they will send their ward to school.Ashok The success of any policy program lies in the effectiveness of its implementation.The implementation of RTE and programs like SSA requires synergic participation of various stakeholders like schools, teachers, ground level administration ,PRIs,parents and students themselves.

The challenge is further compounded by its being a fundamental right rooted in constitution and it has to move against all the systemic resistances which any top down policy will face having the sole objective of social inclusiveness by providing parity among all to access basic education.The ASER report 2012 has given an independent finding and needs to be pondered since it has negative consequences on the society and the nation in long run also.The report has revealed the shocking observations in rural india in particular, where the arithmetic ability of subs traction is lacking in students of primary level.It gets further compounded by the shift of students from govt to private schools indicating erosion of faith in public education system.The trend is more severe on gender basis in some states like Rajsthan and Uttar Pardesh.

The reasons are multipronged for this decline of faith in govt school education system viz structural, functional, behavioral, legal policy and implementation level flaws.Besides poor supervision, ambiguous role of PRIs’control, absenteeism, poor infrastructure, demotivated teaching staff and the lack of spirit In implementation has contributed to this startling observation.In some quarters it was felt that the shift to CCE (Continuous Comprehensive Evaluation ) from annual examination system as per RTE Act has resulted in demotivation for studies in students, which the ministry has refuted clearly.Therefore, the emphasis has to be such that it infuses -A deep sense of self accountability among teachers since education is a noble profession and only external accountability can not help.

– The PRIs be empowered and trained enough to handle an village education system for desired goals of the RTE.

– The performance appraisal of schools should be done primarily on quality of human infrasturcute and teacher student relationship for bringing students at the center stage of evaluation.-Use of technology for ensuring modern education and for effective monitoring of schools be done to bring parity between govt and private schools in the people’s perception.This trend of decline if not arrested will cause the greater damage to society by rooting new kind of disparity between urban and rural youth and between rich and poor youth thereby vitiating the very purpose of the constitutional amendment in article 21.The report does not say so but it does not go without saying that it will definitely deprive India as a nation from the only clear advantage India has among all the emerging economies emerging Demographic Dividend.

Ans The LPG reforms introduced way back in 1991 has contributed to the prosperity with country clocking a growth of more than 8% in the time when the world in reeling under recession but the rich have become richer faster than the poor improved.That is; even while poverty levels reduced impressively, inequality has grown too.The reasons for steep inequality are multifarious: 1.Income growth is concentrated in certain urban centres leading to urban rural divide.It has created islands of prosperity in the ocean of poverty.

More than 50% of the population still rely on agriculture and allied sector with a mere contribution of around 12% in GDP.Obsolete and outdated technology coupled with lack of technology transfer and research and development in agriculture has led to perpetuation of poverty 3.Low education standards damaging the long term prospect as it restricts the no.Dismal health indicators and low public investment in the primary health care infrastructure leading to out of pocket expenses of poor.Most of the growth was the result of services sector with stagnation in manufacturing and industrial base.Lack of labour intensive growth and lackadaisical approach towards MSME with low skill and training capacity has created wide income gaps.2) ”Global warming and a race for resources could spark a new ‘cold war’ in the Arctic”.

The rising temperature due to global warming has resulted into the melting of ice in the arctic region.This has opened up avenues for new trade route and exploitation of region for the extraction of mineral resources and hydrocarbons.Every littoral state of arctic region is claiming an upper hand for harnessing the economic potential of the region.This had led to a standoff which resulted in the formation of arctic council for a coordinated approach in the region.

If the shipping routes through the Arctic become more dense, the countries that lie astride these routes, will gain in importance.The exploitation of the rich resources of the region will add to the wealth and economic significance of the already affluent U., Canada and northern European countries.Russia may be the most prominent beneficiary of this shift, not only because it occupies the largest part of the Arctic, but also because it has the most experience in dealing with the harsh conditions that will continue to prevail in the region.

The geopolitical centre of gravity may well swing back from the Asia-Pacific to the trans-Atlantic.It is ironic that while on the one hand the world is grappling with global warming triggered by climate change, the world’s major powers are scrambling to profit from its consequences in the fragile Arctic zone.However the creation of arctic council is a right mechanism to avert any confrontation between the states.Further, what is required is an all inclusive approach like that of Antarctic template in which every country has a stake and the region should not be monopolized for getting economic benefit.Anjali Motghare Keerthi Narayan Keerthi Narayan 1.

India witnessed apprecialble economic growth.In 2004-2008, the country’s economy grew by an average 8%.Even after the economic crisis years, its growth has been comparitively better than developed countries.However, this economic growth, instead of bringing up the standard of living of its total population, has resulted in increasing the existing inequality.

The World Bank releases a data called Gini coefficient every year, which is a measure of economic inequalities of nations.India’s Gini coefficient has been increasing since the last decade and in 2012 was 0.(A 0 Gini coefficient indicates perfect equality and 1 indicates perfect inequality) This means that the growth has not infiltrated to the masses has it is expected.Rather it has made the wealthy wealthier.

This may be because of the following reasons -A majority of India’s population is involved in economic activities of low productivity like agriculture.Agriculture is actually a potentially high productive economic activity, however India’s agriculture faces issues like small and marginal holdings, poor mechanisation, poor irrigation, dependence on monsoon etc.Hence inspite of the hard labour, economic returns are less.– Productive areas like manufacturing industry are not growing in a pace with economic growth.

The economic survey 2013 says that micro, small and medium enterprises are not growing into bigger industries.

One major reason for this is the regulations and rules.India fares poor in ease of doing business globally.-Highly productive areas like service industry is not creating enough jobs.This is because of the low skill level of the people.Though India has an advantage of demographic dividend, it will yield results only when the young population has good health, necessary education and skills.

Hence to counter inequality India has to address these issues: Making agriculture productive, engouraging entrepreunership through ease of rules and regulations and more spending on education, health and skill development 2.The Arctic region, till the 21st century has remained largely frozen.Thanks to the increase in green house gases, its ice content is melting it sends an alarming signal to island nations and countries with a large coastal area, the nations bordering the Arctic circle are looking at a different area.The melting ice has made the Arctic less harsh, more habitable, more navigable and more explorable.It has been said that Arctic region has about 10% of world’s unexplored oil and 30% of natural gas.

Besides it may house resources like coal, zinc s ship traffic from east Asia to Europe will benefit significantly if it takes the northern Arctic route since it is shorter than the Malacca-Suez route.Countries bordering the Arctic region understood the linkage between the melting of ice, benefit of global ship traffic along their borders and existence of resources well before.There is an organisation called Arctic Circle comprising of 8 nations: Sweden, Norway, Iceland, denmark, Russia, Finland, Canada and USA.These countries have been claiming Arctic and its resources as their own and have taken measures to explore the resources by setting up research stations.Recently, China remarked that Arctic should be a part of global commons and all nations should have a claim in its resources.

The Arctic Circle admitted 5 other nations, including India and China, as Observers recently.All these show that the world nations are preparing for a resource race in the Arctic.However it is unlikely to become a bipolar cold war like scenario.Rather, going by the current needs of the population, geographic setting and diplomatic alliances, it may result in a multipolar race with scandinavian and european nations as one block, the USA and Canada as one block, Russia, India and South east nations as one block and China with its partners as a 4th block.Anjali Motghare Asha Goud Hi keerthi, in the 2nd answer i liked the conclusion that it might result in multipolar scenario.

However i feel the possibility is arctic circle countries stand together to claim the region as their territory and non arctic countries demand it to be a global common region as initiated by China.At the same time the arctic countries compete among themselves over the territorial claims.Please also spend 1 hour on others answers and share ideas.

🙂 Good going! simran Sir plz tell me where i m lacking in my response and what improvement i have to be make in my answers plz tell me Thnk for helping and guiding us… thank s a lot plz rply Simran, You are giving importance to facts more.Compared to your first day’s answer, you are writing very well these days.Try to be critical in your answers with a balanced approach.Good going 🙂 Ashish Mandal simran Kirthi I concur with Asha.non arctic countries and intra arctic rivalries, but again if countries like china benefit by new trade route, then opposition to make it global commons is considerably weakened.UN is the best place to move further, but since world powers are involved, this might not happen( unlike in Antarctica- global common).There is serious need to reform the existing post WW-2 institutions, but looks impossible at the moment.

NITISH K 1) In India, despite consistent economic planning and robust economic growth in recent years, there is a consistent increase in economic inequality.Explain why? Ans: India suffers from a possesses more billionaires than Great Britain at the same time India has largest number of poor in the world and nearly 50% of its childern suffer from inspite of the the high economic growth enjoyed in recent years.The main causes for this persistant inequality are: 1.LACK OF PARTICIPATORY GROWTH: it is said that growth benefited mostly rich and the middle classes who were better positioned to exploit the opportunities arising from economic reforms and had the necessary education,technical skills and knowledge of r the poor and rural people lacked these capabilties and thus excluded from growth 2.NOT ALL SECTORS WERE EQUALLY BENEFITED only few sectors benefited from economic growth like software,telecommunications and service sector which are highly skill s the sectors like agriculture and manufacturing which employ most of the population,either stagnated or were negatively affected.

LACK OF GOOD GOVERNACE: the success of tricke down theory depends on the efficiency of govt’s redistributary r in India , plagued by a highly corrupt and inefficient govts both at center and statel levels,this redistribution did not take place well.for example:nearly 40% of the grains meant for poor are diverted to market .Hospitals are not working ,affecting the health of poor and thereby their productivity.

LOPSIDED PLANNING:in recent years it can be argued that planning was done to boost private investment rather than empowering instance,Govt of india spends much less on Health when compared to capitalistic countries of west.Mere economic reforms and consequent growth is not growth to be sustainable it must be widely shared and accompanied by other crucial reforms in governance ,health ,education and democracy itself.2) ”Global warming and a race for resources could spark a new ‘cold war’ in the Arctic”.

Ans: Thanks to global warming,the arctic ice is melting thereby open new maritime routes and huge reserves of resouces like petroleum, gas etc.This Gold rush apart from harming the delicate and pristine arctic ecosystem,could seriously affect world peace due to competition for resources which is exaggerated due to lack of true estimates of the every arctic country is dreaming of a bonanza and are not willing to share the spoils with rest of the world.This attitude is clearly visible in the behavior of ARCTIC COUNCIL member-usa,canada,russia,denmark,norway one of them want of grab as much area as possible and also exclude rest of the world from accessing it.This scramble for resources in arctic region creates the risk of another cold war among these y few countries like Russia and Norway are involved in disputes.Further the region ,unlike antartic is not bound by any treaty or anarchic situation foster cold war and also may break in a fully fledged hot war.

Thus it is in the interest of world nations that Arctic region like Antartic ,should be made as global should regulate all activities with the aim of sustainable utilization of on the principles of equality,ever developing and underdeveloped nations should have an opportunity of participate in arctic region.Since independence, the democratic governments in India have undertaken many programmes under the Five Year Plans to achieve growth, self-reliance, poverty reduction and to improve the quality of life of the people.As a result there was a steady GDP growth of around 3 to 5% before 1991 and after the economic reforms, India has grown consistently above 5%.The recent high economic growth has catapulted India into the league of emerging economies alongside Brazil, China, South Africa and Russia.

But the sad fact is that only in India do we find such a stark contrast between the lives of the poor and the rich.The economic inequality in India expressed in terms of Gini coefficient is well more than 0.There are some factors in India like the caste system, extreme dependence on agriculture by more than 60% of the population and disproportionate growth of urban centres which perpetuate this inequality.But it is the overall failure of the government to address the inequality through better implementation of its social welfare programmes that makes the situation worse.

It is the responsibility of the government to provide universal education and health facilities to its people.The illiterate and unhealthy poor in India are thrown into the abyss of poverty through a vicious cycle unless the state performs its duties.Scientists and politicians across the world are debating whether the global warming is real or not.You don’t need a better evidence for this than the scramble for the resource of Arctic Ocean by the eight nations that constitute the Arctic Council, United States, Russia, Norway, Finland, Iceland, Denmark, Canada and Sweden and also some others outside it looking for a pie of the new wealth.

The melting of Arctic ice exposes the ocean in summer throwing open opportunities for navigation, exploitation of mineral and oil resources and research.Instead of finding ways to mitigate the impacts of melting of ice on native communities and the rise in sea level through global forums like United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, the Arctic Council states regard the Arctic Ocean as a legitimate avenue for exploitation of resources.Among the Arctic council states, there is a considerable opposition to the claims of Russia by the other states.Since Russia has the longest coastline among them, most of the Arctic Ocean would be under its control if the international maritime laws like UNCLOS are applied.This is resented by the other states, particularly United States.

The uneasy relationship between Russia and Unites States on international issues have a spillover effect in Arctic Ocean.There is a need for the United Nations to play a dominant role on the fate of Arctic Ocean considering it as global commons like the mechanism for Indian Ocean.Otherwise, the whole world would have to repent and not only the native communities of Arctic.Keerthi Narayan Answer to question 2 was very good.Answer to one could have been a little more specific.

you could have listed down reasons for why growth has not resulted in equality.Kirthi Sreekanth Soman Thanks Keerthi.I understood the problem with the answer for Q1 after reading other answers including yours.

Biman Ghosh In India, despite consistent economic planning and robust economic growth in recent years, there is a consistent increase in economic inequality.Explain why? Indian economy after 2nd-G economic reforms, gained a steady increased growth during 9th and 10th five year plans,the growth rate almost touched to 9%.But what has been concern of our economic planners is growing inequality.in the event of such growing inequality,the 12th plan document also had to title “Inclusive Growth”,instead of only growth.Economic inequality can be explained under following subheads: *UNEQUAL DISTRIBUTION OF INCOME:the most responsible factor behind this growing inequality has been our tax the matter of fact is,our indirect taxes are greater than direct causes the inequality among the people.

a poor people pay the greater part of their income in form of indirect taxes,while the rich people pay a tiny part of their income as indirect promotes inequality of far as direct tax is concerned,The trend of tax evasion further fuels it.*COLLAPSED SOCIAL WELFARE SCHEMES: due to lack of proper implemention,most of our social welfare schemes are hardly been failed to deliver for what they meant t corruption and wide leakages collapsed all flagship welfare programmes.It took heavy toll on vulnerable part of our services,PDS,Universal education system have been key issues regarding negligence added significant economic inequality component.*WIDENING TRADE DEFICIT: continuous widening of trade deficit has also promoted inequality by and ng of trade deficit has always averse effects over domestic trade and monetary trade deficit wide central bank follows “cheap money policy” to boost up exports,which ultimately results in fueling add fuel to also reduce the “public purchase parity” among poor people and promote Inequality.taking account of all above reasons,which are generally outcomes of our lackness in willing power promotes inequality, despite heavy growth rate and wise need to address the above issues to achive “Inclusive growth”.

1) In India, despite consistent economic planning and robust economic growth in recent years, there is a consistent increase in economic inequality.Explain why? Ans:- Economic inequality arises in any society due to an unequal distribution & growth in the economic resources available with the people that form a traditionally has such economic inequality in which most part of the resources were accumulated in the hands of the upper caste of the society with some Independence and even after adoption of LPG model, Indian leaders are not able to eradication or minimize economic inequality instead of that it was increase because of some following reason, 1) Unequal distribution of land resources on which 58.

2% of our population depends for their group of people owned larger share of land while larger group of people owned small share of type of mismatch makes weaker section less active in the use of latest technology & improved agricultural practices.

2)Though there was consistency in the overall economic planning but this consistency was not there for agriculture sector since independence and even since adoption of LPG model in 1990’s.3)Educational facility and skill development training,required to take part and then get the benefit of economic planning and growth,were not provided to the full extent to weaker sections.4)Poor implementation of the schemes and programmes made for economically weaker sections and of course,large scale corruption in them.5)Adoption of Market Economy itself is a reason for economic inequality because it reward those who can cope with it & punish those who cannot.Biman Ghosh 2) ”Global warming and a race for resources could spark a new ‘cold war’ in the Arctic”.

As far as global warming and race for resources are concerned,perhaps the Arctic region is the most vulerable area,where it can create major region is administrated and managed by “Arctic council”,which consisting the US,Canada,Russia,Denmark,Iceland,Norway,Sweden and nations have exclusive rights to manage the whole arctic region,though a few Asian countries have also been conferred the observer designations.As it is tangible fact that the Arctic region is treasure house of natural resources and a group of countries has been alleging that arctic council continuously exploiting the Arctic region rather than to manage Arctic region also accounts for a significant reservoir for reserve sing global warming in this region can be resulted in melting of the great have immense potential to bring serious climate change effects will be global,weather in sea level rise,acidification of sea water and change in oceanic currents.that’s why,non-council nations,have been suspicious about the activities of the Arctic council countries in said region and sought a demand for Arctic should be treated on same manner as Antarctica being on.more importantly,the Arctic has virtually become the inland water space of five coastel states-Russia,Norway,Denmark and the US so it sets ground for arguing in favor of council council nations have conveyed a stern massege that it cannot be treated as any other ordinary region,they have full soverighnity over arctic and they cannot leave their responsibilities towards arctic to any other authority.

some non-council countries,including India are also in favour to drag the Arctic issue within the United Nation Framework for Climate Change(UNFCC) and advocated for an independent institution to control and manage Arctic further strain the situations as it will harm considerably the interests of arctic nations.more or less,this issue has created a huge space between council and non-council nations and “conflict of interests” has been nucleus to this might lead a next “cold-war”,where one side is lured by great natural resource reservoirs while other side is committed to protect the earth from odd consequences of arctic exploitation.Sreekanth Soman Sir, It would be good if you can give a summary of the major points to be covered in an answer the next day.Cini The level of answers being written here is really good and people are putting forth wonderful points! But there is a lack of adherence to the word limit of 200 words…mains is all about condensing the many thoughts and points into a small framework,isn’t it? Kirthi 1) In India, despite consistent economic planning and robust economic growth in recent years, there is a consistent increase in economic inequality.Explain why? Economic inequality is a phenomena not unique to india, it has been suffered by others incl.

However, the reasons are many for our failures.At the time of independence, fear of partition has made our founding fathers to rely on time tested instruments of governance, though many of ideals in preamble, fundamental rights and DPSP are high sounding.Many opine that coincidence between our constitution and GOI 1935 is 80oercent.This made sure that, however effective planning might have been, the implementation failed due to over reliance on centralized hierarchical bureaucy and absence of participatory development or inclusion of stake holders in ensuring accountability.

Growth of a country greatly depends on unlocking the potential of its citizens, and this has been done in 1990 reforms and rightly so,we have elected people not to run business,but to fulfil theirh core Areas of responsibility – health, education, Infrastructure,rule of law and justice.But state in India failed- seen from the public expenditure as percent of GDP, and expenditure o healt and education – 7% GDP, where as OECD -15% for decades.Out of pocket expenditure on health of an India has been one of the highest globally.Education failed to produce skilled, employable, wealth creators, productive students.Absence of social reforms/ civil society participation post independence, and perpetuation of caste, religion, sex discrimination based in accident of birth and acceptances of hierarchies.

Absence of truly functional panchayats raj system, accountable and efficient bureaucracy, participation of stake holders, citizen centric service by public service, rule of law, decentralized decision making etc.are some of the systemic defects that need to be corrected.Kirthi Keerthi Narayan the implementation failed due to over reliance on centralized hierarchical bureaucy and absence of participatory development or inclusion of stake holders in ensuring accountability- A very different angle- Very good.! Anjali Motghare Asha Goud 1) In India, despite consistent economic planning and robust economic growth in recent years, there is a consistent increase in economic inequality.Explain why? A : The nature of Indian state is that of an welfare state.

The philosophy enshrined in the Preamble of our constitution establishes an egalitarian society, as stated economic political ans social justice for all citizens.However even after all these years of economic planning we are far away from achieving economic justice for all.After independence India adopted socialistic model of economy which was not able to deliver very high rate of growth.LPG reforms introduced in 1991 slowly delivered the once dreamt of economic growth rate.Focus completely shifted to achieving higher GDP growth and human development indicators do not receive the required importance.

GDP does not indicate the income distribution.In all sectors of economy pockets of growth developed.Micro and small enterprises remained small and the large enterprises made huge profits.A major reason is lack of capital available to small enterprises.In the agriculture sector too large land holdings are with the few and majority farmers have small lands.

Small farmers are not able to invest in farm equipments and modern technology and make small profits.Education in India is not skill development oriented as a result low skilled employees are paid less.HRD ministry is now introducing skill training at higher secondary level.Therefore the shift of focus towards achieving high GDP and other economic indicators and neglecting the human development is main cause.Due importance should be given to Education to all, Capital support to small enterprises and Agricultural reforms.

Asha Goud 2) ”Global warming and a race for resources could spark a new ‘cold war’ in the Arctic”.Global Warming and resultant melting of ice has made artic circle approachable.Exploration of minerals and hydrocarbons also navigation through the region hitherto commercially unviable is now possible.

Reaearches in the region have led to discovery of huge mineral and hydrocarbon reserves.

The economic value of these reserves have lured the countries to focus on the region.Arctic Council is formed by the 8 surrounding countries, USA Russia Norway Iceland Denmark Canada Finland and Sweden, affirming Arctic region as their territory, this approach is opposed to the one adopted for the Antarctic region which is declared as global common and open only for scientific research to all countries.The Arctic Council countries are themselves putting forward their competing claims under the UNLOS beyond their continental shelf.The territorial disputes are increasing further with the melting of ice and developing international trade passage through the region.In such scenario Arctic region has gained geopolitical significance and the region is open to the New Great Game.

However in this competition what is neglected is that nations should work together to control global warming.Melting of ice in the arctic will only further fuel global warming which is already impacting the world adversely.

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You could have discussed whether the race for resources would result in a situation similar to the Cold War.

Asha Goud Yes i agree with you Keerthi, reading my answer again i feel it is not to the point.Actually writing an answer on an international issue requires lot of knowledge and analysis, i need to practice more 1—Gathering. (On the Page). Complete. Define. Describe. Identify. List. Observe. Recite. Select. 2013-2014 AVID Path | Writing Middle School/High School | Handouts   Thesis. Thesis statement: Poe uses vivid imagery to describe setting and characters, which then create a mood of suspense and horror. Write your thesis  .Actually writing an answer on an international issue requires lot of knowledge and analysis, i need to practice more.

NB 1) In India, despite consistent economic planning and robust economic growth in recent years, there is a consistent increase in economic inequality.Explain why? India marched into planned level of economy from 1950 onward 7 Dec 2017 - The American Psychological Association or APA Writing Format is one of the most widely used formats in writing academic papers, particularly in the field of   premium 105 pages / 28875 words 48 hours american; Best website to write an report anthropology british academic writing from scratch standard  .

Explain why? India marched into planned level of economy from 1950 onward.

It has been more than 60 years of independence but India’s economic inequality has been rising 7 Dec 2017 - The American Psychological Association or APA Writing Format is one of the most widely used formats in writing academic papers, particularly in the field of   premium 105 pages / 28875 words 48 hours american; Best website to write an report anthropology british academic writing from scratch standard  .It has been more than 60 years of independence but India’s economic inequality has been rising.India also marched from closed economy to much more liberalized economy from 1990s.From 2005 to 2010 India grew at very fast rate, however there are various reason in spite of this economic inequality persists: 1.Indian Planning has been centralized and has never been able sufficiently involve grass roots people in developing plans for their economic development.Asset distribution in population is varied.Land, capital are unevenly structured problem has been not reformed yet.Agriculture income has not increased in India, although 70 % of population depends on it.The agriculture contribution has consistently decreased in GDP.

This creates problem because although large population depends on it, but its productivity is decreasing.Public Investment in major sector of economy such as agriculture and infrastructure has been low.Further employment generation has been at slower rates.

MGNREGA has to some extent improved condition in rural area, but it can not be long term solution.Investments in development of human capabilities is also require.Skill and vocational education has been very slow in India.Further more economic inequalities have been accentuated by faulty implementation of various social sector schemes.

Finally last but not least corruption in governance is also contributing for increased inequality in India.Anjali Motghare there is a consistent increase in economic inequality.Explain why? Ans: The reason for this are as follows: 1.We have a Planning but its mechanism is top-down.So most of the times plans are prepared at central level without considering the environment and needs of every bottom place.

Because of this one plan doesn’t suit to all states, somewhere it get success somewhere it fails.We have many good policies like MGNREGA but, they are marred by poor implementation and corruption, so its benefit gets minimized.We see progress where there are mineral resources or good agricultural conditions and poverty where these are not available.

Poor employment generation rate and if employment available then lacking of skilled manpower adds to the woes.In some areas there are industrial hubs which added to growth where industry lacks, employment lacks and poverty grows.

We still have population to agricultural employment ratio high because we don’t have employment in other sectors.We are mainly agricultural country but less investment and poor technology leads to low productivity.With that excess employment dependency on it leads to less income benefit.

2) ”Global warming and a race for resources could spark a new ‘cold war’ in the Arctic”.cold war of 1950-90 was of a different kind and the squabble over Arctic resources Will be of a a new kind.It has been estimated that the Arctic contains about a quarter of the world’s untapped oil reserves and it is natural that proximate states should seek to exploit the geographical advantage.scramble already started among the Arctic council member states for the control of new shipping routes, untapped oil and gas reserves, and commercial fishing rights that would be thrown open when the melting of Arctic ice-cover in the summer touches 100 per cent, which is expected to happen in a few decades.

To assert their territorial claims, these countries have been dispatching scientific expeditions to prove that the continental shelves originating in their coasts extend beyond the 200 nautical miles allowed under the UNCLOS.While India set up a research station in the Arctic in the 2008, and is keen on a say in the area, China is far ahead of it.A Chinese icebreaker made a three-month journey in the Arctic Ocean last year, thus becoming the first Asian ship to navigate through the treacherous waters.China, was very keen on an Arctic sea route since it would be beneficial.Norway wrapped up one of the largest Arctic manoeuvres ever Exercise Cold Response with 16,300 troops from 14 countries training on the ice for everything from high intensity warfare to terror threats.

, Canada and Denmark had done major exercises for the purpose, and in an unprecedented move, the military chiefs of the eight main Arctic powers Canada, the U., Russia, Iceland, Denmark, Sweden, Norway and Finland had a meeting to specifically discuss regional security issues.

As the number of workers and ships increases in the High North to exploit oil and gas reserves, so will the need for policing, border patrols and may lead to military tussle.Russia, Canada and the United States have the biggest stakes in the Arctic,and they already started their planning to move ahead of other.This situation will not lead to immediate war, but certainly a race in technology know-how warfare techniques to have an edge over opponent, which is a kind of cold war.NB 2) ”Global warming and a race for resources could spark a new ‘cold war’ in the Arctic”.Ans History suggests that every country has always scrambled for resources to keep its countries population thriving.One of the reason for imperialism in 19th century was European demand for raw material and resources to feed its industries.Recently due to global warming ice has started melting in Arctic circle, this has lead to new shorter international trade pathways and also unlocking of various natural resources.According to official estimate there is about 13 % of world’s undiscovered oil reserve and 30 % of gas undiscovered gas reserve in Arctic.This has lead to new zeal among various nation to be part of that gold rush.

Not only littoral states are interested but far of states as well.China has vociferously looking for resources in Arctic.India has been taking keen interest in research in Arctic since 2008.Recently five states including was given observer status in Arctic Council which comprises of 8 littoral states.However, research suggest that global warming will lead to release of methane gas from Arctic which has capabilities of raising the global temperature further.

This is going to create more trouble for developing countries.This is future will lead to division among countries as there would be divide who will get benefit of resources of the Arctic.More important is that exploitation of resources of Arctic will further disturb the fragile global eco-system.It therefore become important that India does not become part of such mad rush and rather advocates issues related to exploitation of Arctic circle at appropriate forums.1) In India, despite consistent economic planning and robust economic growth in recent years, there is a consistent increase in economic inequality.

Explain why? The Indian standing committee on finance in its recent report said that there has been an overall increase in widening of gap between the rich and the poor.Economic inequality is the fundamental disparity that permits one individual certain choices to make while restricting many others.Recent policies like reduction in public expenditures in crucial sectors like agriculture, infrastructure development, downsizing of employment in public sector units, closing down loss making public sectors, casualisation of labour has had adverse effect on the earning capabilities of the people.Financial sectors and trade liberalization policies favouring the rich has also resulted in growing inequality.Reluctance of banks to lend in many priority sectors and failure of many microfinance institution has resulted in reduced financial empowerment of rural India.

Trade liberalization in favour of export sector has also affected our import substitution domestic production.Also many businesses are growing by unethical practices and by exploiting the working class.Moreover, economic inequality has increased due to a bad shaped agricultural sector and lack of proper rural safety nets.This safety nets include rural infrastructure like power, road transport facilities etc.

Also, rural employment schemes, public distribution system are not working properly to facilitate better earning capabilities of the rural population.

2) ”Global warming and a race for resources could spark a new ‘cold war’ in the Arctic”.Global warming is having a devastating impact in the Artic region.Average temperature in the Artic region in increasing twice as fast as in other places on earth.

This has led to, melting and finally rupturing of ice sheets and shrinking of polar ice caps.The direct consequence of global warming has led countries mainly of the Artic circle to explore possibilities of deposit of minerals with easy accessibility to many remote places.Russia, with the longest coastline along the Artic is already involved in such projects.USA, Canada, Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Finland and Iceland are also in favour of similar explorations.This has led to the possibility of another Artic cold war.

Moreover, new shipping lanes have come up in the summer seasons.The north east passage and the north west passage tends to connect Asia with North America and Europe.This will lead to increased tourist accumulation and stiff competition among the Artic region countries.It is therefore, easy to see why the countries that lie in the Artic littoral are keen to monopolize the resources of the regions and shut out any other interlopers.The sharpening tensions arising out of long standing border issues among the Artic countries are also a consequence of the prospects of the long economic gains that could be made from exploiting the locational advantages and potential resources of the vast and frozen place.

1) “The empowerment of women in the local bodies has increased their numerical strength but the real reform lies in creating an enabling environment to unlock their potential as catalysts for socio-political change” Critically comment.Empowerment of women essentially mean improving the social, political and economic status of women , especially the traditional underprivileged one.It means creating an environment where women are free from any sort of physical , mental abuse, exploitation, and prejudice that they are the most vulnerable section in the society.Although the participation of women in the local democracy has increased over the years, yet it has failed to achieve the desired outcome of empowering them to as much extent so that they are able to make a significant impact in the male dominated society.Their lack of expertise, unable to raise their issues in proper forum as well as unproper redressal mechanism are main issues for this.

Proper development programs to enable better health care, nutritional issues, education, better infrastructure should be the basis on which the emphasis should be given.Better economic opportunities like rural employment schemes for women, self employment generation avenues like animal husbandry, dairy, local craftsmanship, should be available to empower women.This economic capability would infuse a sense of confidence among the women and lead to the decline of gender inequality and better prospects for women in both urban and rural areas.Proper legislation to ensure equal economic and political status and assuring them participation in decision making process and providing them platform to vent our their grievances and fighting for the female community would be positive for women in the long run.Anjali Motghare 1) “The so called ‘empowerment’ of women in the local bodies has increased their numerical strength but the real reform lies in creating an enabling environment to unlock their potential as catalysts for socio-political change” Critically comment.

Ans: Empowerment of women in the local bodies through reservation has increased their numerical strength, about one million women entered Panchayats after 73rd constitutional Amendment Act.A very positive step led to very positive transformation in women empowerment.As representative doesn’t assures participation still lots need to be done, as their is male dominance in politics, so most of the time, issues related to planning for rural development works and identification of BPL families were discussed by the Male Pradhans and Ward Members.Its imperative now to work towards bring elected women representatives in a position to influence decision making and prepare and implement the schemes for economic development and social justice.Though reservation brings women into the Panchayat office but it doesn’t empower women due to several factors like illiteracy, language barriers, inexperience or low respect among fellow villagers.

In many cases because of lack of availability of forums and lack of proper grievance redressal mechanism for gender related issues, most of women elected representatives in panchayats have very minor role in decision making and mostly they are dummy.A supportive professional environment evidently motivates elected women representatives to perform better.So we need a seperate quorum for attendance of women and for attendance at Gram Sabha we have good legislation in place but mere political will and articulation of policies will alone not translate into benefits for women.Its effective implementation would require changes in administrative and social structures.With that a collaborative approach between the household, the community, the State, voluntary organizations and the media would add necessary help.

We also need a multi-pronged approach, taking into account policies, laws, judicial processes, attitudes and social imaging of women.So we will be able to make available a platform of equality for women where they will be able to express themselves freely.Kirthi 1) “The empowerment of women in the local bodies has increased their numerical strength but the real reform lies in creating an enabling environment to unlock their potential as catalysts for socio-political change” Critically comment.Empowering women would mean having the power to take/choose decisions that affect their lives.Unfortunately, due to the patriarchal set up and mind set in India, women is seen as a liability, seen from son preference, child sex ratio from 927 to 914 in last decade etc.

which shows that modernization of India didn’t lead to empowering women but a new tool to perpetuate the old belief systems.A minority of women made rapid strides in all the fields post independence – sports, business, professions, educational c except politics.Women participation has been significant in national movement and considerably reduced later.Though the 73 and 74 amendment made mandatory reservation in PRIs, this did not lead to true empowerment for many.Reasons are – rotation of constituency for reservation would mean losing of chance for others to participate, no meaningful long term contribution by women and men in their constituency, stigma for women associated with reservation, absence of natural leaders among women to spring up cause of rotation and women empowerment leading to male disempowerment – result has been though women numbers have been increased, they have become proxies, only as sister/wife/mother of existing local politician to preserve the constituency, absence of true decision making power etc.

Therefore, instead of worrying about mandatory reservation for parliament/SL , what is needed instead is a legislation to make it mandatory for political parties to nominate 1/3 rd of their candidates as women, absence leading to de registration/ losing benefits etc.From statistics, percentage of winning an elections to contesting has been higher for women.This will give a chance for natural leaders among women to contest, contribute long term meaningfully to constituent , no mandatory rotation, contesting with male in constituencies based on merit, absence of stigma of mandatory reservation etc.For political parties to misuse the nomination of women from areas they don’t have significant presence – mandatory for not more than a fixed number of them from a state/ region etc.

this will truly empower women in politics, make the society a willing partner in her empowerment.

This will have an overall positive contribution to women in other fields.Though women made their presence in almost all fields, an enabling atmosphere has not been created.A critical mass of women in all fields will ensure that, but till then compulsory cr che facilities in work place, implementation of laws like dowry prohibition, indecent representation of women, domestic violence , sexual harassment preventin act etc, good social secuirty benefits in unorganized sector, financial inclusion etc be taken.jobs have an insecurity in old age no matter however rich- this led to son preference, tendency not to share property with daughter , seeing daughter as a liability etc.

Like in developed counties, if the state can have working social security systems in place for every one based on mix of stae and mandatory individual contribution- organized and unorganized – preference for son as saviour in old age comes down.Govt efforts like gender budgeting should continue.More efforts are needed to reduce patriarchal mindset, this should be achieved by meaningful education inculcating these values in young minds of India.Good answer, but you should stick to the question.It specifically demands what measures should be taken to create an enabling environment for women to become catalysts for socio-economic change.

All the laws already exist that claim to ’empower’ women – but on the ground, how will you ensure their real empowerment? As a would be IAS officer, for this question, answer should be ‘out-of the box’ – what would you do as an IAS officer in your district to create that ‘enabling’ environment? One very good point you gave is – nominating 1/3 ed women candidates for elections by the political parties itself.All of you have not mentioned the 110th amendment bill pending in Parliament that wants to amend article 243D to bring 50 % reservation in panchayats.This question was asked in this background.As many as 10 states have already reserved 50% seats for women in Panchayats.Responsibility of states under article 243G should be mentioned.

States are exclusively given rights to empower Panchayats.Most of the states are lackadaisical in this regard.For example, states can empower Panchayats, through legislation, to punish/debar/fine male relative of women member who interferes in her duty or uses her as proxy.Kirthi Apart from the measure you suggested – use occasions like women s day etc to give awards in every field generate awareness about existing schemes, and importantance of education of girl child – a brief survey about the traditional strengths of the village – handicrafts, indigenous medicine etc,tribal arts etc.and promoting them inclusively, plus areas where women can make their presence felt like SHGs and empower them.

– try to include training courses to the staff, police, service providers across the spectrum to reduce gender biases and be gender sensitive.– an online forum for women in district to point the difficulties they face anonymously and address them either by implementing existing laws/ new innovative ideas in place – encourage women to raise their issues in differ forums like grams sabhas,NGOs, conferences and be proactive.The 73rd and 74th amendments to the Constitution institutionalized the Panchayati Raj System and Muncipal bodies in India.Considering the important role women has to play in society, it was mandated that one-third of the seats to be reserved for women in the local self-government institutions.

Since then, in many states where proper elections were held, women came to occupy positions of power at the local level.But the impact of this on the status of women in society and the recognition of their contributions to the development of the country still remains debated.Women who are elected to the important posts usually are forced to act as proxies for their husbands or the heads of thier families.They seldom are empowered to take decisions on their own.The paternalistic nature of the society dominates over the token representation of women.

The evils of female foeticide, honour killings, and sexual exploitation and unequal pay of equal work, female illiteracy and other handicaps suffered by women still continue unabated in India.There is a need for radical change in the mindset of people.The government has to promote awareness among the people so as to give women the respect they deserve in all matters.The law enforcement machinery has to be pro-active in curbing the anti-social crimes against women.So a mere increase in numerical strength does not absolve the government and the whole society of their responsibility toward women.

Sreekanth Soman NITISH K “The so called ‘empowerment’ of women in the local bodies has increased their numerical strength but the real reform lies in creating an enabling environment to unlock their potential as catalysts for socio-political change” Critically comment.ans:One of the most revolutionary decisions taken was to reserve 33% of the seats to women in local objective behind this decision was to give women more voice in day to day affairs of the social participation would boost their confidence and bridge the gap between men and importantly it would improve the status of women within each the presence of women in panchayats would encourage more and more women to participate in gram sabha meetings and thereby contribute to more policies relevant to women.For example it has been found that in panchayats having women sarpanchs ,more emphasis was given to drinking water supply as it would reduce the burden on was the result of greater participation of women.However,sadly this is an exception rather than a general trend The real potential of women in panchayats has not been exploited due to various reasons: * doubts in the ability of women members among villagers * Dominated by husbands or male relatives * lack self-confidence due to years of subordination * lack of cooperation by traditional caste based panchayats * lack of information * lack of motivation due to reservation for women only for 5 years i.e rotation policy The solution lies educating women and capacity r the society itself has to change its attitude towards should not feel insecure or that their privelages have been usurped by must be given to women panchayat members for good all resources and powers must be transferred to local bodies.

It has to be remembered that unless the great potential of other half of the society is tapped,development and wellbeing will be a mirage.But I have doubts regarding the point – lack of motivation due to reservation for women only for 5 years i.e rotation policy 5 years should be good enough for making meaningful changes at the local level.NITISH K due to rotation policy, there is no reservation for women for the next make women members insecure because in the next election they will be overwhelmed by male they are convinced that their probability of winning is very low due to reentry of male candidates,obviously they will not possess the urge/motivation to perform and win the hearts and minds of the fellow villagers in their current term in local body.

Sreekanth Soman This fear of male counterparts is to be removed by empowering them.I think motivation should not be just to continue winning in elections.The responsibility to make some meaningful changes within the 5 years alloted to them should be the motivating factor for women representatives and thos achievements should help them in winning next elections.You have given some practical problems being faced by women.

Structure your answer well – make 2-3 sentence paragraphs.Introduction should be straightforward and concise so is the conclusion.Your conclusion is good – but it should be a separate paragraph.I am stressing this because of effectiveness it brings to your answer.Ans The LSG reforms introduced by 73rd and 74th constitutional amendment boast about bringing a sense of gender equality in the lower echelons of power structure.

There have been talks about providing reservation of women in the parliament.The reservation of women in the higher level will not change the status quo until and unless they are empowered from the birth.They won’t be able to do justice to themselves unless properly socialized.They would not be able to raise their voice at the floor of the house unless given the proper educational support and physical and mental strength to outpace the patriarchy because the very social fabric of Indian society institutionalizes gender based exploitation and inequality.The experience of women reservation in the grass root politics is very dismal and gloomy.

In many situations, woman elected as sarpanch is not actually permitted to participate in public sphere activities.The male counterpart of her family join panchayat meetings, take decisions and officially elected women are compelled to sign on dotted lines.This has given way to the rise of the so called sarpanch patis.The other impediment in the emancipation of women is gender based violence.The increased gender violence, rape, sexual assault, eve teasing require extraordinary measures.

An integrative movement not only for the reservation of seats for women in parliament but also a say in household decision making, rejection of pink color jobs which speak about feminization of occupations, bridging gender gap in the educational structure is the need of the hour.The women should be given equality of space, opportunity and power both in public and private life and in every structure of the society.In Britain, empire was justified as a benevolent ‘white man’s burden’.And in the United States, empire does not even exist; ‘we’ are merely protecting the causes of freedom, democracy, and justice worldwide.

Britain and United State have been the most imperialist countries of the last two centuries.Yet when ever fingers were raised to them by their own countrymen or others from the world they had always tried to justify their imperialism in the name of protecting democratic values, freedom and justice and as if they were doing it selflessly by taking pain themselves for the betterment of the people they mastered.British have ruled not by just the military might but also by the sly diplomacy and the myth they have created that British rule “ is not only benevolent for the subjects but also is invincible.” The real motive behind the rule not only in India but in other countries as well was purely imperial.India was of special interest to them as Lord Curzon has well said that he “cannot afford to lose India as the day India is lost entire British Empire will collapse”.

Their annexation policies both within India as well as outside like annexation of Burma and others in various Asian and African counties is a proof of their growing greedy imperialism.Their adverse economic policies was made to serve this motive.Though initially they have introduced reforms after 1857 revolt their policy totally changed and they started confining themselves to their own mundane interests.As national movement started growing their real character was revealed to the world.The Jallianwalabag butchery and inhumane treatments to the unarmed satyagrahis proved their inhuman imperialism.

Churchil’s adamancy towards Gandhiji when he was on the verge of dying due to long fast earned him bitter criticism across the world.USA though did not have the policy of direct ruling, its policy of throwing unfavourable governments through coups and installing puppet governments in other countries reveals its imperialism.Due to its distinct geographical location and vast resources its imperialism to Latin American countries came to the notice of the world lately.Of late in cases like World wars, Korea,Vietnam,the Gulf War US government has always convinced the citizenry and world of necessity of war on the ground of protecting freedom, justice and democracy.Anjali Motghare riddhu Q The so called ‘empowerment’ of women in the local bodies has increased their numerical strength but the real reform lies in creating an enabling environment to unlock their potential as catalysts for socio-political change” Critically comment 73rd and 74th amendments empowering local bodies are landmark in Indian history.

Our national movement has witnessed the vigor of Indian women and reserving one third of seats for them in local bodies at all the levels is a step in right direction as it has increased not only the numerical strength of the women but also has proved that when women are empowered and actively involved it leads to more transparent, more sensitive and more responsive governance.Yet the skewed sex ratio and rising crimes against women reveals a lot has to be done.At economic front though our constitution ensures equal pay for equal work differential payment still prevails which mars women especially from weaker section and not only that well educated women are also victim of glass ceiling syndrome.Besides, creating women friendly environment both in informal and formal sector is a prerequisite.Women must be treated with respect and must have say in all the matters that affect them.

The indecent representation of women at media must be stopped.On political front a woman member must have equal say in decision making as her male counterparts .As current governance requires constant learning she must have equal opportunity to learn, must be made familiar with required ICT tools irrespective of her educational qualification, this hold true especially at Panchayat level.Issues faced by urban women especially from weaker section must be given due attention as India is urbanizing fast.Thus enabling environment wherein all Indian women are literate, capable to think independently, economically empowered and treated with respect will create a new dawn for them and golden era for Indian society.

Women are certainly capable of acting as catalysts of socio-economic change.There have been many cases where the collective working ability, hardwork, sincerity and commitment of women has brought in significant changes in the society.The prominent ones that stand out are the cases of Amul cooperative society, successful functioning of women Self Help Groups in states like Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh.

However, how can this potential of women be harnessed? Social scientists suggest two ways, one is politically empowering them by reserving seats for them in decision making bodies.

The other one is to create an enabling environment which brings out such potential to the fore.An enabling environment would constitute of the following: – Technical or vocational training – Freedom to take decisions – Sufficient manpower and support The Indian Constitution has so far guaranteed political empowerment by reserving 1/3rd of the seats in local bodies for women.However this has not resulted in ‘real’ empowerment as most local body women leaders act as ‘dummies’ and their spouses wield real control.Moreover, increase in women has not resulted in the creation of an enabling environment comprising of abovementioned factors.

Hence, for women to act as catalysts of socio-economic change and replicate successes of Amul elsewhere, it is necessary to create enabling environment rather than merely satisfying constitutional provisions.Imperialism is the domination of one country over another for economic, military and anyother benefit.During the course of the 19th and 20th centuries both Britain and the USA were imperialist powers.Imperialism, in spite of being beneficial to the ‘home’ country, is not always accepted in totality by the citizens of the home countries.

Hence the imperialist nations give a justification to convince the citizens so that internal protests do not arise.This justification provided by the Britain and by the USA were ideologically different.Britain, being the earliest nation to modernise and industrialise, considered its citizens as the most civilised of all men.Even the common man of England took pride in being a modern ‘white’.(It is this arrogant pride of being white that threw Gandhiji out of his train at Petermaritzberg, South Africa was then a British colony).

Hence Britain justified imperialism by saying that in occupying third world countries in Asia and Africa it is actually civilizing the inhabitants who are uncultured and barbaric.It was said to be the White Man’s burden, his additional responsibilty, to bring the dark men to a civilised society.On the other hand, USA being a liberal democratic country which cherished the ideals of freedom, democracy and justice used the same to justify it imperialistic needs.The USA convinced its citizens by saying that by taking over colonies in America it is actually instilling democratic values in the minds of those countries by overthrowing tribal chiefs and kingships.Thus, both Britain’s and USA’s objectives were the same, exploitation of colonies for their own benefit, but they pursued different ideals and values to justify their acts.

Before I answer your question, a small introduction: While answering a question, importantly the question must be in mind till you write the conclusion.Most of the times, after giving an introduction, we wander away from the intent of the question.After every paragraph, we should have a look at the question.Now, to answer your question, even after reading various sources and digesting various opinions, in the answer, your own synthesis matters – especially in questions where critical analysis or examination is required.

While concluding your answer, you should suggest some measures which must be logical and pragmatic.One point I am stressing is, dividing your answer into many small paragraphs each logically flowing from introduction to the conclusion.This makes reading very pleasant because the answer reflects your ideas in an orderly way.🙂 Anjali Motghare Keerthi Narayan I think the most important thing to keep in mind is the relevance to the question’s context.Usually, we read expert’s opinions from various sources.

They see the issue in various angles and give their opinion mostly based on thier area of expertise and experience.I think we should collate various views we have read in our mind and choose those points relevant to the question’s context and present them alone.There is no way for the welfare of the world unless the plight of women is is not possible for a bird to fly using only one wing once said by Swami empowerment means giving lawful power and authority to people were empowered,they would be able to participate in planning,implementing developmental schemes.political empowerment of women is important for a independence there is a very low percentage of women participating in our women who proved well due to political empowerment are Mrs jaylalithaa,ms Mamta Banerjee and also previously we have seen Indira Gandhi,Sarojini Naidu have done great to mould modern India.

Apart from political empowerment,economic and social empowerment are also empowerment could be achieved by ion of women means greater awareness of their role in ess of their rights,better knowledge of housekeeping and better performance of their roles as a housewife and mother.In addition ,investing money in womens greatly fuels economic developing countries,women operate many small ,encouraging them ,will serve to immeasurably strengthen economic development.In striking contrast,nations such as US,UK,where women and girls are given same oppotunities and priviledges as their male counterparts,there is significant success in economic and social stability.Traditional beliefs and idelogies are to be firstly broken in order to establish equality among man and women.Only investing in the education,health care and providing financial contributions to the development of women give the percentage increased in the empowerment of women.

Women should be treated as equal as man,There should be equal place of women in political,social and economic state of a country as we could proudly achieve true WOMEN EMPOWERMENT.Ques 2)”In Britain, empire was justified as a benevolent ‘white man’s burden’.And in the United States, empire does not even exist; ‘we’ are merely protecting the causes of freedom, democracy, and justice worldwide.” Critically analyze the different ways in which imperialism manifested from both sides of the Atlantic.Ans Imperialism and hegemonic ideology have been used by countries to enforce their domination from time immemorial.

It has been instrumental in changing the course of history in time and space for the benefit of the mother country and for the acceleration of its interest in international politics.Britain imperialism was based on the premise that British merchants and traders have benefited the colonies by bringing in new laws, social order and dismantling their isolation from the rest of the word.They construed that colonies were backward, using obsolete methods of warfare and old technology and are driven by no innovation and technological revolution in different spheres.British rule has provided the ground for introducing new technology, new scientific methods, and modern education in political, social and economic sphere.

The contended that inspite of backwardness of the people of different colonies, Britain provided them the much needed support by bringing a change in their social structure.

Similarly, with the rise of new world order after the end of cold war, one kind of domination has been replaced by another kind.In the name of liberty, freedom, democracy and human right violations, US used its ideology to enforce its domination and toppled many autocratic and authoritarian regimes that are not in line with its stance.The support to rebels by providing them weapons and economic sanctions imposed unilaterally by US hold testimony to the fact that in the name of transparency and participatory democratic transition, US has legitimized its ideology on the masses.It can be advocated that ideological domination and imperialism is universal.One kind of imperialism has given way to new form of imperialism which can be regarded as new wine in the old bottle.

The role of women in development is related to the socioeconomic and political development of a country.Therefore for holistic empowerment of the women to happen social, economic and political aspects impacting a women’s life must converge effectively.Strategies include Governments at both Center and State should implement devolution and decentralization of powers from higher bodies in the panchayati raj structure.This is lagging in almost all the States.

The delay is causing a serious setback to the political empowerment of the locally elected bodies.Provision of non-confidence clause need to be amended which is often used to women sarpanches, to ensure that a non-confidence motion cannot be passed for a year and a half of having taken office.If a non-confidence vote is passed, the replacing incumbent should be from the same such group as the earlier incumbent.Ensure that two children norm law that prevent those who have more than two children from holding office are repealed across States.Electoral reforms should provide for State funding for women contesting for elections to parliament, state assemblies, urban local bodies and panchayat raj institutions.

Ensure that women are taken seriously in their elected post by allotting important portfolios and limiting their functions to social welfare and w omen and child development and ensure awareness amongst women through mass media about the electoral process and also the candidates, To ensure that women have adequate space in trade unions and co-operative societies Enhance the existing training for elected women representatives.The packages must address functional responsibilities that would enable women to govern effectively.in a conducive and enabling environment Finally education, health, productivity and governance all work better when women are involved.To quote Ranjana Kumari and Sara Khurtzezerna “Political empowerment is critical to women’s achievement of equality for without real clout at the decision making level social and economic empowerment” NB question one Traditionally women has suffered through ages.Various reform movement aimed to empower women and ensure equality and freedom.

73rd and 74th constitutional amendment act aimed to take very positive step in this direction.It was to struck at very root of governance by giving them reservation in local level governance.Over the period of years there has been considerable increased in representation of women at various level of local governance.In few states there is even 50 % reservation in Panchayat.However, this has not lead to remarkable shift in condition of women.

Further though women represents in Panchayat but they are are not allowed to take decisions which is heart of governance.Still their husbands or men takes decisions.The problem therefore lies in attitudinal change of society to accept the role of women.Further more, as Mary Wolstonecraft stated that key to equality and freedom of women is through education.

Education and skill to women is key for their empowerment.In India stil there is biasness which is amply reflected by female literacy in the country.In nutshell, if capabilities of women are to be improved it is important to create enabling environment wherein Gram sabha is empowered, it is made socio-economic and political churning space for women.Further encouraging Self Help Groups, increasing role in decision making,improving education and most importantly attitudinal change in society to accept new role of women will help in unleashing potential of 50 % of India population.Recognising that women form the grassroots of democracy the 74th amendment in the Indian constitution reserved 1/3rd seats in local bodies for women.This was further increased to 50% reservation in 2012.There is a saying “educate a woman and you educate a family”, it shows the importance of women in the role of caretaker and administrator of the family.Having women participate in local governance gives them a voice in the traditionally male dominated Indian society.But here too exists concerns of them being fielded as dummy candidates, controlled by male members.

Creating an environment of equal standing, where women aren’t perceived as weak, where no specific chore is marked as ‘only for females’ and where society looks on them as leaders will enable them to display their potential.Many women driven initiatives like Ela Bhatt’s SEWA have prospered because they have managed to instil confidence in women about their abilities and allowed them to utilise their talents to the fullest.This combined with a voice in decision making will truly empower women in India.The birth of imperialism in Britain (Old Imperialism,1450) and the United States (Neo Imperialism,1750) took place at different times.

British explorers and trading companies exercised influence over a number of countries by the time the USA started claiming colonies.Extreme nationalism and a false sense of chauvinism propagated the theory of superiority of the white man supported by writers like Rudyard Kipling in Britain.It was a tame justification for the plunder of the colonies off their resources and wealth in the name of civilizing an alien culture and custom different from their Christian way of life, especially in Africa and Asia.The United States of America kickstarted their Imperialistic drive by forcing open trade routes in Japan through Commodore Perry’s efforts.

Their neo-imperialistic approach focused mainly on opening ports(China), coaling stations, military bases(Hawaii) and securing their trade routes(Philippines).

Monroe Diplomacy which allowed USA to interfere in internal matters of countries in the Americas and Caribbean to guard its own interests in the name of democracy and freedom.USA thus effected changed in governments in Mexico, Cuba, Guatemala and recently through its wars on terror on Iraq, Libya and Afghanistan.Concise, effective and straight to the point.Mention of Roosevelt policy of continuations of Monroe Doctrine in 1910s, Marshall Plan, Post- WW-II reconstruction policy in the Pacific (neo-imperialism) should have been mentioned in the second answer.

cppcontrol In the light of WGEEP report and HLWG report on Western Ghats, discuss the major recommendations and their implications – if implemented – on the stakeholders of the region.Western Ghats ecology expert panel led by Dr.Madhav Gadgil in its report has said that the entire Western Ghats region should be declared a ecologically sensitive zone, three levels of categorization of the demarcated areas and blanket protection should be provided to preserve it.Kasturirangan has endorsed the same sensitivity and has recommended to divide the western ghats into cultural and natural landscapes with total prohibition of development activities in the natural landscapes.Few major recommendations of these reports are • To incentivize green growth in Eastern Ghats.This can be done by managing forests and improving their productivity to ensure inclusive growth and sustainable development.• Initiating an ecosystem service fund to help villages around the forests.

• Promoting sustainable agriculture and encouraging ecotourism.• Ban of land forests to promote industries, big dams, high station development and mining in ecological sensitive areas.• On the regulatory part, strict implementation of various environment related acts and impact assessment of individual small power projects.• Decentralized water resource management plans at local self government level and protect high altitude valley swamp and water bodies.These recommendations are must to be accepted to save the sensitive western ghats from exploitation of various interest business groups.

This will led to a sustained development of the western ghats which has been one of the eight hotspots of biological diversity of UNESCO.The economic activities of the region would be regulated by governance mechanism which would empower local communities for conserving these eco sensitive zone.WGEEP and HWLG reports has suggested some bold gh both have common grounds on majority of recommendation yet there are some contrasting features which needs careful scrutiny.WGEEP headed by Dr Gadgil laid stresses on inclusive and participatory approach ,native people being the nucleus of decision advocated for sustainable implement the same it suggested demarcating of whole region into ecosensitive zones(ESZ) and further these into levels which will determine type and intensity of economic activities from restricted to implemented these reforms will go a long way in securing livelihood options of native people while preserving pristine wealth of W.

ghats which plays a important role in climate and rainfall pattern of the recognized rights of tribal people who are main stake holders and will prevent ruthless exploitation of natural resources specially mining.Kasturirangan has stressed on development needs by a more flexible approach towards suggested dividing the whole region into natural area and development area ignoring ESZs had further given upper hand to state government in the final loose approach will eventually result in intruding of natural area by industries when resources in development area get exhausted and will result in depriving people of their rights and windfall gains to industries To say that WGEEP and HWLG runs antithetical to each other would not be an exaggeration.abhish Hi, In your answer in the implication part, should we not mention that mining losses, hydro power electrical losses will also occur.I believe implication whether negative or positive must be mentioned.

Ans Sustainable development is a mode of human development which do not compromise with the social, natural and environmental cost.The concept gains importance in the light of fast depleting resources, threatened biodiversity and acceleration of urbanization and human needs.There has been a spurt in the process of urbanization in the past 2 decades because of increased industrial activities in major towns and cities which is percolating to other small towns as well.Migration of large chunk of population towards these towns for employment has led to sustainability crunch because of mushrooming of slums, non availability of low cost housing, sanitation, lack of infrastructure and public transport facility and absence of services like drinking water and electricity etc.All these factors have been overlooked by the government in search of growth and lack of awareness on the part of civil society organization.

The ever increasing population with ever increasing demands for better services is poised to become a challenge to the growth of environmentally sustainable and productive cities.The lack of coordination on the part of the government, municipal corporations and CSO led to rise of unplanned development, unorganized growth and unfeasible infrastructure.The report published by UN ranking India’s metros as low on prosperous list hold testimony to the fact that despite tall claims by the government in the form of JNNURM , nothing substantial has been achieved.Most of the cities lack viable environment and absence of even threshold investment in areas which define the standard of living like services and inclusive growth.Keerthi Narayan You have rightly pointed out the problems of Indian urbanisation like lack of housing, sanitation, public transport, safe drinking water etc.

However, I feel, your answer should, atleast say in the conclusion, whether you think urbanisation and sustainable development can go hand in hand or not.Thank you Keerthi for your valuable feedback.I will definitely try to answer your question.According to me, urbanization and sustainable development can and should go hand in hand and complement each other but that requires an organised and planned growth of cities.

That requires proper mobilization of funds for long term prospect regarding infrastructure and high labour intensive industries should be established outside the main boundary of cities and towns in a special zones with better connectivity through roads etc.All these measures are absent in India for different reasons and mainly because of improper and under utilization of funds and deep slumber on the part of govt.Further every stakeholder including civil society must be a part of this development which is all inclusive.Looking into your answer, i think i should have incorporated the measure which should be taken to bring about harmonization in sustainability and urban development.

You have provided great insights like setting up sewage treatment plants, recycling and reusing waste products , creating renewable sources of energy etc.

Asha Goud Q In the light of WGEEP report and HLWG report on Western Ghats, discuss the major recommendations and their implications – if implemented – on the stakeholders of the region.A: Western Ghats is an ecologically and biologically diverse region spread in six states.It covers an area of approximately 100,000 sq km.With the ever growing demand of land and resources the Western Ghats have attracted attention of industries.

The Western Ghats Ecology Expert Panel (WGEEP) headed by ecologist Madhav Gadgil made a recommendation of declaring the whole Western Ghats as Eco-sensitve, divided into 3 levels with varying degree of restrictions on activities like mining, thermal and hydel power plants, industries, construction.On the other hand a High Level Expert Group (HLEG) headed by Space Scientist K.Kasturiranjan recommended that only 37% of the Ghats should be declared eco-sensitive.What the HLEG highlighted is that along with the natural landscapes the ghats consist of cultural landscapes inhabited by people.Therefore HLEG recommended adopting a balanced approach keeping in mind the development needs of the people living in the Ghats.

Therefore opening a window of possibility for industries.However Panel recommended encouraging Green development in remaining region.The WGEEP on the other hand viewed the entire region as an single ecosystem.Disturbing the ecosystem at one place will disturb the balance of the entire region.The recent floods in Uttarakhand are an example.

Highly destructive activities like mining, construction, industries, power plants will only destabilize the region and will infact adversely affect the people.These industries might provide them employment, but it will also attract migrant workers.Mining and Construction will cause large scale deforestation, leading to loss of wildlife.These changes will only increase pressure on the fragile ecosystem making it vulnerable to a collapse.The Western Ghats are known worldwide as a Biodiversity Hot spot and therefore it needs to be conserved and not exploited.

Keerthi Narayan Asha Goud I am more in the favour of implementing the WGEEP recommendations that has a focus on conserving the region, therefore I presented the negative impact the implementation HLEG recommendations can have on the region.Asha Goud Q “In the Indian context, sustainable development and urbanization are antithetical to each other”.A The process of urbanisation is the increase in size and number of cities and urban population.Sustainable development is concept of ensuring development that does not adversely impact the surrounding environment.

Phenomena of urbanization have been experienced by western countries in the past and at present South Asian countries are experiencing urbanization on a large scale.In India the population pressure is immense as a result urbanization is occurring at a very fast pace.As population is increasing people are moving out of villages towards cities in search of livelihood, in fact villages are also getting converted into small towns.Cities are growing in size and the surrounding agricultural land or forest land is cleared for habitation or industries.Wherever land is not available vertical growth is seen like in cities like Delhi, Mumbai.

This rapid change in land use increases pressure on the surrounding environment.Pollution level in rivers increases, deforestation leads to loss of valuable vegetation, wildlife, industries lead to soil, water and air pollution levels increases.As a result of rapid urbanization pressure increases on existing facilities like roads, transportation, sewerage, water, electricity as a result slums emerge in the cities.However it needs to be noted that the clash between urbanization and sustainable development is not inherent, it arises due to rapid and unplanned development.Keerthi Narayan In the end you have mentioned that urbanisation and sustainable development are not inherently incompatible.

would have been a very good answer if you could say what are all the measures to be taken for such conflicting models to be made compatible, Asha Goud Hi keerthi, I did not mention the measures as the question asked a comment on the statement.So i simply presented my view whether the two are antithetical or not.But i think mentioning a few measures like efficient waste disposal management, public transport system, demarking green areas in city, keeping hazardous industries away and many more would have gained me few extra points.NITISH K 1) In the light of WGEEP report and HLWG report on Western Ghats, discuss the major recommendations and their implications – if implemented – on the stakeholders of the region.

Ans:The conservation of one of the richest biodiversity hotstops of the world promted Ministry of Environment and forests MOEF to constitute Madav gadgil headed panel main recommendations include- * entire western ghats to be ecologically sensitive zone(ESZ) with highly sensitive ESZ 1 forming 60% of the area.* participation of local communities in environmental protection * complete moratorium on new mining licenses in ESZ1 and ESZ 2.In zone 1 all existing mines to be phased out and in zone 2 mining to be carried under strict regulation and social audit.* polluting industies,thermal power projects ,large scale dams not allowed in zone1 and 2.However in the wake of severe opposition to the radical recommendations of Gadgil committe by states and industries,new panel under Kasturirangan was panel reduced the ESZ to only 37% of the western ghats and did not oppose hydel power it proposed financial incentives for promoting green growth in remaining 63% on non-ESZ it didnot involve local communities in decision making reg environment conservation Major implications of Gadgil report if implemented: * For the first time in history ,local communities will play a leading part in protection ,which till now was the exclusive privilage of central and state bureaucracy heavy bodies * Banning of mining and polluting industries will protect delicate ecosystem * Social audit of all activities will ensure fruits of development will be shared by all.

* prevent deforestation * lead to greater research on biodiversity and commerialization of the research rather than plundering minerals.e more value addition and less pollution * Minor employment loss due to prohibition of mining and industries Major implication of Kasturirangan report: * Big hydel projects will come which may lead to Uttarkand like scenario.* large scale deforestation * no role of local communities.

* this unrestrained exploitation without benefits to local people may encourage extremism which is till now a latent force.

2)“In the Indian context, sustainable development and urbanization are antithetical to each other”.Ans:The rapid and unplanned urbanistion witnessed since 1990s has put enormous pressure on the ecosystem and rendered life difficult not only in urban areas but also in rural areas.Indian Urbanisation affects sustainable development adversely in the following manner: * Pollution:the explosion of vehicles has polluted the affects not only the urban systems but also nearby rural also affects future generation as the pollutants remains in atmosphere for a long time.* Waste: The waste generated by various urban activities are dumped into rivers converting them in sewages,ex: effluents creep underground and affect living being far and in many cities ,solid wastes are dumped into nearby villages which harm them.

* Ground water depletion:Due to enormous population there is heavy demand for to this borewells are sunk in huge year the depth of bore wells goes on increasing and many past borewells have become depletes the ground water and also forces people to drink water that is having dangerous fluorine.* Deforestation:the thirst for land has seen encroachment of forest lands and community lands and constant expansion of cities at the cost of neighbouring villages * Sustainable development requires optimum utilization of due to rampant urbanisation there is lack of skilled manpower in rural areas to utilize the resources in the optimal illiterate people with no information,due to poverty end up degrading the environment.Therefore sufficient opportunities must be developed in rural areas itself,so that pressure on urban areas is reduced and existing resources are utilized in the best possible the capacity of muncipal boards in dealing with these problems is re they have to be the practice of appointing political loyalists to head state pollution control boards must be r role for civil society organisations must be best practices from around the world must be adopted Keerthi Narayan I loved the structure of your 1st answer.First, crisp mentioning of both reports’ recommendations followed by Implications.( However, I felt a pro-Gadkil, anti-Kasturirangan tilt in your answer, it would have been so very good if you had said + and – of both Gadgil’s and Kasturi’s ) In your second answer, you ve mentioned problems of urbanisation and how it affects sustainable development neatly.

(thereby you indirectly imply urbanisation and sustainable development are not compatible) .However, your concluding para sounds little general, to me.(Nice way of inserting recent Hindu’ headlines- “Also the practice of appointing political loyalists to head state pollution control boards must be stopped”) NITISH K 1.proliferation of slums:Slums are the causes and consequence of unsustainable urbanisation.lax implementation of rules and regulations:the norms for buildings like materials,number of floors ,spacing are brazenly effect of these illegalities is seen in future say after 20-30 acts of today harm the future occupants.nonutilization of renewable energy like solar ,biogas etc as well as disregard to rainwater harvesting and water reusing Very good answer for the first question.However, you should briefly mention who are all the stakeholders in the region.You should end it by stating your opinion which must be logical culmination of rest of the answer.Good going! 2)sustainable development and urbanization.According to recent survey by WHO across G-20 economies showed that 13 out of 20 most polluted cities are in India,recent Uttrakhand disaster draws our attention towards encroachment on river banks are the few examples to show that there are serious loopholes in our strategy towards tackling and integrating the issues of sustainable development and urbanization.

India being a developing country and still 60% of our population lives in rural areas,hence in coming years the urban population is bound to increase and would further deteriorate the environmental health of cities in the country if the problems are not identified and appropriate action not taken to tackle them.The major problems which urbanization in india is facing are as follows: a)Pollution level : Increase in number of vehicles,increse in mining,construction and industrial activities has resulted in increase in harmful gases and particulate matter in air which is responsible for increase in lung and various NCD.b)SANITATION:Open defecation is still a major problem even in cities.Morover lack of proper sewerage system ,drainage system is affecting the health of citizens especially the poor,slum dewellers and vulnerable groups.c)CHANGE IN LAND USE PATTERN:With ever expanding cities of India ,to accomodate ever increasing urban population the forest cover has reduced drastically ,encroachment on grasslands,water bodies has increased continuously.

d)SOLID WASTE :Inefficient waste collection and treatment system is one of the biggest ing to estimates more than 30% waste is not collected and even the waste which is collected is not dumped properly,the open dumping sites are highly inappropriate.In addition to these above problems lack of proper landscape sites,scarcity of safe water to drink are some other problems faced by urban centres.There are solutions available to all these of the major recommendations are: a)TO REDUCE AIR POLLUTIUON:Improving the public transport system would result in reduction in the private properly implementing polluter pay principle would result in reduction of emission from factories and improve the air pollution situation.b)TO improve land use:Setting up a National Land Development Authority responsible for developing long term strategies for conservation of land is important.c)TO IMPROVE SANITATION:awareness generation is very important in addition community toilets could be encouraged where there is constraint of public toilets should be available everywhere and properly maintained.

Various municipal boards should take active interest in improving the drainage system.d)To improve solid waste management:First of all 100% waste collection is should be done in a completely covered van.The waste should be segregated in degradable and non-degradable.Efficient waste to energy conversion plants which donot pollute environment could be used.Inspite of these several limitations in our policies various recent initiatives by government,judiciary,media and NGOs promises to improve the situation in the long of these initiatives include Proposal Green toilets in trains,Nirmal Bharat yatra,setting of National Green Tribunals ,use of CNG in public transport,encouragement to electricity vehicles etc.

They deserve appreciation and encouragement.The question is about relationship between Urbanization and sustainable development – why is it difficult to apply principles of sustainable development to our cities? Where have we failed? You have stressed more on problems of urbanization and remedies.I think your last paragraph gives half the answer.You will save lot of time in the examination.

Keerthi Narayan The Western Ghats, one of the characteristic feature of India’s physiography, ranges from Kerala in the South to Gujarat in the north West.It spreads through Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Goa, Maharashtra besides Kerala and Gujarat.It is a rich source of floral and faunal biodiversity and primary source of riverine water for peninsular India.Recommendations: Alarmed at the growing rate of activities like mining and construction, the Ministry of Environment and Forests set up Western Ghats Ecological Expert Panel under the chairmanship of Gadgil in 2010.

The panel came out with it report last year.

Its salient recommendations include gradation of the western ghats area into 3 ecolologically sensitive zones each having separate restrictions for development activities.If the recommendations of the report would be implemented, there would be severe restrictions for development activities on about 70% of the area of the Western Ghats.voiced their dissent to the report and this led to the MoEF setting up a High Level Expert group on the chairmanship of Kasturirangan to study the WGEEP report in a ‘holistic’ way.The HLWG used remote sensing data with the help of ISRO and classified the area under Western Ghats into natural landscapes and cultural landscapes.

According to HLWG’s recommendations, there will be restrictions on developmental activities on 37% of western ghats’ area.This includes complete ban on new mining and phasing out of existing mining in 5 years, ban for new thermal projects, ‘red’ category industries and severe restrictions on large scale construction activities.However, the HLWG has not clearly said anything about the remaining 90000 area under cultural landscapes.Implications: The grid size used by WGEEP is 9km x 9km, , which is the taluk area.Gadgil himself admitted that this was the data available with the panel and the grid size can be refined.

This large grid size results in an entire taluk being marked as ecologically sensitive even when only a panchayat unit area is actually so.Institutions like Kerala Forest research Institute suggest that using panchayat as tha base unit will clear a lot of area from being marked as ecologically sensitive.Small states like Kerala and Goa already have very few land spaces free of regulations.Being sandwiched between the sea and the hills, these states have restrictions on land use like coastal regulation norms.It is necessary that such states are given a fair chance for developmental activities.

At the same time, in Goa, Karnataka rampant mining has led to substantial losses to natural habitat and pristine ecosystems.Hence, the Govt has to take a stand considering both sides of the issue into account.A blanket ban or a clear approval to consrtuctions in the name of development, both will be detrimental to the people’s livelihood.Sustainable development is the use of available resources for a society’s development and well being, without depleting it for the use of future generations.

Urbanisation is the phenomenon of increase in the size and population of areas having urban characteristics, i.areas dominated by non-agricultural, non-primary economic activities.Generally, urbanisation involves consumption of resources to provide for the existence of growing populace and hence is considered as a non-compatible activity to sustainable development.Indian Context: India is a rapidly urbanising country.

The census 2011 indicates increasing rate of urban population.India’s urbanisation has so far followed only the consumption model.This means that those cities which developed as a result of urbanisation in the last 20 years have only consumed resources and discarded the end products.Reuse, Recycle, Renewable energy, Replenishment of used resources have not been followed during this urbanisation phase.Cities and towns are densely populated and hence face crunch in basic resources like land, water, trees and also face problems of solid waste disposal, sewerage and sanitation.

Such current consumption model is clearly unsustainable.Hence, to urbanise positively and grow in a sustainable way, the cities and towns should plan the following: 1.Use of Renewable energy resources for small utilities like solar heating, solar power for homes 2.Rain water harvesting to replenish the depleted ground water.Reuse and recycle when it comes to solid wastes like plastics, wood and ceramics 4.Rational land use Hence, in the present Indian context, Urbanisation is not compatible with sustainable development.Kirthi You gave wonderful points but as cini has commented, there is a need to shorten the answers I guess.The Western Ghats Ecology Expert Panel (WGEEP) headed by Madhav Gadgil was appointed by Ministry of Environment and Forests ( MoE&F) to suggest measures for conservation of Western Ghats.

Due to the controversies surrounding the recommendations of the panel, another High Level Expert Group (HLEG) headed by Kasturirangan was asked to the look into the report of the WGEEP.Major recommendations of WGEEP were :- 1) Creation of three ecologically sensitive zones in the Western Ghats apart from the present protected areas.It recommended complete ban on destructive economic activities including mining in ESZ1 with progressive relaxation of control measures in the other zones.2) Not to proceed with the Athirapally and Gundia hydro electric power projects as these would submerge highly biodiverse areas of endemic species like Malabar Hornbill.3) A supervisory body of experts to ensure implementation of conservation measures, Western Ghats Ecology authority.

4) Ban on introduction and even field trials of Gentically Modified crops.The WGEEP highlights the destruction to the environment and biodiversity caused due to the developmental activities like mining, tea and coffee plantations, unsustainable agricultural practices etc.It advocated strict implementation of its recommendations to prevent further damages.These recommendations were not received positively by any of the state governments in the region.

Protests by local people, encouraged by politicians and religious leaders, who thought their livelihood options would be affected happened.

Due to considerable opposition from all quarters, the MoE&F appointed the Kasturirangan panel, which submitted a report that reduced protection to only 37% of Western Ghats which it considered as natural landscape and did not recommend any ban on the hydroelectric power projects.This controversy raises the all important question of sustainable development.Though the local people as well as the states may benefit by employment opportunities due to mining, quarrying and deforestation, it should be remembered that long term livelihood and quality of life would be severely affected by the damage caused to the land, water and air in the Western Ghats apart from loss of highly endemic species.Urbanization is an essential feature of modern life.

As man progresses, growth of cities and towns take place naturally to accommodate the growing needs of economic development.It is to ensured that this urbanization happens in a sustainable way.In India, most cities grow in an unplanned way, utilizing the resources in an inefficient manner.Construction of buildings happen violating the norms required for security and transport.Proper management of water supply and sewerage, solid waste disposal, maintenance of roads etc.

are not able to keep pace with the needs of the people.Pollution of all possible natural resources take place in our cities.Slums and squalor have become a dominant feature of Indian cities.We find posh localiites with all amenities beside the poor slums.Rehabilitation of slums have been talked about for many decades, but still no improvment in their conditions.

No concern shown to the lives of the poor who are displaced mercilessly to make way for “development”.Most of Indian cities are notorious for high pollution levels and lack of public sanitation facilities.Environment and human rights are not on the priority list of the authorities, where corruption is rampant.So it can be rightly said that urbanization and sustainable development are antithetical to each other in the Indian context.Cini 1) In the light of WGEEP report and HLWG report on Western Ghats, discuss the major recommendations and their implications – if implemented – on the stakeholders of the region.

Western Ghats is one of the eight biodiversity hotspots in India and a major supplier and drainage of the peninsular river system.The Western Ghat Ecology Expert Panel headed by ecologist Madhav Gadgil and the subsequent High Level Working Group headed by economist Dr.Kasturirangan were formed to stop the degradation of the ecology of the ghats.The WGEEP proposed a blanket ban on mining, hydel projects and invasive developmental activities in 3/4th of the ghat area, proposing the area to be declared Ecologically Sensitive Area under a regulatory authority that could override central and state governments.This report was opposed by the inhabitants of the ghats and by political parties as being unviable and hence the HLWG was formed.

It bans mining and other activities in only the core areas, phases out existing mines and asks for stricter clearances for hydel projects.The WGEEP was prepared to limit the damage caused by man to the environment by keeping them out completely, the HLWG takes a far more practical approach by not snatching the livelihood of the inhabitants (tourism in national parks, forest produce or hill towns like Lavasa) and providing a chance for peaceful coexistence of nature and man.2)“In the Indian context, sustainable development and urbanization are antithetical to each other”.An estimated 1/3rd of Indian population lives in urban areas.

Good infrastructure, better facilities, opportunities and a higher standard of life are the pull factor of urban areas.In this age of consumerism and global warming; in a bid to gather more resources a lot of harm is being done to the environment.India has witnessed a steady urbanization – chaotic and unplanned cities not adhering to city masterplans, vertical growth of structures (Mumbai, Delhi) which puts a burden on resources like water, electricity and sanitation facilities.The rampant misuse of these resources and their wastage are problems affecting urban areas in India.The resultant has been; falling groundwater levels, creation of ghettos, glaring inequality/class divides and rising pollution levels across cities.

Recent disasters like the Uttarakhand floods are an example of lack of future planning keeping in mind the environment.The lack of proper implementation of urban policies has resulted in unregulated growth opposite to the demands of sustainable development.In comparison global high density cities like Manhattan, New York, Singapore city have adopted sustainable methods like rainwater harvesting, increased use of public transport and subsidies green fuels to combat increased urbanisation.Kirthi In the Indian context, sustainable development and urbanization are antithetical to each other”.Comment Sustainable development is the development that meets the needs of present generator with out comprising the ability of future generations to meet their needs, central to this is inter generational equity.

Urbanization is an inevitable phenomena after industrial revolution, attracting people and have become engines of economic growth.Rapid urbanization increases ecological footprint, creates pressure on land use, challenges to manage green cover, waste management, increased pollution, emissions, polluted ground water, fuel use etc.Indian cities are rated mediocre in UN habitat city prosperity index that include quality of life, infrastructure, environmental sustainability, equitable development.Indian cities dump mos of waste in suburbs where as in Germany Copenhagen etc resuly in only 4 percent waste as landfill.Singapore has 50 percent surface area green cover.

Japan piping system ensures grey water is reused.Therefore, good efforts have been made by others to reduce ecological foot print of cities and make them sustainable.Census 2011 shows tht last decade more people added to urban than rural areas.India faces an opportunity to grow its cities sustainably as rapid urbanization is on the way.

Some measures include – metro with good feeder network – incentives to use public transport – disincentivize polluting activities, pvt transport – solar or Led lamps in place of low efficient sodium or mercury lamps – reuse grey water, rain water harvesting, recycle waste – increase fuel efficiency and promote Research – mandatory energy conservation buildings code – effectively implement PURA Though inherently urbanization and sustainable development look antithetical , focused effort can better the situation as some metropolitans across the world show.

Kirthi Anjali Motghare I agree with the statement on the following reasons: Sustainable development has a broader meaning * Improving the quality of human life without exceeding the carrying capacity of nature; * Economic growth that provides fairness and opportunity for all the people, not just few at the cost of all.* Its a economic and social development that protect and enhance the natural environment.In Indian urbanisation is a growing phenomenon and is expected to rise to 57 per cent by 2025.But uncontrolled and unplanned expansion of towns and cities with large population has overwhelmed transport, communication, water supply, sanitation and energy system resulting in a growth of urban poor and unemployed population with precarious health of our metro cities have crossed the permissible pollution level which is having ill effects on health of the people.Cities often have become dump yards of garbage and industrial ted waste has given rise to environmental problem like air and water pollution Most of the times waste directed in river and because of that we are having most sacred river dangerously contaminated.

Which is having serious repercussions on the aquatic life as well as downstream human ned cities led to development of slums.Our financial capital Mumbai gave birth to Asia’s largest slum Dharavi.In terms of our capital’s pollution Supreme Court had to intervened from time to time to save people in terms of air pollution.Recently it had to guide on mobile tower placement.Urbanization is a necessary condition for development but it should not be at the cost of environment because finally nature wins.

We have experienced tsunami in 2005, and this year Uttarakhand flood.As humans are destroyers so we can act as a preserver too by taking necessary steps, strict implementation of framed laws will be a welcome step.K Partha 1)The WGEEP (Gadgil Committee) was formed with the objective of studying the environmental and ecological issues related to Western Ghats.Gadgil committee recommended dividing Western Ghats into 3 different types of ecologically sensitive zones (Zone 1 being the most sensitive) and formation of Western Ghats Ecology Authority (WGEA).WGEA would have jurisdiction in six states (Karnataka, Kerala, Goa, Maharastra,Tamil Nadu, Gujarat).

According to the Report all mining activities should be phased out in Zone 1 within the next five yrs while existing mines in Zone 2 and Zone 3 should be put under strict regulation and social audit.No new license to be given for zone 1 and zone 2 while license can be given for zone 3 areas only for minerals not available in plains.Similarly the report called for a strict ban on polluting industries in Zone 1 and 2 if the industries aren’t able to switch to zero pollution technology within 5 yrs.All new industries in Zone 3 should be put under strict regulation and social audit.Further reasonable restrictions have been put on the size/scale of river projects in different ESZ.

(Athirappilly Project and Gundia Project will be affected).There shouldn’t be any power plant in Zone 1 and 2.No new railway lines or major roads in zone 1 and 2.Waste management, traffic management to be strictly regulated in the zones.Further the report has stressed upon community participation and grass roots involvement.

A High-Level Working Group was formed to study the Gadgil report and accordingly advise the Govt.According to the panel around 37% of the total area defined as boundary of Western ghats is ecologically sensitive.There needs to be a prohibitory regime on those activities with maximum interventionist and destructive impact on the environment.So here it makes a departure from the Gadgil report which can be wrongly used to continue with the exploitation.Further the report stresses upon inclusive development of local communities and green growth.

The panel calls for the establishment of Decision Support and Monitoring Centre for Geospatial Analysis and Policy Support .But there is no suggestion related to WGEA.If the WGEEP report is implemented in letter and spirit then it would go a long way in preserving the biodiversity of the region and in maintaining the ecological balance in the region which has been subjected to rampant exploitation by mankind.It may lead to decrease in development activities (Mining and industries) but just development at the cost ecology can prove harmful in the longer run.It might help in curbing the illegal mining menace prevalent in the region.

The suggestion for the formation of WGEA has not found support with the concerned state Govts.But the creation for a central authority is necessary for the uniform implementation of the suggestions given the vast expanse of the Western Ghats.The HLWG report seems to be a diluted form of WGEEP report.It leaves scope for wider manipulations.It might not be effective in preserving the biodiversity and ecological balance of the UNESCO World Heritage Site.

question 2 Essence of sustainable development is conscious awareness that development activities have to take care of future generation needs in mind while fulfilling needs of current generation.Rapid Urbanization in India has developed unsustainable cities.It has lead to social , economic and environmental cities where people have migrated from rural area in search of job have created slums in absence of unavailability of housing.This in itself has generated many problems ranging from sanitation, clean drinking water to disposal of waste.Policy maker have not been able to develop blue print of development of cities.

No proper spatial planning has been done, there is no balance in utilization of natural resources Gradually deforestation is being done to create more urban space.This has tremendously affected environment.Sprouting of Industries near urban center has also created problems.Further huge consumption of electricity, rapid rise of private transportation have further deteriorated environment.

Air quality, water quality , food quality have all decreased.

Problem is getting attenuated due to increase of consumerism, greediness and looking for temporary solutions to fix problem.Recent happenings in Uttrakhand after rain havoc is grim reminder of our development such development continues not only future generation will pay price but also present generation as well, Requirement is therefore for a systemic planned development, involvement of grass root people in development policies, balance utilization of natural resources, using more renewable resources, creating sustainable economically viable villages and having a deep awareness and attitude of conservation of resources among people.NITISH K What is malnutrition and undernourishment? Why is India according to some reports, in spite of surplus food grain production, home to a large number of stunted, wasted and underweight children in the world? Explain.(300 Words) Ans:Malnutrition refers to intake of an unbalanced diet in which certain nutrients are intake of carbohydrates does not complete nutrition,it must be supplemented by nutrients like proteins, vitamins ,minerals like sodium calcium etc,fats etc.A large number of reports point out that nearly half of India,s children suffer from malnutrition and it is worst in India when compared to subsaharan african creates a dismal picture,especially after decades of consistant growth.

The prominent reasons for malnutrition among children are: * Improper Agricultural policy:It is said that in India,Buffer storage is nearly 3 times more than the required strategic huge stocks are rotting due to lack of storage space and also fuel inflation by crowding out the grain markets.* Unsatisfactory PDS:nearly 40% of the PDS supplies are diverted to open market thereby impoverishing the current PDS except in Tamil nadu provides only cereals like wheat and rice and not pulses ,edible oil etc needed for bolstering nutrient content of poor man’s food basket * Reduced pulses and oilseed production:Due to lack of procurement support for pulses and oilseeds,farmlands are diverted to rice ,wheat and sugarcane.* Lack of information:the mothers donot know the importance of micronutrients in building the mental and physical health of children * vicious cycle:Usually due to poor status of women ,they are not given adequate care during pregnancy and also during first few months of child decreases the nutritional content of mothers adolscent girls ,due to gender bias ,donot get proper nutrients .They give birth to weak girls who in future get married and again continue the cycle of malnutrition.* Absence of creches:Due to this usually mother is forced to leave the child at the care of elder sibling when she goes out to affects the nutrition of the child.

Unless measures are taken on warfooting,we will not be able to exploit our demographic dividend ,which inevitablely would become a demographic nightmare.NITISH K 2)“In the post-independence India, the myth of Balkanization was belied by the peaceful reorganization of India into various linguistic states.Few decades later, development is taking precedence over language in deciding the dynamics of states’ reorganization”.Ans: Barring some minor outbreak of violence ,the linguistic reorganisation of states was largely the prophecy of the western observers that India would soon become disintegrated into mutually hostile independent states was shown main reason for this was the common bond developed between the people as well nationalist leaders developed in their fight against tyrant the shared pain suffered by the people by the loss of east and west Pakistan preempted any further importantly the nature of federalism which had a strong center and destructible states, also played a great role in strengthening the unity and integrity of antinational activity by state govts could be nipped at the bud itself through president’s the great role played by statesmen like Pandit Nehru and Sardar Patel also prevented balkanisation of India.

Now we see that ,many groups are demanding further creation of states on the basis of developmental states like chattishgarh ,Jharkandh and uttarakand were created on this basis for promoting is also enduring demand for new ent examples being Telangana,Gorkaland,vidarba region it is difficult to differentiate between genuine aspiration for development versus aspiration of vested interests to gain political there any guarantee that a separate state would be a harbinger of development?Will the widely prevalent corruption and maladministration cease to exist?Will people have more say in day to day administration?Or will the MLAs represent the people or the party high command?These are the more intrinsic questions that one needs to ask before contemplating further states.Rather than more and more states,which will inevitably create more regional parties and thus greater instability in governance,paramount thrust must be empowering the panchayat raj institutions which has the potential for transforming the way people interact with govt.Asha Goud Anjali Motghare Nitish overall good answer, but I feel question asks whether demand is made on development or not.NITISH K An important reason for malnutrition which I missed: Open defecation: this leads to diseases like diarrhea,dysentery etc leading to loss of nutrients and minerals from the body.

Ans Malnutrition and undernourishment are used for measuring the nutritional intake of a child and are major part of health indicators.Malnutrition is when a child eats food which does not provide the enough nutrition for growth of his /her potential while undernourishment is when a child does not get the required quantity of food intake and low calorie intake.Both these have contributed for infants’ mortality and morbidity, stunted growth, make them prone to diseases and act as inhabitant to mental and physical growth of a child.Many reports pointed out that India has a bulging number (more than 42%) of malnourished and undernourished children.Despite the fact that India boast of having produced record food grains every year, its number of children suffering from malnutrition are also increasing.

Many factors are responsible malnutrition : 1.Accessibility and Affordability : Most part of the population in India have lack of access to food grains either because of high prices in the market or because of poor implementation of PDS which account for major transmission and distribution losses and does not reach the intended beneficiary.Low nutritional content: While government provide cooked food in all government schools under its mid day meal scheme, the nutritional content in the food in very low or not up to standards.The food storage is unhygienic leading to loss of nutritional contents 3.

Feeding practices: There is a lack of awareness on the part of pregnant and lactating mothers.It has been pointed out that mother’s milk is the most imperative factor which provides protection and helps built immunity.Most mothers don’t eat well during pregnancy and do not breastfed their child during the first 6 months of child birth.Due to lack of diagnostic and early detection health services, many children suffer from diseases which inhibit their growth.

Tough government implement various programs like ICDS but no programme screens children and provide double rations for those who are under nourished.All this requires a paradigm shift from child food security to nutritional security, untargeted food supplements to screening of all children from vulnerable groups, promotion of appropriate dietary intake and integrated comprehensive services to improve health and nutrition Kirthi Nirmal Singh 1.It is indeed a tragedy that in spite of surplus food grain production, India is home to a large number of stunted, wasted and underweight children in the is due to a number of reasons First,the majority of children belongs to SC,ST,identified tribes and Slums which lacks access to government schemes like PDS and other social security programs which requires identification proofs like Adhaar recent decision of government to extend DBT to food subsidy on basis of bank account ,if implemented would worsen the same.Second,The food given under Mid day meal and PDS is mostly rice and wheat which satisfy only partial needs of other nutritious elements like proteins and zinc are absent which causes malnutrition.

Third,the lack of information and awareness especially in rural areas has compounded the recent initiative of Health ministry with Aamir khan as brand ambassador to address the same is welcome initiative.Fourth,the present issue is intimately linked to mother healthcare,which is abysmal condition considering the fact cases of anemia,insufficient nutrition available during pregnancy is among the highest in the world which translates into r related issue is low practice of breastfeeding which provides immunity to child in early banks can be a good step in this direction Fifth,the absence of hygiene,unsafe drinking water and sanitation is a big factor considering the fact India is home to largest open defection which is source of a number of diseases leading to must be remembered that India share of healthcare to GDP is too low the address the issues.Lastly the poverty and backwardness of states has set the ground for malnutrition growth.K Partha 1) While Malnutrition is the condition caused by eating too little, too much or an unbalanced diet that does not contain the right quantity and quality of nutrients necessary for adequate nutrition, Undernourishment is the condition caused by insufficient food intake and repeated infectious diseases.Undernourishment results in being underweight for one’s age, stunted, wasted and de cient in vitamins and individuals are undernourished, they can no longer maintain natural bodily capacities.

The production of food grains in 2011-12 was at a record high of 259.Despite the surplus production India is home to one out of every three malnourished children(UNICEF).The growth in agricultural production in India doesn’t have the support of an efficient distribution and storage system.

Unavailability of proper storage facilities have led to food grains rotting in the storage facility.

There have been suggestions to distribute the food grains for free but it might lead to crashing of prices and might be a negative incentive for farmers.So it calls for efficient stocks management, timely offloading of stocks and predictable trade policy.Poor feeding of infants and young children, especially the lack of optimal breastfeeding and responsive complementary feeding, along with such illnesses as diarrhoea, pneumonia, malaria are major causes of undernourishment.So better implementation of Govt Programmes like ICDS and NMBS which take care of the nutrition needs of the women and the child is the need of the hour.Further More awareness is needed for consumption of healthy food in right amount(balanced diet).

In India 73% households defecate in the open which is a result of lack of awareness and gap between availability and adequacy of toilets.Open defecation is a major reason for diseases like diarrhea(which can be easily prevented).So greater emphasis on sanitation and strengthening of Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan can address this.Further the national food security bill/Ordinance if implemented properly can go a long way in addressing the nutrition issues.Ans Balkanization as a geopolitical process which describes the fragmentation of a state into smaller states which are often inimical to each other.

When India got independence, it adopted a federal constitution.Despite cultural, lingual diversity, India was declared as Union of States so that India would not disassociate into different states and shall remain as one whole unit.But soon demands were raised regarding creation of new linguistic states.The government appointed Fazal Ali Commission that recommended organization of states on linguistic basis.The States reorganization Act 1956 was instrumental in creating many states on lingual basis.

However post economic reforms and liberalization, globalization and privatization, there had been a continuous spurt in the economic activities in different part of the country leading to mushrooming of islands of growth in the sea of underdevelopment.This led to a disparity between different regions and disproportionate growth in certain pockets.The prosperity of one region over the other brought back the demand for creation of new states but which is developmental oriented.Every region wanted to reap the benefit of economic liberalization and that led to demand for creation of different states on the basis of backwardness in the economic developmental indicator.Nevertheless, the experience of smaller states supported the theory of balkanization because of the growing hostility between different states which are forcefully bound by supreme constitution.

The creation of more states, either on linguistic or developmental basis, has led to growing discontent on different issue ranging from water sharing, tax imposition on interstate trade to rise of sons of the soil.The growing intolerance is in fact a clear indication and inclination of the states towards its rejection of the current political system.But as they are bound by constitution and only parliament is the supreme authority to alter the boundaries of states, India is still one entity in which voices have been raised in the form of developmental regionalism.Asha Goud Hi Sahil, i don’t think inter state disputes for river water use is a strong support for the theory of balkanisation of the country.The states in India are not hostile to each other.

? Hi Asha, The recent political skirmishes between Karnataka and Tamil Nadu over Cauvery water sharing despite of SC directive can be construed as an example.The confrontation between Haryana and Punjab over hansi butana canal is another different mechanisms like constitutional provisions are there, still the problem persist which define a dis-junction between a nation and a state.Further balkanisation, in crude way is fractured nationalism.India share political and territorial unity but lack emotional integration which is expressed by different political vested interest for different political gains or in the form of developmental disparity or on the basis of language.

The creation of states should be based on administrative viability and efficiency rather than short term political gains which lead to fragmentation of a nation.One may find himself in limbo when he see India as a state searching for nation or a state of states which are searching for nations.Asha Goud Thank you Sahil for your response.You have rightly called the disputes as “Political skirmishes” , the disputes relating to distribution of resources are blown out of proportion just to gain some vote bank.Regional political parties have emerged in states and since they belong to only one particular state they lack the national outlook.

Post independence we had one major political party, Congress, and level of co operation among states was higher.K Partha 2) During colonial rule the state boundaries were drawn on administrative our national movement was in favor of linguistic reorganization.But because of the unpleasant experiences during partition carving of states on the basis of language didn’t happen immediately after independence.There was fear that it might lead to Balkanization (disruption and disintegration) of India.The formation of Andhra Pradesh and the struggle in different parts of the country for separate states led to the formation of State Reorganization commission in 1953 and finally 14 states and 6 UTs were carved out on the basis of language.

Contrary to the fears the reorganization has actually accommodated the regional demands to a greater extent.But now also there are at least 31 separate struggles going on for independent statehood.The demands are made on the basis of the lack of development.But a careful analysis will show that it is due to non-congruence between cultural boundary and administrative boundary.

In many cases, the present states haven’t been successful in creating common linguistic, administrative and political identity among the people living within the different regions of the state.For example, the people of Telengana cherish their history and tradition of cultural synthesis as their identity, instead of Telegu language.So there is a demand for separate state.So the dynamics of state reorganization are being affected due to the cultural heterogeneity of different regions in a state rather than just the issue of lack of development.

Asha Goud i liked the second part of the answer, you put forward a different perspective.

However you took example of Telengana, can this argument of similar history tradition and culture be for demand for vidharbha.? K Partha Hi Asha, I am not saying that economic imbalance doesn’t play any this difference is generally felt when the integration hasn’t happened, when a new pan state identity hasn’t been on of Pan state identity is not always on the basis of relative deprivation, it can be due to variety of reasons like ecological distinctiveness (Himachal Pradesh, Jharkhand etc) or ethnical homogeniety (Punjab, TN etc) This are the states where demand of separate statehood hasn’t happened .The state reorganisation commission in 1956 had recommended for the creation of “Vidarbha state” with Nagpur as the finally it was included in Maharashtra state using the linguistic principle.Vidharbha has had a distinct identity since 1853 when Nagpur Province was created by British annexations.

So I feel its not “just” development concerns which fuel demand for separate statehood.Asha Goud riddhu In the post-independence India, the myth of Balkanization was belied by the peaceful reorganization of India into various linguistic states.Few decades later, development is taking precedence over language in deciding the dynamics of states’ reorganization”.Critically comment Post independence the most crucial question facing the nation was of reorganizing the states.SK Dhar commission and JVP committee in 1948 rejected linguistic reorganization lest it would result in linguistic chauvinism and a threat to national unity.

Creation of AndhraPradesh in 1953 led to demand on the same basis by other states and finally SRC in 1956 led to redrawing map of India on linguistic basis.The experience over the years has been positive, the creation on linguistic ground has not adversely affected federal relations nor has any state out cried any discrimination on linguistic ground.On the contrary it has made education possible in mother tongue leading to wide jump in literacy, and administration in mother tongue has bridged the gap between government and citizens and instead of acting as divider has acted as binder for national unity and has belied the myth of Balkanization.Over the time it is realized that certain areas of the state in spite of having the same language as that of the state are visibly underdeveloped resulting in glaring intrastate inequality.Creation of Jharkhand and Chhattisgarh and recent demand for Telangana is not on linguistic but on development grounds.

So, it is true that development issues are now taking front seat.Undernourishment is arise from the non-availability of food.As per HUNGaMA Report 42 per cent children in India stunted, wasted, and underweight.India has shown high growth rate for over a 15 years despite that it houses a world’s largest underweight children.

Reasons for such horrendous situations are, growth is unequal.Large quantities of food grains get wasted in government granaries instead of being supplied to hungry people.Poverty is one cause and other is supply-chain mechanism.Instead of having TPDS its ineffective implentation aggravate the situation.

Study finds that most of the time food grain does’t reach to intended benificiary.MGNREGA is somewhat successful but it doesn’t add much to income of household.Mead Day Meal does not help infants in the two-three-year age group who are the most vulnerable to nutrition insufficiency.Malnutrition is mainly caused by unawareness.‘In India almost 92 per cent mother don’t have knowledge about nutrition, nor they heard the word malnutrition’ a report says.

We can allay the situation by changing some our systems like: Loopholes in TPDS needs to be removed, hopefully new food bill will address the issue, Its successful implementation can be assured by civil societies participation which will ensure transparency and accountability.ICDS shown positive results but, it is facing insufficient fund and manpower, so its penetration needs to be increased by fulfilling its requirement.Tamilnadu’s Amma kitchen is a successful programme its implementaion can be extended to whole country as per situations demand.Increasing awareness in mother about nutrition via anganwadi workers and ASHA.by making agriculture more pro-nutrition by focussing it more on what people living in poverty grow, eat, and need nutritionally.

Asha Goud Hi anjali, i think your answer started right on track but slowly towards the end it shifted more towards food security rather than staying on the issue of child malnutrition.Anjali Motghare Asha Goud Q What is malnutrition and undernourishment? Why is India according to some reports, in spite of surplus food grain production, home to a large number of stunted, wasted and underweight children in the world? Explain.(300 Words) A: Malnutrition is a medical condition where the body doesn’t get the required nutrition in proper proportion and therefore can lead to either over nutrition or under nutrition.The condition of over nutrition is seen in developed countries.Undernourishment is a type of malnutrition where body doesn’t get the required minimum amount of calories, protein, vitamins for proper growth and maintenance of the body.

Undernourishment is a cause of conditions like marasmus and kwashiorkar.A survey conducted by WHO worldwide to study the prevalence of malnutrition among children have found that 1 out of every 3 malnourished in the world is from India.The total number of underweight children in India exceeds that in the whole of Sub Saharan countries.Thus it becomes very important to find out the causes and solutions for this widespread malnutrition among Indian children.However Malnutrition and Under nutrition are not result of only lack of food but due to lack of proper nutrition and the reasons are wide ranging.

Health of mother is during pregnancy and after pregnancy are very crucial to the health of the child.In India women working in the unorganized sector work during pregnancy and immediately after child birth as there is no provision of paid leave to them.Therefore the child due to lack of proper care becomes vulnerable.Early marriages resulting in early pregnancies, where the girl is not fit for pregnancy gives birth to a weak child and then lack of proper health care leads to malnutrition.

Due to lack of sanitation and availability of clean drinking water in the slums a large number of children living there are vulnerable to diseases like diarrhea- a major cause of under nourishment among children.

Lastly India is a food grain surplus country, but lacks in a well functioning PDS.Also PDS adopts a minimalistic approach supplying the basic minimum of rice and wheat, there is no provision for pulses, vegetables, milk which are very important for growth of a child.Therefore it becomes very important to focus on the health of mother and child during pregnancy and immediately after child birth.Programs like the ICDS, mid day meals, Janani Suraksha Yojana are effectively implemented through proper training given to the Anganwadi workers and ASHAs.Kirthi Asha Goud Q “In the post-independence India, the myth of Balkanization was belied by the peaceful reorganization of India into various linguistic states.

Few decades later, development is taking precedence over language in deciding the dynamics of states’ reorganization”.A: After India got independence the states that were formed were not based on any particular principle.States were formed by consolidating adjoining Princely states among themselves or with the already existing states.The issue of state reorganization was first taken up by constituent assembly in 1948 and commission under SK Dhar was constituted and it rejected language as a principle for state reorganization.

But by that time demand for linguistic states had started emerging from all parts of India.Based on the demands of the people states were created based on common languages.It was predicted that linguistic provinces would initiate the process of disintegration of India but instead India as a nation became stronger and stable.The demand of linguistic states emerged from the people and it further strengthen ideal of democracy.In the current scenario language is no more the major issue for states as it is already addressed, also certain regions within the states remained backward and neglected.

These backward regions demand separation as the existing state has not been successful providing them growth.The state of Jharkhand and Chattisgarh are examples of such states.In the same ways the demand of Telengana, Vidharbha, Saurastra is on the issue of development and the neglect by the existing state.lakshmi prasanna Examples are missing.This question was asked after taking hint from Telangana situation.

Also, mention of coalition politics and Naxalism is not needed here.(though Naxalism apparently stems from grievance of lack of development and host of other reasons, it is irrelevant here – they are not for reorganization of states in India, they want to overthrow the whole system itself) Your first paragraph is actually beautiful.What is malnutrition and undernourishment? Why is India according to some reports, in spite of surplus food grain production, home to a large number of stunted, wasted and underweight children in the world? Undernourishment is the lack of sufficient quantity of food and malnutrition is not just about quantity but also about right type of food .

It can be said that all undernourished children are malnourished but reverse may not be true as many obese children are found to be not undernourished but are malnourished.The root cause is poverty which hampers access to right quantity , right quality and right type of food .In spite of surplus food grain production the logistic inefficiency in distribution has resulted in its non availability to the needy which has resulted in undernourishment.Policy makers instead of focusing on well balanced diet which consists of not only grains but also of pulses, vegetables and milk and edible oil have focussed merely on food grains which has resulted in malnutrition.Now of course attempts are made to increase nutrition value of food by fortification and golden rice is a good example yet more balancing is needed.

Poor Indian women in most of the case are inadequately fed and highly anemic and during the time of pregnancy is also over burdened and hence when she gives birth to child the chances of maternal mortality, infant mortality or that of both are high and the child so born suffers from undernourishment from the womb which increases its chance of being stunted, wasted and underweight if it survives.Child labour,lack of access to clean drinking water and sanitation aggravates the situation.Mid day meals schemes have done fair yet it also need to revamped and more bothering are recent incidents.The initiatives like giving cash to pregnant and lactating woman so she need not work those days and can feed her self and child sufficiently are worthy yet the findings by the Hungama report and other reports by United Nations reveal a lot has to be done.Keerthi Narayan Though malnutrition and undernourishment seem to be similar, there is a subtle difference between the two terms.

Malnutrition is lack of nutrition required for proper growth and it can be due to inadequate food intake, intake of food, but lack of essential nutrients in the diet or inability of the body to absorb nutrients from the food.Undernourishment is lack of nutrition essentially due to inadequate food intake.The recent UNICEF report states that India has the largest no.of children under 5 facing malnutrition in the world, a whopping 61 million.Malnutrition leads to stunted growth, poor development of brain, underweight and lack of immunity to withstand diseases.

India’s agricultural output has been increasing in the past few has been difficulty in storing the excess grains produced as India lacks enough storage space for food grains.However, the excess food grains and malnutrition should not be directly correlated.As defined earlier, malnutrition is not only because of inadequate food intake but also due to intake of food which does not have all nutrients required for a balanced growth.The major reasons of malnutrition are: 1.Poverty: As said, inadequate food is one of the reasons for malnutrition.

Around 30% of the population in India lingers in dire poverty even by official estimates.Inspite of social welfare programs and schemes like mid day meal, children in India still find it difficult to have 3 meals a day 2.Lack of essential nutrients in food: The spike in Indian food grain production is mainly in cereals like rice and wheat.Pulses, grams, vegetables, fruits, oilseeds are yet to see such surplus.

Hence, the average Indian child’s meal lack proteins, vitamins, fat and minerals which are essential for overall growth.

Lack of awareness: The Indian diet is predominantly carbohydrate based.The importance of including greens, vegetables, milk products, meat, fruits are not widely known to every parent.Lack of Hygiene: Cleanliness and sanitation are not given due importance.

Because of this a large number of children are infected by germs which in turn substantially affects their growth during their vital growing years.So India needs multi pronged approaches to tackle this grave problem.Only a well balanced growth during the early years will make a intellectual, healthy and productive citizen.To achieve this objective, impetus is to be given to areas like agricultural production of cereals, non-cereals and vegetables, an efficient distribution system, a mass awareness among the literate and illiterate about the importance of balanced diet and stressing of importance of hygiene through formal and informal education.India attained its Independence after a painful and bloody partition.The sub-continent was divided into two nations based on religion.The builders of new born India were very cautious that the nation’s unity and integrity should not be endangered by any other ‘ism’ like communalism.Hence, in the decade following Independence, when requests came for dividing states based on language, they hesitated.Thats why, the JPC committee formed initially rejected the linguistic proposal.

However, the sentiments of the states were too strong and ultimately the states were reorganised based on linguistic basis starting from 1953.Instead of dividing the nation and leading to disintegration, the separation on the basis of language, proved to be beneficial.With time, more states were carved out of existing states also.However, the division of states gained a new ideology after few decades.

Growth and development began to be cited as reasons for demand for new states.The demand for Telangana out of Andhra Pradesh has been lingering on since decades and has gained momentum in the last few years.The geographical area of Telangana is not gifted with fertile alluvial soil as the rest of Andhra Pradesh.The literacy rate is poor and unemployment rate is high when compared to coastal Andhra.Decades of glaring inequality between the two regions has strengthened the demand for a separate state.

Besides Telangana, there are similar demands from other regions as well.The demand for Bodoland for Assam, Bundelkand from UP are few other examples.The primacy given to GDP based economic growth, the surge in economy in the past decade and inequality that resulted out of it are the main reasons for separate state demands taking root in ‘ growth ‘ ideology.lakshmi prasanna Asha Goud Hi keerthi, i think the demand for Bundelkhand and Bodoland is not on the issue of backwardness or less development.vidharbha could have been an example here.

K Partha and Nitish have pointed out in their conclusions various reasons other than development.First answer has 429 words and second has 291 words.I gave 300 word limit for the first question because I knew it demanded lengthy answer.Please don’t take negatively my repeated suggestion to stick to word limit.In GS writing too much costs very dearly.

I won’t be reminding you further 🙂 By the way it is JVP committee not JPC committe – Jawaharlal Nehru, Vallbh Bhai Patel and Pattabhi Sitaramaiah were its members.The reorganization of the provinces of India on linguistic lines had been one of the demands of the Indian National Congress during the freedom struggle After Independence its demand was raised in various parts of the country.Commission did not favor the idea of linguistic reorganisation of States.The fast and death of Sriramulu, who was demanding the creation of a Telugu state of Andhra Pradesh forced the government to the reorganization of states early In 1953, Andhra Pradesh was created out of Telugu speaking areas of Madras, Bombay and Central Province.It was the first state to be formed on linguistic basis.In 1954 the commission headed by Justice Fazal Ali recommended the formation of 16 states and 3 centrally administered areas for the Indian Union.

Based on this the Union parliament passed the States Reorganisation Act, 1956, 14 States and 6 Union Territories were formed.By 2000, 14 states has become 28 states.Now people of bodoland, dimaraji,darjling, harit pradesh, kongu nadu, kosal mithila, purvanchal, telangana ,tulu nadu, vidarbha, vindhya pradesh,etc demanding separate state on the grounds of development.But fact is centralized Economic planning for balanced regional development, can be difficult in the area which is divided into various States .

In addition to this states will be susceptible to: disputes among states, terrorism and naxalism, burden on public expenditure, lacks unity and integrity etc Finally though committees and commissions appointed by government rejects, still formation of states continued as the priority is based on political benefits.

It doesn’t matter much about peoples sentiments.What is malnutrition and undernourishment? Why is India according to some reports, in spite of surplus food grain production, home to a large number of stunted, wasted and underweight children in the world? Malnutrition refers to imbalance in intake of nutrients which could result in over nutrition, obesity and undernourishment, where as undernourishment refers to low intake of diet resulting in stunting, underweight, growth retardation etc.According to UNICEF , 48% of Indian children are stunted.This shows the faulty public health policy – PDS/ national food security ordinance has concentrated on rice , wheat which address the problem of extreme hunger but not on vegetable, fruits and vegetables, pulses which improve nutrition status – open defection in India is rampant as a result of which nutrients are not sufficiently absorbed irrespective of intake – public expenditure on health percent of GDP and per capita public expenditure in India is very low, high out of pocket expenditure push many into poverty – existing apparatus concentrates more on curative than preventive aspects, insufficient attention to vaccination – more than 70 percent expenditure spend in urban areas, though 69 percent live in villages – poor sanitary conditions in villages,slums, absence of piped water supply to majority of villages – inefficient PDS – targeting errors,diversion to markets, adulteration – illiteracy among parents (ESP women) affects nutrition status of child due to lack of information,importance of early years in growth of child – low food intake by pregnant women affects baby and mother which is consequence of widespread poverty 12FYP working group on universal health care emphasizes private participation in spite of affordable,accessible public provisioning of services.

Though incremental steps are taken in form of NRHM,NBA, immunization, provision of piped water supply, much needs to be done and least that can be done is to increase central expenditure 2.5% GDP by end of 12 th FYP as envisaged by working group and concentrate more on preventive than curative aspects.rahul aggarwal Malnutrition is inadequate diet which may be undernutrition,overnutrition or improper balance of various constituents.Whereas undernourishment is a situation which mainly results from lack of available resources, undernourishment is a problem mainly prevalent in developing countries ,malnutrition can even in resource rich countries though india achieved self sufficiency in food grains during 1970s but even now more than 40% of our children are undernourished.there are many reasons responsible: a)improper government policies: government is not able to coordinate between its procuremement and distribution policies.

recent critism by supreme court holds significance in which court said on the issue of wastage of food grains due to lack of proper storage that if instead of wasting food grains it can provide it to the needy, but government is not able to tackle this situation.although various policies like pds, antyodaya anna yojana ,mid-day meal have been started but they have not produced the desired results due to ineffective implementation.recent incidents like death of 23 children of bihar due to insecticide in mid day meal are a cause of concern and needs expedious solution b)maternal health: providing food is not enough for solving undernourishment ,if the health of child is not good since he is born it would be difficult to solve the problem of undernourishment,to solve this the health of mother should be good and proper diet should be ensured for her.janani sishu suraksha karyakaram is an important step in this direction c) lack of micronutrients in food : extreme poverty is the main cause of , iron, calcium are the micronutrients which are essential for good health but they missing in the diet.lack of diversification is also a reason for this ,government annouces support prices for rice and wheat ,this has lead to lack of cereal ,oilseeds and coarse grain production initiative to promote crop diversification has been taken in this budget d)lack of awareness about proper diet: due to illiteracy and ignorance people are unaware about proper diet and ways to address it.

thus campaign has to be launched through various media to address this step to involve star like aamir khan is a good step.thus what is required is coordinated effort by different government departments to solve this serious problem of thge country.Malnutrition is not a disease it is due to inadequate diet.We are facing this despite of many welfare schemes.

Causes for malnutrition in India can be well understood on knowledging about Attappady tragedy.Attapady is an area in Kerala where within two months 19 infant deaths and 52 children deaths due to malnutrition were recorded.People there eat what they can afford to buy.Current diet of women includes rice gruel and rice and tamarind water.Health department officials say that a woman should weigh at least 48 kg before she can bear a child.But most women here weigh just 35 to 38 kg.women with such condition bearing a child is highly risk.Majority of infants died were pre-term babies with low weight.This is in spite of having health facilities.

Last year 1200 pregnant women were registered in this area last year, only 25 had institutional deliveries; reason is drastic cut of facilities.Families use to have land in the past to meet their malnutrition.They lose it on the grounds of land grab methods which are important reason for low nutrition and increased dependence on PDS.On cutting subsidies worsened the situation.A PIL filed recently in the Kerala High Court reveals the status of anganwadies.

Food supply to it was privatized resulted corruption.Rotten food was supplied to children in 172 anganwadis.If this can happen in Kerala, what of those States where governments equally committed to neo-liberal policies do not even have a proper monitoring system? Tribal communities want their land back, they want livelihood not charity.Past one year they got 63 days of an average under MGNREGS, delayed wage payments and denied minimum wage.Clearly government has to change their policies, which could have prevented this tragedy.

At least now government has to learn lessons from past experiences ecebloggers although you made very pertinent points, but i think your answer focused too much on Kerala and Tribals while questions asks for India in general.though in the end you tried to give a general context to it, but a better way would have been to restrict the example to a single para and then elaborate on broad issues that india as a whole faces lakshmi prasanna hi, intention is to show that if so called l iterated state condition is this one can anticipate the failure of policies in each step all over over i felt that it works like a case study.thank u lakshmi prasanna You have completely deviated from the question.I understand your intention of giving Kerala’s example.First, difference between malnutrition and undernourishment, second, factors responsible and third is remedies.You should structure your answer according to the question.You would have just said – Kerala’s Attappady tragedy of death of infants because of malnutrition and supply of rotten food to anganawadi’s because of corruption show that even states with best HDI indicators are worse off when it comes to providing nutrition security to its children”.

There was no need to explain the incident in detail.If you read and understand the question correctly, half the answer is answered.🙂 lakshmi prasanna simran Malnutrition is the condition that results from eating diet in which certain nutrion are lacking in excess or wrong proportiin .

In medicinal term it is condition caused by an improper diet.It is technically a category of diseases that includes undernutrition , obesity and micrenutrition deficiency amongs other.However its frequently used to mean undernutrion from either inadequate calories or inadequate specify dietary components for whatever reason.In India stunted wasted anf underweighted childern are more as compared to the develooed countries.As we know that tese type of problem are natural or common in developing countries, and its inc day by day bcz many factors affected it like maternal health, improper security of govt, adulteration in food grains, lack of awareness, improper govt policies,and the main and major factor which directly and indirectly affected our country in each and manner i.

Although these are several diff working defination of food security , all time involve in FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANISATION of UNITED NATION currently used following description i.e, food security exists when all people at all times have physical, social and economy acess to sufficent safe and nutrition food which meets their dietry needs and food preference for active and healty life.Simillary US also adopted same definatiin i.

e USDA of food security access by all people at all time to enough food for an active , healty life.And food insecurity defined by USDA as a household level economics and social cond of limited or uncertain access to adequtae food.Acc to UNICEF 48% 8f indian child are stunted.This shows the faulty public health policy.FACTORS AFFECTING MALNUTRION:- i… maternal health: as we know that brain of child started build up in 5 or 6 week of pregnacy so its imp that food taken by mother is 1/4 more than normal routein of the diet .

If mother doesnt take proper food its leads to the deficency in the growth of child.!aternql health is very improtant factor which affecting the the health of both maternal as well as child.ii… improper security of govt : as we know in rular area where people doesnt have such amt to admit pregnant women in the hospital bcz they are not able to submit the fees of hospital .Due to there this unability they dont admit there women in private hospitals and in govt hospitals doctor doesnt know any thing or some times they are not avilable too bcz govt doesnt give them proper salay .its not a casr of urban area its the case of rular areas hospital.

The most imp thing we always notice that govt hospitals are mainly in urban areas why dat so urban people also go for private hospitals but a rular one doesnt go for private hospitals.iii… adulteration in food grains : govt takes godd quantity of grains from farmers but when they gives quota for people below than poverty line food grains provide from govt side was so much adulterated .In uttrakhand distaster which held there before one an half month its vanish each and every things, at that time food grain provide by people was adulterated in large amt.Why now ministers said the rate of rice and wheat are getting below for people below than poverty line onpy bcz election comes thats why Why they dont think on it before ection why they dont think when we elected them why .nd why every times we remind them doing aldulteration in food , life and future of all indians .

iv,… lack of awareness about proper diet: malnutrion also done bcz of lack of awareness in people its not getting removed by showing some advertise on tv bcz in rular areas people doesnt have a proper money to complete there other needs so from where they get tv if get so too there is not electricty in rular areas.There are still may points which are the reson for malnutrion i.improper gov policies , lack of nutrion in food corruption but ponting these point is not the result of solving problems ,.As human tehre is still lots of diff in us and people who are poor but still what ever is going on still goes no one can improve it someone had to take a step to improve it.

I know its not too easy as i said but still if think if think forever its time to take step toward those people are like us nd they need us… lakshmi prasanna Anjali Motghare Balkanization was feared due to India- Pakistan partition on communal lines and turning them into hostile sustained efforts of Shri Sardar Patel brought positive results and belied the myth.During the national movement of independence itself national leadership felt that independent India should be reorganised on linguistic basis.Language is closely related to culture and therefore to the customs of people.Democracy can become real to the common people only when politics and administration are conducted through the local language.This will be possible only when state is formed on such predominant language.

After Independence immediate though was to consolidate India so national leadership gave the reorganization of states second got prominence with the fast unto death and after passing away of Sri Patti Sriaramalu.Government immediately created the state of Andhra on lingustic basis.Success of the Andhra struggle encouraged other lingustic groups.Government appointed State Reorganisation Commission, which gave priority to administration and economic factor but recognized lingustic principle.State reorganization Act passed by Parliament and 14 states came into being.

Maharashtra opposed strongle and finally Bombay state got split into Maharashtra and Gujarat.After three decades again reorganization issue came to the fore but on different issues.Hilly region people of UP wanted of their own state.

Tribal people of Bihar wanted Zarkhand and Those who championing the cause of workers wanted Chattisgarh.

Each of movements supported by regional parties to fulfill their own inspirations too.Demand for Telangana, Vidarbha, Gorkhaland, Bundelkhand are on developmental issue, as we observe these areas remain underrepresented in terms of ministers in legislature, government jobs and in administration.These regions have no industry, less urbanization and their resources utilized for other parts of states at their cost.Now development is the main basis for the people to demand a new state.ecebloggers cppcontrol What is malnutrition and undernourishment? Why is India according to some reports, in spite of surplus food grain production, home to a large number of stunted, wasted and underweight children in the world? Explain.

Malnutrition is the condition that results from the intake of an unbalanced diet or a diet in which proper proportional ingredients are not present.Undernourishment is basically the state of a person or child where adequate amount of food is not consumed leading to lack of essential nutrients in the body.India has not been able to completely eradicate the problem of malnutrition.Poverty being the main reason behind this.Adequate quality and intake of food is not been consumed by many infants and mothers as well as pregnant women.

Low income households are not being able to consume the right quality of food.However, the government has been trying to provide the necessary supply.Various schemes are being implemented to include pregnant women, infants and lactating mothers to have the required nourishment.But it has yet to get the desired results.Main problems in implementing the schemes include the leaky PDS system wherein the intended household are not targeted.

Lack of proper nutritional content of the foodgrains, high prices of various commodities in the market, lack of information on the part of the rural households to provide mother’s milk to infants during the first six months which provide immunity to various diseases, proper health care of the infant and care to be taken during pregnancy are some of the issues that needs to be addressed.The country needs to invest more in building institutions which will provide for better facilities in this regard.The PRI’s will play an important role in implementing the schemes of the government.Proper diet and nutritional monitoring of pregnant women as well as infants after birth will be helpful.Moreover improving the overall economic condition of the rural people would enable them to have proper choice of food.

ecebloggers question 2 Malnutrition and undernourishment are two major challenges that India is facing on health front.42% of India’s children are malnourished.Malnutrition is seen when a child doesn’t consume a balanced diet leading to deficiency in one or more proteins.Undernourishment occurs when there is a lack of access to adequate food resulting in starvation Neglect of public health and lack of adequate investment in health and nutrition is a major cuase for current situation.India spends less than 2% GDP on health.

Little attention has been paid towards providing nutritional support to children.It was only in 1990s that the state began providing nutritional support to children in form of mid day meals.Another major cause for malnutrition is the unidimensional agriculture policy followed by Indian government.In an effort to address food shortage in 1960s, government emphasised on growth of wheat and rice.This came at cost of decline in cultivation of endemic nutritious crops in different regions.

This reduced options of food items for consumption leading to imbalanced diet.Starvation is also prevalent in some regions of India.This is a result of leakages and corruption in PDS due to which less than half of the intended beneficiaries get their entitlements.There is also a high incidence of child marriages.This has adverse impact on health of women and children.

This is because in case of early age pregnancies, there are higher chances of birth of malnourished child.Although several schemes like ICDS, IGMSY, JSSY have been launched to address these challenges, they have failed to address the challenges To tackle malnutrition following measures are needed 1.Increase spending on health and strengthen primary healthcare centers 2.Expand food basket under PDS to include nutritious food items 3.Streamline PDS implementation with technology interventions like GPS, biometrics etc 4.

Focus of ICDS should be more on first 2 years after birth of child since it is the most critical period when child is prone to malnutrition ecebloggers any feedback on this answer.The question specifically mentioned about food grains.So was it right on my part to also discuss health and social issues in the answer? “In the post-independence India, the myth of Balkanization was belied by the peaceful reorganization of India into various linguistic states.Few decades later, development is taking precedence over language in deciding the dynamics of states’ reorganization”.

Reorganization of states was one of the important decision after the independence of India.The states reorganization act of 1956 succeeded the seventh amendment of the Indian constitution.This reorganizational period was largely peaceful as was not expected by many.

The result was the creation of a number of states with common linguistic background.

Decades later the reorganization of states still occur but on the basis of development.With increase in economic activity in India there is a paradigm shift in the outlook of the masses.With increase in the overall literacy rate in the country, people are more aware of the problems being faced by the regions.Economic and developmental disparity among various regions within a state lead to forming of public opinion for change in the dynamics of the state.However, the idea of reorganization of a state on the basis of development is still in the nascent stage.

Because, formation of states like Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand has not yielded in overall improvement of the problems being faced by the masses.Issues like bad governance, corruption , despotism, lack of farsightedness are few reasons for this.Lack in overall improvement of facilities like healthcare, education, infrastructure in this newly created states create a doubt in the minds of many regarding the reorganization of states on the basis of development.There should be a conscious effort on the part of the political and bureaucratic establishments to provide for better institutional buildings in this newly framed states.Good governance should be the basis for development of these states.

Until the poor is being provided with the basic need of food, clothing and shelter, the creation of states on the basis of development would be a myth.Biman Ghosh 1) What is malnutrition and undernourishment? Why is India according to some reports, in spite of surplus food grain production, home to a large number of stunted, wasted and underweight children in the world? Explain.(300 Words) When a person fails to take the basic and necessary nutritional elements as a part of food,the body starts to dysfunction and becomes vulnerable to the major life snatching affects considerably the nourishment of body and invite dangerous diseases to occupy eight,poor resistance power,sluggish brain and stagnant body growth are some of evil outcomes of “malnutrition”.all age stages,a human body needs nutritional elements to nourish it yet as children’s bodies are in growing stage,they need greater nourishment and higher nutritional foods and therefor the “malnutrition” or “undernourishment” generally refers to the deprivation of these children to basic nutritional foods and proper nourishment.According to Planning commission,since 2004-05 onward,our agricultural productivity has been surplus and even we have exported a part of e the surplus agricultural production,In our country “malnutrition” occurs in worse children not only deprived the basic nutrition food but most of them fail to take enough meal,they remains stunt all day notorious infant mortality rate is also a outcome of chief reason behind it is the lackness of proper policy formation and more importantly,their careful implementation across the country.

The govt has some plans ICDS,mid-day mil,etc but their implementation lackness of accountability further makes them less have been evident for that the million of tonnes of food grains are still in goodowns being completely wasted due to lacking of executing and monitoring rural areas,the lackness of infrastructures,like roads,proper storage capacities,effective transport facility,etc.also deemed as a major barrier of such schemes.policies seems also based on “less targeting approach”.The downtrodden children from most vulnerable societies form the biggest pie of such “Undernourished people”.

despite,its being one of the UN’s MDGs,we see govt has hardly any policy to include them in it’s major malnutrition alleviation programme.They remain out of radius of such programmes by begging or labouring here and there.the NGOs are making effort to bring them in such radius of benefits.The Diary products,which also could be very useful to keep malnutrition at arm’s lenth also have not access to poor e being no.fails terribly to use dairy products in malnutrition alleviation programs.in order to alleviate malnutrition,we have to form policies for inclusiveness,build infrastructures in rural areas a device proper mechanisms to implement them.NB What is malnutrition and undernourishment? Why is India according to some reports, in spite of surplus food grain production, home to a large number of stunted, wasted and underweight children in the world? Explain Malnutrition is phenomena where there is mismatch in intake of nutrients which are required for healthy growth of an individual.This mismatch can be both due to high intake or less intake.An undernourish child has less intake of required nutrients.

An undernourish child is at severe health risk physically, mentally and emotionally.India has one of the world largest malnourished children.One in three malnourished child stays in India.

This is alarming situation when India has surplus food grain production.However, there are many underlying determinants which results into stunted,wasted, underweight children as a result of malnourishment.In India Public distribution system has not worked well.In spite of surplus food grain it has not been able to reach to targeted beneficiary.Further Immediate cause of nutritional disorder is dietary intake and health status.

Dietary intake depends on household food security and quality of care available to young children, pregnant and lactating mother.Household food security in turn depends on quantity and quality of food available and purchasing power of family.Poverty therefore leads to less household food security resulting into malnourishment.Even if India produces surplus food grain it fails to reach at required houshold.Further diversity of food available is also important for providing required nutrients.

Further resources of health like availability of public health care service, clean drinking water and sanitation are major determinant for child’s health.Less intake of food lowers immunity resulting into health hazard and unavailabilty of proper health environment further attenuates the problem and vice-versa.Furthermore, it has been observed that education status of women is very important determinant of quality child care provided to young child.In India less education, especially to women, unawareness regarding feeding of child results in enhancing malnourishment.

Further social status also determines malnourishment, for example since girl child has low status in society, she is at more risk of malnourishment.

Hence, surplus production of food grain is one overarching factor but there are numerous underlying factor which results into malnourishment.Therefore any strategy to tackle malnutrition has to be multi -pronged which includes transfer of diversified food grain to beneficiary, intervention in quality of child care, taking care of lactating and pregnant mother, improving overall health care services including safe drinking water and proper sanitation and also gender sensitization.rahul aggarwal 2)MDG 5 According to MDG5 India has to REDUCE ITS MMR by three quarters between 1990 and 2015 .As per the estimates by WHO,UNICEF and world bank India requires to reduce its MMR from 600 in 1990 to 150 per 100000 live births in 2015.

As per the latest estimates released by the office of RGI ,the MMR in India stands at 212 per 100000 live births during 2007-09 Various steps have been taken to improve the situation of maternal health: a)JANANI SURAKSHA YOJANA :It provides cash benefits to the mother.b)JANANI SISHU SURAKSHA KARYAKARAM:which provides free entitlements to pregnant women including C-section,drugs,free transportation to health institutions and free diet during stay.c)the name based mother and child tracking system established to record every pregnant women and child to ensure full ante-natal check ups.d)ADOLESCENT SEXUAL REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH strategy for promotion of menstrual hygiene among adolescent girls.ASHA,ANM play a very important part to successfully implement these strategies so there is aneed to improve their skills and training.

In India apart from economic aspects ,sociological aspects are also hindering India’s of them are: a)Early child marriage is the biggest cent mothers form a big part of maternal deaths.b)Lack of use of contraceptives and planning for child birth and spacing between child birth.c)Lack of social status enjoyed by women due to which in backward areas they don’t have a say to decide the time for child birth.Thus efforts are required both on economic and social front to tackle this problem of maternal ed people ,civil society grops and media can play a significant role yo improve the situation.Anjali Motghare rahul aggarwal riddhu To Insights, Sir pls give your views on how development is taking precedence over language in deciding the dynamics of states’ reorganization especially in the light of creation of separate Telangana and its effect on Indian polity and other such a lot for this site its of a great help.

One more request it will be very nice if your view on each question is provided following day because many times we students feel that we have answered nicely but the reality turns out to be again for your benevolent work.Anjali Motghare NIKS Sir you are doing commendable job by posting questions daily but can you please post more than 2 question say 3 or 4 from which 1 will be on current affair and other 2/3 on core syllabus of G.It will great if you post core syllabus question from previous year UPSC optional paper.on topic like “Effects of globalization on Indian society “(G.-1) question can be ask from sociology optional previous year papers.This trick will cover whole syllabus of General studies and aspirant will answer the question almost from every topic of syllabus.for such a great site which is helping a lot in UPSC preparation Thanks for your suggestion.

Yes, I am going through previous year optional papers question papers to get questions.Thing is I am framing them differently based on GS syllabus.Of the 38 questions posted so far, 35 are directly from the syllabus.About increasing the number of questions, I am planning to do it after 20th August.By the end of November, 90-100 % of the syllabus will be covered.

Only thing I request is active participation, informed discussion and exchange of ideas (one can devote 2 hours every day to write their answers and read others answers and comment on them – it is extremely useful) Looking forward to your active participation.Thanks for prompt reply and such a wonderful initiative of daily answer writing practice.

I will start writing,replying answers from today only… Abhishek Sharma a) Reducing maternal mortality by three quarters, and b) Improving acess to reproductive health.To achieve this goal the government fas initiated few measures among which NRHM and Janani Suraksha Yojna are important.Asha Goud Q When it comes to MDG 5, India’s record is poor.What are the measures taken by the government and private sector, if any, to fulfill MDG 5.Do you think apart from economic reasons, are there also sociological aspects that are hindering India’s efforts? Discuss.

A: The Millennium Development Goals (MDG)adopted by the United Nations General Assembly in 2000 unanimously aims at improving basic human development indicators ranging from poverty, education, health and environment.MDG 5 is improving Maternal health by taking actions to reduce Maternal Mortality Rate (MMR) by 75% of its value in 2000.The MDGs require a country specific solutions where developing countries are provided with financial support along with guidance by developed countries and international organizations.In India Government has initiated programs with general focus on health in addition to giving specific focus to maternal health.

ASHAs under the NHRM work at the village level spreading awareness about various importance issues relating to pregnancy like regular health check ups, institutional delivery, post delivery care and also use of contraceptives.

Janani Suraksha Yojana is a program specific to maternal health, promoting institutional delivery.It also has provision of cash incentive, transport facility and post delivery check ups.India has a MDG of reducing MMR to 109 per 100,000 live births.A slow decrease in MMR has been recorded.

In India the position of women in the society is very weak specially in rural areas.Families do not consider it important to take pregnant women for health check ups from time to time.Absence of roads, transport facility and a health centre in vicinity add to the problems.Therefore it is important that Government takes the help of NGOs, PRIs and other stakeholders to spread awareness about Maternal health and related issues.I think your answer lack the sociological prejudices that are hampering the maternal health.Absence of road , transport facilities are infrastructural and economic constraints.Further though families do not take their pregnant women for health checkups, there are human capability in the form of ASHA and ANM which provide door to door services and enumerate various vulnerable women who need special care.ASHA and ANM have been instrumental in bringing many women under the ambit of primary health care centres.The communism has its origin in 1920s with the formation of CPI by MN communist movement grew out of economic causes and targeted the propertied classes whether British or Indian.After Independence the growth is particularly driven by Land reforms and class struggle,.Later in 1960 it splits into CPI(M) which took violent overtone in the form of naxalism while other preferred democracy.After 1991 India opened its need for reforms in the wake of globalization became government eased its control by disinvestments ,FDI ,Free Trade and gh it created prosperity ,yet it failed to trickle down to marginalized sections of society and instead created classes by huge asymmetries in income this context the relevance of communism can’t be disputed.A large fraction of society is still underdeveloped and require state r the government as a trustee of natural resources which are public assets need more state control to prevent exploitation of these as recently happened in coal gate and RIL er there are critical sectors like agriculture which need to be protected from free market The present state of country suggest that reforms should be complemented with state regulations in public interest Anjali Motghare Nirmal, Split in CPI was because of Sino- Soviet issue.Differences were on to whom to support over border issue between two.Nirmal Singh Anjali Motghare Communism grown in India after Soviet revolution.formed Communist Party of India in 1920.There were efforts to organise people on Communist lines, first with the help of world Comintern but it failed, comrades were arrested as they entered India and charged with treason against Emperor.

It gained momentum after support of British wing of Communist Party take task into their hands.There were three trials Peshawar Conspiracy, Kanpur Conspiracy and Meerut Conspiracy, which helped CPI to gain some sympathy from people, even Congress leadership supported it.Emminet leader plead the trials on behalf of Communist Comrades.In thirties CPI gained some ground but in forties it completely lost as it supported British against 1942 QIM and as it put 17 Nation plan in front of Cabinet Mission.By taking inspiration from CPI there were many minor communist parties formed in India like Forward Block of SubhashChandra Bose, Revolutionary CSP, Bolshevik Party of India and the like.

In 1964 there arose differences within CPI over Sino-Soviet Border issue and split occurred and CPI(M) took birth.Till then to now CPI losing ground to CPI(M).After liberalization India opened up reforms but it doesn’t affected much to communist ideology.Both CPI and CPI (M) are still a national parties.In 2004 elections CPI(M) had 43 MP’s and CPI 10.

Due to leadership deficiency both reduced to CPI(M)16 and CPI 4 seats in 2009 elections.Communist ideology doesn’t declined, but the ineffective government in Kerala and West Bengal lost to other parties.In Tripura three Consecutive win of CPI(M) suggest ideology is still relevant where it delivers.If both CPI and CPI(M) bring relevant changes in Party structure and if lead by prominent leader then they can gain ground again.As we see post reform period gap between reach and poor is increasing, so communist ideology can take root in India.

riddhu cppcontrol When it comes to MDG 5, India’s record is poor.What are the measures taken by the government and private sector, if any, to fulfill MDG 5.Do you think apart from economic reasons, are there also sociological aspects that are hindering India’s efforts? Discuss.MDG is a visionary document with explicit result oriented approach to deal with the specific issues like hunger, poverty, infant and maternal mortality, prevention of spread of HIV/AIDS, TB and malaria and education for all children by the year 2015 along with gender equality and sustainable development.MDG5 specifically deals with maternal mortality ratio and proportion of births attended by skilled health professionals.

India’s aim to reduce MMR to 109 per 100000 live births by 2015 is still a challenge which is presently is at 252 per 100000 live births.Government schemes like NRHM, ICDS, Janani suraksha yojana has massive inputs in this regards.NRHM deals with improving the overall health services in the rural areas with easy and affordable access to health services, infrastructure development, additional health personal etc.Jannani Suraksha yojana provides for additional cash benefits for the pregnant women.

Private sector on the other hand has provided technological help with regards to information and communication.

Poverty and lack of proper information of the rural people are major reasons for India’s failure to meet the target.Proper drinking water supply and toilets are not available in rural households.Patriarchal society with gender inequality are few factors which adversely impact MMR.The birth of a girl child is seen as a burden in the society.Thus sociological factors impact our pledge to reduce MMR.

However, with rise in literacy rate and poverty the people would tend to become more aware of the issue.So schemes like SSA are a must and retention of girl child in school along with reduction of child girl marriage would lead to an improved environment in this regard.Institutions like PRI would have to play an important role in this effect.NGOs and SHG along with dedicated health workers like AHSA, ANMs play the most crucial role in reducing MMR in our country.Hey, i think the question does not demand the further steps needed to improve maternal health.

Poverty is one reason but the government is providing many benefits in the form of nutritional and economic support.Drinking water and sanitation cannot be considered as sociological stigmas faced by society Explain the growth of communism in India.Has it lost its relevance in the post liberalization era? Critically comment.Communism played an important role during the pre independence period in India.The CPI was formed after the triumphed of the Bolshevik revolution in Russia.

Jawaharlal Nehru and Subhas Bose were inspired by the socialist ideas.However, communists integrated into mainstream nationalist Congress to fight the British and formed the congress socialist party.Post independence, the CPI was soon split with a section aligning with CPI(M).Faction of CPI(M) followed a revolutionary path in the 70’s and formed the CPI(Maoists).The former two sections entered the mainstream politics of India while the latter followed an armed struggle.

This section has active support from China.Post liberalization saw a dramatic rise in the economic activity in this country which led to growth and development.However, many tribal regions in Chhattisgarh, MP, Jharkhand, AP has not seen this growth.In fact, these tribal regions are the most underdeveloped in the country.CPI(Maoists) or the Naxalites have seen this disparity and have continued their armed struggle against the administrative machinery.

With support from the masses, the Naxalists have threatened to overthrow the government inflicting heavy causalities.The problem has been the most crucial with regards to internal security of the country.Poverty and underdevelopment are the major causes of the growth of the naxalites.Proper developmental schemes to eradicate poverty, hunger, education, infrastructure, employment opportunities,land rights, inclusion of these people in the mainstream along with talks with the leaders of the group can help reduce their grievances.A holistic approach in resolving the problems related to these people is needed at this juncture.

However, armed struggle by the naxalites killing hundred of innocents can never be justified and the state should be engaged in dialogues as early as possible.NB Explain the growth of communism in India.Has it lost its relevance in the post liberalization era? Critically comment.Growth of communism in India can be traced back to freedom struggle in India.Bolshevik movement in Russia was inspiration to various groups to form communist party.

One of the earliest founder of communist party was MN Roy during 1920s.From 1935 communist party was working within Congress.But later during World War II they separated and joined Britishers in their war against Nazi.After Independence initially party took to violent recourse as it believed that India has not achieved true independence, however it was crushed and later on communist party abandoned violence in 1951.However in 1964, ideological rift between China and soviet Union led to split of party .

Pro Soviet faction was CPI and opponents formed CPI(M).Liberalization is antithesis to Communist ideology, which believes on classless society and socialism as a means to solution to problems of countries.Communist influence in India is restricted to few states in India.However it is noteworthy that where ever communists are ruling they are not completely committed to strict communist ideology.In current era liberalization and market model is practiced by communist ruled state as well.

Further it would not be justified to say that communism has completely lost relevance today because communism as ideology always have concern for weaker and poor section of society.This has been amply observed in various national issues where communist parties bring forth problems of poor section of society.These healthy debate give rise to enlightened and enriching democracy.

NB Sociological aspect of MMR in India 1.

Still faith and trust in modern day medical treatment has not come in certain areas because of backwardness, lack of education and awareness.Societal backwardness of women, still women has no autonomy on her body.High dominance of male in taking decision about women.This lead to delays and timely check up is not done.

rahul aggarwal 1)India has played a significant role in the reconstruction and rehabilitation of afghanistan .India’s commitment is reflected in the strategic partnership aggrement signed in India’s development assistance program now stands at around US $2 billion making India the 5th largest bilateral donor in Afghanistan.Afghanistan holds importance for India because of its strategic location, peace and stability in Afghanistan could ensure peace in entire south asia.India being a victim of terrorism and holding doubtful relations with Pakistan would like to ensure that terrorist outfits donot get a chance to grow again in afghanistan.

Afghanistan can also become transportation hub connecting south asia with central and west asia.The strategy of India in afghanistan after US exit should be of continuous engagement with afghan government and people.India should support all the efforts in the direction to strengthen democracy and to establish government institutions in Afghanistan.India should keep engaging with immediate neighbour’s of Afghanistan like Iran and Tajikistan on this issue as they can prove a great help to maintain stability in India can get access to afghanistan through alternative route(bypassing pakistan) through Chahbahar port of Iran.India should ensure that international community donot lose its focus on development process in Afghanistan after US exit.

Thus India can maintain good relations with afghanistan which would be beneficial for both the countries.The decision of US to withdraw its armed forces has aroused interest of policy in post 2014 scenario needs a comprehensive strategy considering its stake in Afghanistan First,India has huge strategic interests in recent signing of strategic partnership agreement is a welcome steps should be reinforced by building capacity through training of afghani r India need to involve international communities through institution like ADB,UN and countries like China,Russia so as to develop restrain for Pakistan through its involvement with Taliban through Al Qaeda as terrorism is global problem.Second,the economic stakes are high for India considering the fact that it has huge investments and projects like need to engage china as both stakes in investment are vulnerable due to lack of needs to be complemented by building trade relations with Afghanistan Third there is need for building democracy,which is in nascent requires building parliamentary institutional setup ,India can play a constructive role in this using its experience with democracy.Lastly the need for development social infrastructure cannot be overstated as it underpins all development and a important tool to resurgence of Taliban The primary role of India should be a facilitation not control unlike happened in Nepal and demands respect for will be win-win situation for both countries in the long run Ans India is facing many challenges to its internal and external security in the form of terrorism, insurgency, naxalism and cyber security threats etc.

Terrorism and insurgency is the most potent threat of these as they had been instrumental in nipping the democratic governments in bud and destroying the social and economic fabric of the countries.The causes of terrorism are mostly inconclusive though researches have pointed out that it may be due to social and political injustice, dehumanization, nationalism and separatism etc.These groups whether terrorist or insurgent enjoys ideological, religious or cultural etc affiliations.These threads are needed to be faced with iron hand as they stigmatize the people, disrupt normal life and destabilize the government, violate human rights and impede upon the freedom of people.The recent terrorist attacks in India pointed out the sad state of affairs in tackling such problems.

The main reason is the disjunction between intelligence agencies and local police.There is lack of information sharing and swift action and this deficit is used by terrorist to carry out their operation.Further India has a long boundary and porous borders and there is no close collaboration in averting terrorism and insurgency with neighbouring country except with Bangladesh.The military operation requires support from local people and they must be bought into confidence so that anti national elements do not find a hedge but because of certain draconian laws like AFSPA there is gross human rights violations and illicit killing which only ignite separatist tendencies.India has failed on most of fronts like curbing black money which are used to fund terrorist activities and providing alternative avenues like employment for youths so that they do not take up arms.

Lack of institutional mechanism like NCTC, close collaboration between centre and state and harmonization between intelligence agencies and local police have render the efforts of the government ineffective.India’s post 2014 Afghanistan policy depends upon on the status of the country.The vulnerable issues of Afghanistan include inter-ethnic disharmony, pervasive culture of militancy, radicalization, warlordism, rampant corruption, narcotic trafficking, and growing public apathy.On other hand it is trying level best for attaining development which is proved by: girls going to school, security situation is not bad, developmental activities by the aid of international community.

Security forces are able to defend from Taliban to some extent.US may leave some of its forces in afghan, how far the afghan security will be successful in suppressing Taliban activities draws importance, will western countries continue to aid, political changes that may occur, Taliban Pakistan relations, drug trafficking etc.Despite of all these countries like Russia china and Iran are coming front to negotiate with Afghanistan in post 2014.Expecting optimistic conditions India can drive its policy towards Afghanistan in the fields like infrastructure and agriculture development, institutional building, and health care education democratization etc.

Doctoral dissertation

If the security situation worsens it is better to take part in selective programme’s without involving in its political changes and often making dialogue with government regarding security.riddhu Q In your view, what should be India’s strategy in Afghanistan after the US exit from that country? Discuss.India has played a constructive role in promoting economic interaction with Afghanistan, both bilaterally and under the auspices of the Heart of Asia grouping of regional countries Where to order a dissertation energy conversion technology for me 3 hours 146 pages / 40150 words Editing single spaced.India has played a constructive role in promoting economic interaction with Afghanistan, both bilaterally and under the auspices of the Heart of Asia grouping of regional countries.

It has provided substantial development assistance, invested in a large number of small projects and a few large-scale infrastructure projects and has provided training to the Afghan army and along with China has won tenders for mining operations .India’s recent decision to renovate Chabahar Port in Iran is a demonstration of its long-term commitment here.

Most important is India’s security concerns are related to developments here.There are concerned about Afghanistan’s trajectory from 2014, when Western forces are reduced and elections are held.A few recent developments are disturbing major of them are clashes along the Durand Line appear to have intensified recently, and its relationship with Pakistan is strained again and USA’s recent tilting towards engaging Talibans in peace process and treating it on equal footing with democratically elected government which both India and Russia have vehemently opposed.So, India apart from continuing aid must insist on multiparty involvement in the issue and strongly involve other SCO members along with Russia and China who are also wary of fundamentalism here.

Anjali Motghare riddhu Thanks Anjali .

True, i unnecessarily written too much about India’s role till now and foucussed on recent incidents of some disturbance there as i thought security must be established there and as there is no dearth of funds development will follow if peace is , observing others’ answers i feel they have written very well and covered all the has made my answer only one aspect centric which can be fatal in exam.DINESH PATIL 2) India is fighting war on many fronts.Analyze the basic causes of terrorism and insurgency and the effectiveness of state response in dealing with these threats.ANSWER The recent attack on the Army convoy by militants in Srinagar, serial bomb blasts in Bodh Gaya, the brutal attack by CPI (Maoists) in Chhattisgarh’s Bastar District, and double bomb blast in Hyderabad were attacks on our democratic values and freedom to participate in economic, social and political activities.The causes of terrorism and insurgencies can be related to social, historical, cultural, religious, economic, and psychological aspects.

some of the important causes are: (A)Social: Dominance of territory or resources by various ethnic, linguistic, religious or cultural groups, social alienation, racial unrest or ethnical divisions, the differences based on caste, color, place and sex.(B)Political: Lack of equality, lack of political freedom, demands of autonomy, Suppressing a community, political exploitation and rule without representation.(C)Economic: the absence of land reforms, unemployment, exploitation of landless laborers, poverty and inequality, lack of education etc (D)Religious: misinterpretation of the religious ideologies and hate speeches by religious people, and discrimination and differences between various religions often results in real and perceived instances of misunderstanding and injustices.Steps taken by government to tackle terrorism and insurgencies are: 1.Enactment of laws such as, the National Investigation Agency (NIA) Act, Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Amendment (UAPA) Act and Armed Forces (Special Powers) Act (AFSPA) for effective prevention of unlawful activities against the integrity and sovereignty of India.

The Minister for Rural Development recently launched a new skill development scheme called “Roshni” for rural youth from 24 most critical left-wing extremism (LWE) affected districts.This initiative aims at skilling and placement of fifty thousand youth.Centralized monitoring System (CMS) is the new surveillance project which helps government to access phone conversations, SMS, mails etc to prevent possible attacks.

The employment generation scheme like “UDAAN” and “HIMAYAT” in the State of J&K.Sharing of intelligence through close and effective co-ordination among Central and State level agencies.Creation of four regional hubs (Mumbai, Hyderabad, Chennai and Kolkata) of National Security Guards (NSG) to cover the whole country.National Intelligence Grid or NATGRID envisaged to link data bases of several departments and ministry for creating actionable intelligence to combat terrorism.

is continuously assisting the North Eastern States by deploying Central Armed Police Forces to assist the State Police in their counter insurgency operations.In conclusion, government may not be fully successful in preventing terrorist activities, as a responsible citizen we can protect our country by not indulging in false propagation against others, by helping police with the information on unlawful activities and abiding by the rule of land to maintain necessary law and order.Thus, protecting and preventing our country from terrorism and insurgencies.

Hi dinesh, Your answer has crossed the word limit to the extent of 450 words.the question does not require you to enumerate steps taken by the government but a critical analysis and effectiveness of those steps DINESH PATIL Your answer is completely factual.When you are asked to analyze, you should give your views.Here, you should analyze what are the basic causes of terrorism, insurgency and why government’s measure are ineffective so far.And as Sahil pointed out, you have actually answered in more than double the word limit.

India is fighting war on many fronts against its external and internal security threats.Ethnic and religious causes, forcible inclusion of princely states, failure of government to control large scale immigrants, underdevelopment of a region for a longer period and disaffection towards government caused left wing extremism insurgency, and terrorism, Left wing extremism objective is to seize power of state through armed forces.They protest infrastructure development and further attract people saying states inability to develop.State response to curb LWE was not appropriate; they deployed forces against naxals but did not educate people and failed to allot rehabilitation packages to make them economically strong.

North east insurgency rooted at the times of British who used it as a buffer zone and developed Christianity and modern education.After independence people denied merging them into India feeling that they are separate racial group.Resulted ethnic insurgency and anti New Delhi.Strategy used was punishing them, forcible reallocation and military operation.Being a Hindu majority nation at the time of independence people of J&K felt they will be suppressed and demanded for independence.On denying Muslim organizations took to terrorism.State did not address their insecure feeling.Delayed responses concreted into communal riots.

Now at least state should come up with comprehensive strategy which makes the people strong minded unity and integrity as Indians.

Also it should convert nation to a stable and secured.Hi lakshmi, Your causes are in a very lucid way and nicely written but i think You overlooked the second part which demands you to analyse the effectiveness of government in tackling these menace.lakshmi prasanna You have content but structure is missing.lakshmi prasanna Anjali Motghare lakshmi prasanna Biman Ghosh 1) In your view, what should be India’s strategy in Afghanistan after the US exit from that country? Discuss The proposed US led NATO force’s exit in 2014 created much anxiety over the foreign policies of various countries including India, on addition,the recent developments in Afghan politics,like the reopening of Taliban office in Doha,American inclination towards Taliban,etc.produced enough reasons to make India wary.

India has invested almost 4 billion US$ in one of the biggest investments,that has been done by any country in such a huge investment in Afghanistan Indian diplomats have no options but to ensure the safety of investments,which is only visible if the country gets stable internally and politically.On the other hand,the Taliban also cleared its intentions by naming its office as “Islamic Emirates of Afghanistan”,to play a substantial role in Afghan politics in post US exit somehow the Taliban comes to power after 2014,it would be worse condition for India to continue its endeavors to bring prosperity and peace in that fact, it will be a setback for Indian diplomacy over ,India’s ultimate goal should be to keep Taliban away at arm’s length from Afghan politics.As India has advocated hard for democracy in should keep this policy on while addressing Afghanistan issue in international domain.Further, India should also consult With US and various international organisations,like UN,NATO,world bank,etc for help over building of a solid democracy government in Afghanistan.India can also tie-up with China,also a major investor in Afghanistan, over securities concerns on ongoing should also make efforts to train Afghan securities forces as much as possible so that Afghan forces be able to counter Taliban new elected govt.

in Pakistan also seems as a great ray of hope,if India could encash this should press hard to Pakistan for stop giving a platform to Taliban in turn of extending bilateral through extending solidarity with Iran, also can ensure the declination of Taliban roots in should play play multi- dimension diplomacy to be ensure the safety of Indian investments and Afghan diplomats should come up with massive diplomatic proposals to various neighbors of Afghanistan and ofcourse have to maintain the International co-opration over Afghanistan issue.Also, more than UN, NATO,role regional organizations must be emphasized.Biman Ghosh sir,perhaps answering questions within the given word limit a major problem we r need introduction as well as subject content with an impressive task….Kirthi Q In your view, what should be India’s strategy in Afghanistan after the US exit from that country? Discuss.In the aftermath of US exit, a peaceful and stable afghanisatan is is everyone’s interests and India should strive to achieve this.Any extremism in Afghanistan will have repercussion in Russia, china, India and is a threat to the region.It will lead to intensification of Uighur riots in xinjiang province which is not in interest of china.India must work for the future development in afghanisatan which must be afghan owned and afghan led within the framework of SCO shanghai cooperation organization of which India, afghanisatan and Pakistan are observers.

India should provide valuable guidance in the process of democracy and institutions buiding, India should take special steps to promte investments in afghan ( incentives to investors etc.), hasten the process of TAPI pipeline from which it will benefit, north south corridor, provide employment to the youth through investments.To prevent subversive elements in Pakistan from attaining strategic depth against India in Afghanistan, India must encourage civilian control over military in pak, work within SCO, and promote trade in the region and integrate all the economies in the region which will incentivize everyone and afghan because of its presence in geostratefic area will benefit from trade routes and transit fee,while at the same time participating in global efforts to mitigate terrorism.Development in Afghanistan is the only way to ensure Long lasting peace and india has enormous good will in afghan, india must promote trade in the region that hardwire economies in the region incentivizing everyone in afghan s development.Kirthi Should have included protecting indian investment, training afghan forces and a strict action against narcotic trafficking that funds subversive elements.

riddhu Insights, good answer by Kirthi.Sir you have said what it should not do in Afghan should also be , pls throw some light on what Ind should not do .India should not be tempted to fill the security vacuum created by the exit of US, i.It should not go alone in dealing with Afghan problem, take Pakistan on board too – to reduce the trust deficit.

It should not identify itself as supporting one faction as it did during Soviet invasion – deal with all stakeholders.(India supported Northern Alliance, which is now keen to make a come back and have India on their side) Should not aid militarily – just maintain the ‘enduring civilizational link’ through social, economical, cultural and educational aid/support – in the long term, these measures win the hearts of the people there.Also, none mentioned – BBs/ABC channel survey found that >80 % people favour India’s role and <8 % favour Pakistan's role in their country ( /2/shared/bsp/hi/pdfs/11 01 10 ) Should not use Afghanistan for launching broader regional aspirations.riddhu Kirthi India is fighting war on many fronts.

Analyze the basic causes of terrorism and insurgency and the effectiveness of state response in dealing with these threats.India is adversely affected by terrorism, Naxalism, regionalism ,communalism, secessionist movements etc.The reasons for terrorism are historical and failure of INC to effectively develop, propagate and ingrain in minds of people an effective critique of communalism that ultimately led to communalization of people and partition 1947, and India had been left with 500 odd independent princely states in its territory.Ineffective handling of Kashmir issue by UN, Pakistan claiming kashmir by nature of Muslim majority to be its own etc.Naxalism has been influence Mao Zedong ideology, to deal with inequality in society by violence and overthrow of govt.

which has attracted support of tribals, peasants, students etc.The apparatus against terrorism is weak evident from Mumbai attacks, where is no coordination between intelligence and police departments.The NCTC is an effective solution that has intelliigence gathering As well as operational responsibilities.

Intelligence gathering is a senstitive activity and coordination between central intelligence agencies (RAW,IB) and police hasn’t been effective and explais why it might assume some functions of state police,and to allay state fears, inclusion of DIG in standing council is a good step, and NCTC to be continued under IB( has intelliigence data over decades) and not to rebuild it separately.The proposed central monitoring system should be backed by privacy laws, or like in UK have bipartisan parliamentary oversight by committee and should be held accountable for their misdeeds to them and their expenditure, functionaries etc be controlled by parliamentary committee.( not just executive ) The only alternative to Naxalism is law and order And development, violent means cannot not be justified to attain just ends.Strengthening PRIs, truly empower them with funds, functions and functionaries, decentraliz based on principle of subsidiary, effectively implement 5 and 6 schedule provisions, respecting GP decisions in environmental clearances, including local people in the development of the region are some ways to lessen its influence.

Kirthi If terrorists can operate in harsh climatic conditions, then why not well trained and equipped soldiers? India should use International fora for creating a positive opinion on its efforts, instead we frequently watch on BBC only the human rights violation stories in J&K, not anything else.

Again, we can not educate youth across the border, but there are channels in diplomacy which can work behind the scenes to create camaraderie between the people of two nations.Once again, India should draw the attention of the world to the curricula that’s been taught in schools across the border.There are institutions at the international level to address these issues – we need tougher diplomacy.Anjali Motghare Afghanistan is strategic partner of India.It is important for India from many perspective, border plus internal security, link to central Asia, part of ring road which is potentially world energy supply chain extended neighborhood, Cross-Border Transport Agreement will ultimately connect East-Asia and Arabian Sea through Central Asia and shares historical ties with India.India is the fifth largest contributor in Afghanistan and invested in many fields; education, social upliftment health industry and the like.India succeeded in developing a feeling of gratitude in Afghan people.After US exit India will need to play important role, for its own concern and for Afghanistan’s stability also.

India should focus more on development work, as always people prefer development over terrorism and insecurity.On the economic sector India could help establish small and medium enterprises, alternate livelihood programmes.More stress could be on to implement development programmes to address poverty, illiteracy and systemic administrative dysfunction Help Afghan forces in training to counter insurgency as it has to play more proactive role in building the capabilities of the Afghan security sector.Stress for national dialog over transparent and fair election process.It would need to engage present Afghan government and other political groups to ensure free and fair elections.

AS we can’t expect what will be the exact scenario after US troops withdrawal, India need to utilize a range of diplomatic, military, and economic tools and set clear policy markers to sustain the democratic order and deny the space for the return of the extremists.The short term projects could be training of the Afghan National Security Forces (ANSF), particularly its officer corps, the police, paramilitary, and the air force, and also helping to build the justice sector.Long term project could be security sector reform and building sound civil-military relations for preventing the disintegration or loss of civil control of the army.India has done lot in Afghanistan and if to ensure it doesn’t get lost it needs to act on range of available option to help Afghanistan emerge as a sovereign stable and prosperous nation.Asha Goud Q In your view, what should be India’s strategy in Afghanistan after the US exit from that country? Discuss.

A: The location of Afghanistan is at the heart of Central Asia.Instabilty in Afghanistan will eventually spread to the neighbouring countries.Russia, China, India and Pakistan have a huge stake in keeping Afghanistan clear of insurgencies.India has a Strategic Partnership Agreement with Afghanistan.With areas of co operation ranging from security, trade and economic, education, development.

India has made commitment to provide $2 billion developmental assistance.Therefore India has focused on providing humanitarian and development assistance and largely kept away from getting directly involved in the fight against the armed struggle.In the current scenario when USA is looking for options to get out of Afghanistan as soon as possible it becomes imperative for India to develop Afghanistan Strategy from security perspective.India rejected President Hamid Karzai’s request for providing lethal arms to fight Taliban.However military assistance is very important for keeping the Taliban and al Qaeda under control in the region.

For this India should collaborate with other stakeholders in the region and develop a strategy with co operation.At the same time India should keep its main focus on developmental assistance as even after the long drawn war since 2001 USA and the NATO are still not successful in controlling the insurgencies.Real answer to the region is development and integration of the nation in the region which has been long left out.Asha Goud Q India is fighting war on many fronts.Analyze the basic causes of terrorism and insurgency and the effectiveness of state response in dealing with these threats.

A India is a unique country that houses large scale diversity in terms of diversity geography, people, culture, religion bound together by historical reasons.At present India is facing problem of terrorism funded by outside to destabilse the country and several insurgencies from within like the naxal movement or the insurgencies in north east with demands varying from separate statehood to demands for independence.To effectively counter these internal security problems it is very important to understand the nature of problem.Left wing extremist movement has developed in certain backward regions of many states.This movement rejects the authority of government, for government has failed them.

Government’s initial approach was to control the movement by using force, however it only further accentuated the insurgencies.Therefore the right approach would be to increase development in affected regions.The Integrated Action Plan initiated by government with focus on development.In the North East, there are demands for separate states, more autonomy or complete independence based on the argument that the region is distinct from the rest of India and also isolated and largely neglected.Political integration along with development should be focus in this region.

The Jammu and Kashmir region has its unique problem of demand for independence and cross border terrorism.J&K already has been provided with special constitutional status.The main problem is lack economic development and employment.India should strengthen its intelligence gathering institutions like RAW and IB to control the cross border terrorism.

A pan India intelligence sharing mechanism should be in place like the envisaged NCTC and NATGRID.

Anjali Motghare Asha u explained insurgency locations but missed root causes of it and terrorism.With that u haven’t dealt with states effectiveness.Kirthi Asha Goud Thank you Kirthi and Anjali for your feedback.The specter of terrorism and insurgency are haunting India and are one the biggest challenge India is facing are born out of different concerns with spatial and temporal variations and need through investigation.Terrorism started out in India during 1990s in Jammu & Kashmir is deeply rooted in ideological extremism with support of state is further influenced by historical reasons like boundary disputes, an is supposed to be source of all forms of terrorism directed towards since Partition of India, 3 Indo-Pak wars and later liberation of Bangladesh Pakistan has changed its response by sponsoring Terrorism.

Insurgency has multidimensional root causes like Ideological issues non inclusive development ,lack of political representation,social injustice,government policies and political example Naxalism is influenced by communism ,insurgency in NE India owes to separatist movements.Government has responded to insurgency by deploying Paramilitary forces,salwa judam and building social infrastructure like schools ,hospitals but seems to be of little use as evident from recent Maoist attack and extra judicial is need for shift by switching to more effective solutions like granting 6th schedule status for self governance,right based approach,The recent initiatives to build mobile towers and creation of special groups for negotiations is a welcome step.The India has been a soft state when it comes to terrorism.The recurrences of terrorist attacks is direct testimony to failure of situation is further worsened by enacting anarchic laws like POTA,TADA,AFSA and ineffective money laundry Act.The efforts to solve coordination problems by formation of NTC and NATGRID is in doldrums due to widespread of the hour is to exercise counter diplomacy complemented by vigilant inner security.

Anjali Motghare India has fighting war on many fronts.Neighborhood threat of war, Cross border terrorism, internal Maoist insurgency, fake currency, communal conflict, drug peddling, energy security, food security and pandemics.National security is a complex spider web and each strand of this web is connected to other strands.Terrorism and insurgency is a act of violence that targets civilians to overawe a legally constituted government and people in the pursuit of political or ideologiacal aims.The root cause of terrorism are manifolfd.

There are environmental factors responsible for terrorism and insurgency.Grievances such as social, political, or economic, with their nature of being real, or imagined, just or unjust, motivate people to resort to terrorism against those who holds power.There are ideological factors, terrorist claim themselves “true believer” possessed by will to better society through radical and revolutionary techniques.For Marxist-Leninists-Maoists targets are always the upper rich classes, for nationalists, the targets are always the colonialists, for the religious extremists, the targets are always people of belonging to other religion.Psychological/socio-psychological- analysts says some of who join terrorism are mentally disturbed, having imbalanced brain.

Some join for a thrill, some to earn money, some to defend their religion or community.Opposing cultures, being in conflict over a period, result in terrorist activities.In the Indian context measures to combat terrorism are failed to act as deterrent.Constantly after certain gap India witnessed terrorist or Maoist activity like bomb blast, or mass troops killing.

Recentaly Bastar attack and Bodh-Gaya blast.To overcome terrorism national as well as international support is nt intelligence agency, high class police force with ultra modern weopons and technolgy are institutional requirement.Economic and regional imbalances would have to be minimized.Citizens need to stop providing assistance to them, instead support administration to curb the menace.Communal harmony is another essential requirement to counter terrorism and insurgency.

Elaborate?? – “environmental factors responsible for terrorism and insurgency.” “For Marxist-Leninists-Maoists targets are always the upper rich classes” – what about Police? Colonialists? – “the targets are always the colonialists,” (difference between imperialism, colonialism?) You should structure your answer well.Also, should think if certain phrases are really necessary? (to stick to word limit) Anjali Motghare You are very right, I agree with you Insight, actually i failed to differentiate between insurgency and terrorism.I was short of knowledge and thinking on the issue but I don’t wanted to give up so I wrote it.Anjali Motghare Insight please kindly guide me on the, how to structure answer well it will be very kind of you.self preparation, so many concepts of mine regarding answer writing are not clear.Except that question your answers are good.

I will write a separate article on answer writing in 2-3 days.One quick tip is – read the question many times.If you can do this better then your answer will be organized.

Please keep writing no matter how you write now.After few days you will wonder at your own answers – they will be lot better.🙂 NB 1) In your view, what should be India’s strategy in Afghanistan after the US exit from that country? Discuss.Afghanistan has civilization links with India.

Being geographically very close to us whatever happens their affects India.United States have gradually decided to exit from their after more than a decade of presence there.In spite of US led forces Taliban is mighty power in Afghanistan today.India has reason to worry because once again Taliban can control Afghan, which will be detrimental to peace in the region.India has already stated that any stability in Afghanistan is possible only by Afghan led and Afghan owned process.

Before US exit, India need to convince US about danger of collaborating with Taliban.Extremist forces are required to be curbed.India should start making sincere effort to convince other major international players about this sense of urgency.India further should continue its development role in Afghanistan, which will develop trust with people of Afghanistan.Further India should also collaborate with Pakistan as well.

which is closest neighbor of Afghanistan.After exit of US it would be prime responsibility of other stakeholders to help in reconstructing Afghanistan peacefully and defeating extremist forces.Indian foreign policy therefore must be aggressive to convince international players to sideline Taliban and led the development in Afghanistan by their own people.P After 9\11,US government knew what terrorism is? Later NATO led ISAF( International Security Assistance Force) forces were sent to Afghanistan to dismantle terror base and made it free from terrorist’s ,US and other have decided that they will withdraw their forces in 2014 and therefore whole world and specially India and neighbouring countries are more worried about Afghanistan’s future.

India has given assistance to Afghanistan in two ways, 1)Financial assistance for development project inside Afghanistan.and 2)Training provided to Afghan army so that they could maintain law and order in their country.After 2014,though US led western forces withdraw from Afghanistan but that will not be the complete US influence is not going to end,it will minimize to some ore, what India has to do is that it should continue and take steps forward on development and other assistance programme to increase it’s influence in Afghanistan and through Afghanistan to other central Asian countries.While doing this India should work closely with other stakeholders like Pakistan,Iran,US and other for overall development of close cooperation is important because whenever India act independently,Pakistan see it as a sign of threat to it’s own position in that near future when India’s need of energy will increase many fold, such close cordial relation can only bring desired result from different projects like TAPI ,IPI etc.Today,when India is diversifying it’s export destination, Afghanistan and other central Asia countries will provide good market in future if India take right steps at present.

Biman Ghosh 2)India is fighting war on many fronts.Analyze the basic causes of terrorism and insurgency and the effectiveness of state response in dealing with these threats.In entire south Asia,India is one of the countries,which is facing terrible form of terrorism on all of it’s fronts-be it extremism insurgency,cyber terrorism or internal naxalism country is busy to tackle this menace at all fronts.The different kind of terrorism has different extremism insurgency is the result of growing hostile attitude of our rival neighbors ,especially Pakistan and play the card of insurgency and carry out massive terror attacks across the a kind of dog warfare against India with less cost,yet effective.Lacking in cooperation among the intelligence agencies and security forces has been largely responsible to counter such geographical landscapes of Indian borders further increases it.

Thogh,the govt has taken a number of installation of HD cameras across the border,forming high Mountain strike corps along Indo-China border yet the less faith of border people over Indian security forces make such measures less fact,they make the situations ripe for infiltration.cyber-terrorism is a new form of challenge,in front of Indian security recent years it causes considerable harm to our country in form of loosing sensitive information.These information can paralyze our important sectors,like banking,civil aviation,power,etc.and that’s why they launch offensives at such a large scale.fails to prevent such cyber g of trained manpower can be held as a chief have very less cyber experts in compares to the US and techniques can also play a vital role to tackle this,which we don’t 40 billion US$ is our defense budget,even in which only a tiny part goes for cyber financial constraints remain in front of defense establishment of NATGRID and enacting the National Cyber Security Policy(NSCP) 2013 are of some good steps towards it.Our country remains largely vulnerable to various kind of terrorism right from its have to come up with very innovative and constructive ideas to tackle this menace.Biman Ghosh sir,this quisition deserve to get answer atleast 300 to word constraint i had to cut a substantial part of ans.regarding internal terrorism and govt endeavors.i wrote the answer considering the external terrorism…pls clear my doubt…thanks Good that you mentioned cyber terrorism too.

But you have spent lot of words on this alone.Answer should encompass all the forms of terrorism and insurgency, and more importance should be given to threats that are considered detrimental to nation as a whole.i was dilemma in this e i did not know which one to write and which one to r lot of issues,Cyber terrorism,Infiltration,regional insurgency,extremism,left wing movements,etc…its a tough task to write a balance anser within for ur as usual great off to u.abhishek 1)The statement was made by a famous journalist in a conference which became a reason of protest by the backward communities against this biased comment.

First of all the comment is a biased one which links corruption with certain communities .The comment is irresponsible as the corruption and honesty doesnot characterize any community and they are individual attributes and attempt to generalise them is a direct infringement on the right of equality and right to live with dignity guaranteed by our constitution to every citizen of the have various cases of honest person from backward castes and a dishonest person from a higher classes ,thus any generalisation on this aspect must be avoided.The second part which says as long as it is the case indian democracy survives,puts a question mark on the socio-economic situation of the country whether equal oppurtunities to grow are provided to each and every section of society or the backward society still feel alienated due to lack of social status .But this aspect of statement is also wrong and supportive of a wrong trend of using wrong means to remove backwardness.

The statement also can’t appreciate the various steps taken by the government to improve the situation of backward also ignores that in the present times there has been a significant improvement in the social status of backward classes ,many of whom have reached to positions of prime minister ,president,speaker of lok sabha and cheif ministers etc.

Thus on every aspect this statement is irresponsible and have the potential of disrupting the ever increasing feeling of unity and is far from reality .Ans Doctrine of basic structure was evolved by Supreme Court in Keshwanand Bharti Case in 1973 and held that certain principles cannot be amended by parliament under any circumstances.They are outside the purview of amending power of parliament and any law enacted to bypass those principles will be declared null and void.Of late, political executive contended that a parliament is the representative of the people and therefore has the power to amend any provision of constitution according to will and welfare of people.In India, unlike Britain, Constitution and not parliament is supreme, Even the parliament has to work under the provisions of constitution and shall not trespass its mandate.

Supreme Court held that basic structure include supremacy of constitution, sovereignty, democratic and republican nature of India polity, secular character of constitution, separation of power between 3 organs of government etc.All these features are intrinsic for a democratic, secular setup which is free to exercise in its own capacity.Any political interference for short term gains can jeopardize the security and peace of the country and may compromise the freedom and rule of law.Many features like sovereignty is necessary for maintaining independence from any foreign pressure, secular character is indispensable for maintaining communal harmony and a sense of brotherhood and fraternity while republic character talks about democratic head of state, separation of power brings about a sense of stability in political, judicial and social life and prevent clash of interest of various organs.Unity and integrity is necessary to counter nay external threat and for the prosperity and welfare of the people.

Any legislation which impede upon these provisions must be dealt with iron fist because compromise on the democratic and sovereign credentials may give rise to internal colonialism, suppression of freedom, gross human right violations.Hence in order to encapsulate, doctrine of basic structure in no way impeded upon parliamentary supremacy rather it substantiated democracy and rule of law and accelerated free, fair and participative parliamentary arrangement.Parliament is still the sole authority to enact laws but it must not act malafide and in biased manner.riddhu The basic structure doctrine is an embargo upon the Parliamentary supremacy”.(300 words) The prudence of our constitution makers lie in crafting fine balance among the three pillars of our democracy: Parliament, Executive and Judiciary.Certainly the parliament is more visible in its functions as it consists of people directly elected by the people of India or representatives chosen by such elected persons.Yet, the parliament is neither supreme nor sovereign like that of Britain due to written constitution, federal nature of polity, fundamental rights and of course judicial review.This makes our parliament to work under boundary and whenever it has tried to cross it judiciary has come to halt it.After a huge debate and judgments over years which provisions or part of the constitution parliament can amend especially with respect to wrangle between supremacy of fundamental rights and directive principles of state policy ,the judiciary through its doctrine of basic structure of constitution as laid down in Keshavananda Bharti case(1973) clearly said that constitutional power of parliament under Article 368 does not allow it alter the basic structure of the constitution.

The echoes of this doctrine were further reiterated in Minerava Mills case (1980) and Waman Rao case(1981).Though the doctrine is not specifically defined, through various judgments : the supremacy of the constitution, secular and federal nature of our polity, judicial review, free and fair election, welfare state, rule of law, principle of equality, independence of judiciary, unity and integrity of nation are laid as basic structure of constitution and hence must not be tempered with.The doctrine has strengthened the roots of democracy.It is through this doctrine court has rejected president rule when imposed on ingenuine grounds or continued by promulgating ordinances and thus not holding elections; banned communal manifestoes; preserved principle of judicial review ( 42nd Amendment Act 1976) and thus has prevented parliament from being reckless especially when one party rule prevails.Asha Goud However the answer did not mention what the Basic Structure Doctrine was.

In the Keshwanand Bharti case the Supreme Court gave the basic structure doctrine.According to the doctrine there are certain basic features of the constitution which cannot be altered by an amendment in the constitution.A act of altering the basic structure would be equivalent to enacting a new constitution.Also supreme court has identified Judicial review as a basic structure, therefore final word regarding deciding constitutionality remains with the supreme court.Anjali Motghare lakshmi prasanna The issue is caste of corruption.

The fact is that most of the Indian population is from under caste communities so chances of forming majority corrupt are natural.Trouble shooting point is looking corruption based on caste.Even people of upper cast people are violating their professional ethics but most of the times bottom of social pyramid are involved.Reasons for this are their socio-economic status which includes Economically privileged upper caste is able to develop social network system, where as disadvantaged lower caste lack in it.For using network system and for getting things done they need money, later it is called as corruption but upper caste used network directly in place of money which is not called as corruption.

Also as network is in their hands protected well from expose.Social groups long term subject to humiliation, dignity politics often trump good governance.So it is seen in politics lower caste people get elected with votes of their caste.After election they get exposure to the whole group and grasp self esteem and dignity.Similarly feels all these years the upper caste looted public money now it’s our turn, leads to corrupt.

In a survey of politician corruption in 102 legislative jurisdictions in Uttar Pradesh, where caste-based polarization in voting behavior increased between 1980 and 1996, show a decline in the quality of the politicians who win.They find clear evidence of a trade-off between caste loyalty and quality of politicians.Again lokpal bill is opposed by most of the minority politicians because they afraid of mass movements, particularly when these are led by upper classes because of threat from them.Finally government to maintain equity used strategy like reservations which failed to serve the purpose.So quick steps are needed which develops them from socio-economic disadvantages Hi lakshmi, The issue is about corruption of caste and not caste of ly , i am not able to derive any relation between the question asked and your evaluation.

You have diverted completely from your answer and went on to talk about politicization of caste and casteisation of politcs.i think you should follow this link and understand the basic idea behind the remark and its implication.Even i refereed to this article to understand the topic lakshmi prasanna thanks for this keen observation.most of the cases politicians do involve in bigger scams and there comes the caste of the person and i tried to mention reasons for disparities in involvement You are not required to mention the political aspect of caste rather how reservation has led to mobility in social ladder throw sanskratisation.

The corruption of higher caste in invisible , while that of lower caste is visible as they have not learned the basic tenets on how to mould the truth in their favour.

Corruption is all pervasive in Indian society.Further as long as reservation is provided in employment and education and as it will provide opportunity to hitherto marginalized and socially deprived sections to be a part in policy formulation, increased assertiveness, it will avert any social revolution or caste mobilisation , Indian republic will survive.Asha Goud Q “It is a fact that most of the corrupt come from the O.s and the scheduled caste and now increasingly the scheduled tribes.And as long as this is the case, the Indian republic will survive.(300 words) A: The prevalence of caste can be traced to 3000 yrs back in history to the Vedic times.Caste was associated with the occupation.

However to maintain power and position in the society certain caste declared themselves as superior and created a hierarchy of caste.The higher caste exploited the lower caste since then.To ensure that the exploitation is brought to an end the Constitution of India identifies the backward castes and tribes as Scheduled Caste (SC) and Scheduled Tribe (ST) and provides for reservation of certain proportion of seats in public employment and educational institutes.The given statement mentions scheduled caste, scheduled tribes and OBCs along with corruption in the same breath.Corruption refers to an act of abuse of authority for personal gains.

Motive behind the act of corruption is to gain money and power.An act of corruption is always condemned but not necessarily the corrupt person.Acceptance or rejection of a person in Indian society is based on the caste of the person and his economic status in society, where caste is the major determining factor.The above statement tries to make an argument that the SCs, STs and OBCs are increasingly committing acts of corruption to gain a position of superiority in terms of money and power as it would provide them acceptance in the society.

Also acceptance received in such a way would strengthen the framework of Indian republic.However what the statement is trying to put across is highly unjustifiable.Firstly because it labels the SCs, STs and OBCs as the people who are most likely to be corrupt.Therefore questioning the integrity of the whole community on no ground whatsoever.Secondly it tries to justify the acts of corruption on the grounds that it would help achieving equality in society.

Therefore such statements should be not be made which is directed towards a community and puts them in bad light.Asha Goud riddhu really nice answer asha as you have logically linked past beliefs with present ideology which even some well learned people are afflicted with.Anjali Motghare Anjali Motghare Basic Structure Doctrine evolved out of two circumstances, one Parliament started amending constitution to often, and two SC shifted its stance in Prasad Singh Deo vs Union of India, Sajjan Singh vs State of The State of Rajasthan and in Golknath vs The State of Punjab cases.In Keshavnanda Bharti case SC pronounced that the Parliament could not distort, damage or alter the basic features of Constitution under the pretext of amending power, is called as Basic Structure Doctrine.In India SC is the guardian of Constitution.

So it can strike down the law which is contrary to Constitution.As per my view Basic Structure doctrine protects the essential features of Constition.Till now if we observe, sovereign, democratic and secular character of polity, rule of law, independence of the judiciary, fundamental rights of the citizens, etc.are some of the essential features of the Constition that have only appeared in the Supreme court’s pronouncements.Instead many a times in Parliament ruling party with majority, amended Constitution to its fervor like Indira Gandhi’s election validity, so its necessary there should be some authority to keep check on government to save Constitution from misuse.

Constitution does have some essential features which cannot be taken away.Article 13 itself defines some features related to Fundamental Rights.Which is also amended by Parliament to give effect DPSP.Though SC evolved Basic Structure doctrine, it doesn’t struck down valid and essential amendments under the doctrines pretext.Parliament is a sovereign body and it possesses right to amend the Constitution under Article 368.

It can amend any part to give effect DPSP, and SC held valid such amendments, nationalization of banks and the like which are for welfare measures.Yet there is no case where SC arbitrarily used Basic Structure Doctrine to invalidate it cannot be said that Basic Structure Doctrine is embargo on Parliaments Supremacy.riddhu To Insights, Sir, as basic structure doctrine is hot favourite question of Upsc pls give your views on the question you have asked.simran Its fact that most of the corrupt come from the obc, sc and st.And as long as this is the case the indian republic will survive? ANS before strt i would like to give a light on such topic which related to the caste i.

e caste is only thing due to which we alwys fought and if we fond ratio i.e 99% about the fight or any corrupt think which was going on only bcz of caste.Before i said any thing u told me why always caste and religion too comes in our way? Why ? We r democratic we have a right to vote to anyone .indirectly we select the ministers nd they have always a topic which related to the caste and religion bcz they know well that our weakness, they know we ready to fought with each other on name of caste and religion.

Even none of them talking about poverty line of people who dont get food for whole day they alwas have topic regarding quotes, reservation , why this if u want to give a benefit for poor peoples provide the facility who belows the poverty line instead of provoking people regarding castes and religion.

We all r human nd we all created by god its up to us what we say who create us god , allah, jessus its all upto us .When our creator who create each and every thing if he dont many any diff in us so why we, only bcz we get profit wid dat.We dont know who create these caste or religion but whom ever create this its not creation its a destruction of human being, bcz caste and religion is only thing which create distruction either in form of terrorism or in form of blasting or in any form.Ambedkar whoes broke in night and no one knows that who was behind that and as a result there is rally by people and conclusion by them is its done by opposion.May be wat ever they think that true but if they r wrong then? May be ruling party done that work so? But directly and indirectly conclusion is caste nd religion comes in humanity way??? And saying this that indian republic survive bcz of caste so my perception is its a false satement bcz we all know well dat caste is not a problem , problem is corruption.Why sonia gandhi and rajiiv gandhi always do work at the time of election why the bill which was gives by aana hzare only pass rajay sabha, not it goes to lok sbha why? Why only at the time of election there is reduction in rate of food grain why? Why rajiv gandhi elected whereas our constitution say any person have criminal record not stand for election so why law not act on rahul gandhi why? Why Mr.Kalam aor former president not again make president even he is done best work regarding there time period.

So i just wnt to say blame on caste and religion is not way we all knows well the real reson behind all this is corruption either its a issue of survival of imdian republic or a corruption of person simran Thknss simran There is some mistake by me in ansering above ques is at place of rajiv gandhi there is mame of rahul gandhi Simran, I appreciate you for trying to answer this question.Please read related articles on the question given.You should never mention names of political leaders or give opinion on political parties in the UPSC main exam.As Sahil pointed out, you are asking the evaluator more questions than answering the main question.

Take your time, read well, form an unbiased opinion and answer the question.Keep trying – initially we all committed the same mistake.Biman Ghosh 2)“The basic structure doctrine is an embargo upon the Parliamentary supremacy”.(300 words) The “basic structure doctrine” of constitution was coined by the Supreme court of India during the hearing of Keshavnanda Bharti(1973) ing to this doctrine the supreme court held some part of our constitution as absolute rigid,like,the Preamble,DPSP,the status of Supreme court, cannot be amended by any kind of legislation.

the supreme court was convinced enough that these parts of constitution are very essential structure and imperative to keep the original philosophy and right spirit of our people,which was envisaged by our constitutional makers for this basic structure of our constitution reflects the original vision of our country.Though,in most of the parliamentary governments across the world, parliament supremacy remains, but in India,under this doctrine,the SC prevents any amendment in this basic structure that can tilt the real vision and philosophy of the constitution and ultimately can have averse effects over the functioning of has been created by taking into account all the future potential political SC wants the govt.to be bonded with the moral and real principles of our constitution forever and act as per our constitution allows it to is in fact, to tame the wild horses of .The point to be noted is that, the SC held only that part as “basic structure”,which is either philosophical in nature, which guides the government while formulating policies for country or the guardian in nature,which is very necessary to guard the basic vision and to justify the acts of government in entire also secure the source of constitution from where it had been derived.

Thus,all together the SC ensured the well functioning of democracy as well as preserving the principle values and philosophies of our constitution by defining the basic structure of the or less,its an embargo over the parliamentary supremacy.i think i have critically analyze the question rather than comment on there is no option for delete the thoughts,so i had to continue with the same give ur opinion.Biman Ghosh another query…in quistion to critically comment is it neccessary to give a introduction of that topic?.pls clear lakshmi prasanna Desertification as defined by UNEP in 1992 and adopted by UNCCD is a process of land degradation in arid, semi-arid and dry sub humid areas from various factors including climatic various factors including climatic variations and human activities.

According to the recent report submitted by ministry of environment to UN one fourth of Indian geographical area is undergoing desertification despite of combat measures.The causes of desertification are: change in frequency and amount of rainfall, reduction in vegetal cover, wrong agricultural management practices, cultivation on marginal lands, over-exploitation of the natural resources, excessive grazing, incorrect irrigation practices causing build up of salt in soil etc.Environmental consequences: Soils in arid and semi-arid regions tend to be fragile, with topsoil relatively thin compared with regions with more rainfall.Loss of topsoil is both a cause and a consequence of desertification.While over-farming removes organic matter from the soil, removing tree cover and overgrazing reduce the amount of organic matter that gets returned to the soil.

As soil becomes depleted, it becomes more prone to erosion.Desertification also leads to increased flooding during heavy rains, as land fails to absorb water, further increasing erosion problems.Erosion in turn threatens remaining plant life.Human consequences: Desertification tends to occur in areas with high levels of poverty.As land becomes less productive, human societies experience higher levels of poverty, food insecurity, water scarcity and disease.

As agricultural yields drop or water becomes more scarce, poor communities often react by increasing the over-exploitation of remaining resources.As environmental degradation progresses and human communities become more desperate, crises can develop, including famine, wars and mass migrations.Steps to combat include controlling wind erosion, sand dune stabilization, shelter belt plantation, management of permanent pastures and range lands etc.Ashish Nirmal Singh India constitution provides for welfare of poor through directive policies and assumes right to food (Right to Life) as fundamental implement the same government initiated PDS.

Being the biggest food distribution programme in the world,it has widest reach and has been proved instrumental in securing the food needs of poor section of data suggests that states like Tamilnadu & Himachal Pradesh shown a decrease in poverty levels due to robust PDS r it has hedged poor from fluctuation of free market and has ensured economic and social growth in rural areas by allocating Fair Price Shops to SHGs and other less privileged sections of society.The same is not immune to ,except rice and wheat other important items like pulses and oil are left out of its ambit causing ly the targeting criteria is somewhat ineffective leaving a substantial number of BPL families out of its preview .The related issue is use of Aadhar cards and other bio-metric methods to provide access without ensuring it has been more of a entitlement rather than right on the part of recent decision to give legal effect to the same through food security ordinance is a welcome the leakages and corrupt practices by diversion of food to free market made it food provided has been of abysmal Quality widely used in Mid day meals programme and ICSD.In spite of its deficiencies,it has proved a milestone in ensuring food security and require a makeover .

The suggestions of food coupons with inflation indexation,use of ICT,smart cards deserve need of the hour is give force to reforms lest it becomes too late.

Hey Nirmal, Right to food is not the only imperative of PDS system and right to consumer goods is the hallmark of PDS system.Further pulses are provided through fair price mechanisms though in a very less quantity.It provide wide ranging good like kerosene , coal, and in some cases ,even cloths at subsidized price.Thirdly Aadhar card is poised to bridge the loopholes and better tagetting by Ensuring accessibility and affordability which are the working tenets of PDS (“The related issue is use of Aadhar cards and other bio-metric methods to provide access without ensuring availability”).The issue is not availability as India has enough food grain production Fourthly, mid may meal is provided by FCI and not PDS.

Nirmal Singh Dear Sahil, I appreciate you Input .I need to clarify here few ,here ‘availability’ is referred not to food grains but to to availability of Aadhar cards which still a substantial chunk of population is lacking .Further Aadhar card has inherent weaknesses.Second i was talking in wider context of malnutrition when referred to absence of diverse basket of different food items apart from wheat and rice, so giving clothes ,coal, kerosene will do no good in this right to consumer good can also exercised in free market but special purpose of PDS is to feed poor section of society not because of legal consumer rights but their inalienable right to life .The former can be revoked but latter can’t be as it is recent food security ordinance will give legal affect to the same I thank you for correction for mid day meal point which as you said is definitely right and it is good to see a healthy discussion going on and hope to continue it…………….

Hi Nirmal, You mentioned in your answer that other food items like pulses and oil are left out from the ambit of system.There is diversification of food items(Even the Food security bill talks about providing wheat, rice, “pulses” to people through PDS only).You are right that Aadhar cards are not available but still in many parts there is use of ration card and Aadhar card distribution should be given enough time to cover entire population.How can right to consumer goods can be exercised in free markets?Kerosene is regarded as poor man’s fuel and giving them food without providing them the energy security that is required to cook the food will render the very purpose of PDS flawed.

If you mean to say that it can happen through new institutional framework, then that will add a new layer of agencies that again would be required to be strengthened.PDS is not a food distribution system(FDS) but Provision of Diversified Services.By the way, thanks for your reply and clarifying your stand on most of the things.One more point, don’t you think that substantial procurement of food grains from the market by government for PDS has led to escalation of prices in the retail market.

MSP for wheat is 1350 but we are getting it at more than 2000.MSP for pulses is around 3200 per quintal but in market , the price of 1KG of pulses cost a whopping rs 80/- which will be around 8000 per quintal.Nirmal Singh Thanks for timely reply,Consumer rights are best practiced in perfect market i.free market but in PDS two things are missing First,poor have no choice but to take whatever government has to offer .There is only entitlement under monopolistic government but no right .Second the grievance readdressal mechanism in PDS is too weak to address the is no effort whatsoever to improve food say PDS is Pirated(food) Distribution system(must mention here,you have good creativity with abbreviations!) would not be an exaggeration.Moreover I am not against inclusion of non food items like kerosene which as you rightly pointed out is essential for energy security but i am more concerned with non inclusion of other food items namely millets like Ragi ,Bajra.Also you mentioned pulses and oil are included,if that is the case why there is widespread malnutrition?.

Except few states like Tamilnadu, Himachal and now Chattisgarh,pulses is not a priority for majority of states .Further I am not in favor of new institutional mechanisms but use of technology like ICT with universalization of PDS can be a progressive will prevent unnecessary diversion.As regard to you last question ,PDS is not major reason for price escalation in free market .The rising cost of inputs like fertilizers (produced from natural gas ) ,inflation,middleman,better price by Agro processing companies like chips manufactures are main culprits here Universalization of PDS through Food Security law can be good step here.Good Morning Nirmal, See free market principles and PDS are contradictory to each other as latter has a socialist tilt while former is capitalist imperative.

Further providing choice to the poor to have access to all kinds of consumer goods and food grains at subsidized cost will put huge burden on fiscal management and will lead to magnanimity of the government and will not provide any incentive to the poor to climb the social and economic ladder as they will get everything for free or very low prices.Further low quality food is not because of PDS but because of poor storage standards of FCI.Malnutrition is not the product of availability but of quality.Low quality is the main reason of malnutrition.It is only a Distribution chain and not a storage facility.

I think food quality should be improved at the procurement level and maintained at the storage level.Again , Food security bill also does not provide millet and ragi etc.It will not provide the right to food but a fixed entitlement of 5 Kg per person per month.PDS must be strengthened structurally and most be provided with logistical support.You are right that there is a need to leverage that ICT for better targetting and bridging the lacunae but that will take time for it requires technology to reach last mile and distribution of Aadhar cards on War footing.

Universalisation of PDS must be done after overhauling the current system and establishing the technological infrastructure.lakshmi prasanna The PDS was institutionalized in the country in the 60s to achieve multiple objectives including ensuring stability of prices, rationing of essential commodities in case of deficit in supplies, ensuring availability of basic commodities to the poor and needy and to check the practice of hoarding and black marketing.But it failed to deal malnutrition and death due to starvation.PDS failed to translate the macro level self sufficiency in food grains achieved through green revolution by the country into household level food security to the poor.

Quantum of PDS to family is low than requirement.

PDS failed to serve poor in the poorer states.To address all this limitations TPDS was introduced in 1997 under which two PDS issue prices is granted for BPL at 50% of economic cost and APL families at economic cost.This is for the first time drastic increase in prices.PDS instead of insulating poor from rising open market prices it has become an instrument for pushing up prices.This act narrowed the difference between the free market and PDS price.

In some cases PDS price of APL was more than market Decentralization of PDS took place in 2001-02 where centre instead of giving subsidized food grains financial assistance is given to states to procure and distribute to BPL.Most of the states opposed this pointing out lack of necessary infrastructure and financial resources at the beginning.PDS is also suffering out of leakages and diversion.This is due to inclusion of people who are not eligible, ghost cards,and shadow ownership.Recent surveys showed BPL received 84 % of PDS entitlements, where as APL quota suffering out of leakages this is due to dumping out of excess food grain stocks.

Recent amendments to Food security bill helps PDS to resolve errors, leakages of APL and wastage of public resources.when the bill comes to force abolishes APL quota and gives entitlements to 75% of rural and 50% 0f urban.Despite of benefits bill has problem like per capita entitlements simran Desertification process by which fertile land becomes desert typically as a result of drought, deforestation, or inappropiate agriculture.Its a global phenomenon of land degraditiion, which reduces the natural potential of the ecosystem and has a direct impact on people interm of vulnerability to foof shortage and natural disasters, depletion of natural resources and determination of the enviroment.7 As the human and animal population inc, these stresses will become greater and the demamd on natural resources will inc leading to permanent loss of vegetation and plant lead to the conversion of large areas into wastelands and to the frequent occurence of natural disasters.

1/2 the land of India is now effected by desertification and this impairs the ability of the land to support particularly devastating bczof its self reinforcing nature.Causes of desertification done by both climate variations and human activities; complex interation among physical, biological, political, social, cultural and economic factos.Some are::: ● extensive cultivation of one crop which lead to toxicity of organic matter Farmer changes crops in field as per its nutrient values like when there is pulse in field at that time soil are rich in organic matter.● use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides its prevent our crops from insect but at same time the chemical which spray are attached to crops as well as polute land due to which its fertility get reduce.● farming average land is causing desertification.

People are cutting down trees to use them as fuel but trees are only those who bind soil particles and retain their fertility.● industries and minning activies occur once at any place its degrade the land and thus cause desertification.● salination in this due to lack of water for irrigation farmer use canal water which contain salt and this salt deposit in soil.● shifting cultivation without adequate period of recovery.Consequences of desertification are:::: ● soil becomes less usable i.

when desertification takes place its reduces the organic matter of soil like phosphorus , nitrogen ,etc.when its occur it reduce or loss in the fertility of soil , ● cause famine ots occirs bcz use of canal water in irrigation this water contain salt and thos salt get deposit to the soil and cause famine.

● people near areas also effect it bcz many times its happen people use land as a garbage nd due to this it degrade the land ecebloggers 1)Discuss the causes and consequences of desertification in India.Desertification is a major environmental threat for India.Desertification is a phenomenon by which land becomes unfit for use.land is a precious asset for many in India since 70% of population is still dependent on agriculture.Therefore there is a need to take measures to check desertification Major causes and consequences of desertification are 1.

cause: Unscientific agricultural practices consequence: This results in a decline in fertility of soil and over a period of time the land becomes infertile 2.Excess exploitation of water Unregulated use of water has led to water scarcity in several places in India.In the absence of adequate moisture, soil becomes loose and paves way for desertification ex: punjab 3.Illegal mining Mining causes severe damage to land.After mining for few years, the land is left deserted and no measures are taken to restore the degraded land Ex: mining in aravalli hills 4.

Deforestation In an era of rapid urbanisation and industrialisation, the need for forest conservation has been disregarded.There have been several violations of forest norms.Forests act as a barrier against desertification.In absence of them, land desertification is spreading at a rapid pace There is a need to address these issues to avoid deleterious consequences of desertification .ecebloggers @insights if possible, could you provide a facility to upload scanned answers.

Since in mains writing on paper quickly and neatly is key to scoring good marks.thanks Ecebloggers, You are right that writing quickly and neatly on paper matters.The intention of this initiative is to make you cover whole syllabus, get familiar with all the topics, widen knowledge base and learn to write within word limit.Unfortunately there is a limitation to upload documents by viewers – let me see if I can do something about it later.

If one is good at subject and learns to condense their thoughts, it naturally speeds up your answer when you write on paper.

riddhu To ecebloggers, You are very right because writing on paper is must not only for speed but also for accuracy as while writing on PC we can easily delete/add/check spell but in exam we have to be very careful.So, I feel it is better to write the answers on paper first and then type on PC, typing 400 to 500 words will not take more than 10 will serve the purpose.Nirmal Singh Desertification refers to process of conversion of land into desert like conditions causing its degradation.

Chief underlying causes are two folds: Climate change and human interference.Climate change includes variability in rainfall,rising temperature ,reversal of winds like El-Ni o which is further accelerated by anthropogenic changes like industrialization,use of unsustainable agricultural practices like pesticide and fertilizer use,urbanization,global warming ,forest fires ,jhum cultivation,mining,deforestation ,overgrazing and irrigation which causes water logging and eventually soil salinity.It must be emphasized here that both climate change and human interference are interrelated in a subtle way and form vicious cycle.For example industrialization leads to global warming causing temperature rise which ultimately leads to climate variations.

Being a agrarian economy,desertification has huge ramification for existing cultivable land is under pressure to ensure food security for rising has adverse socioeconomic consequences for farmer community .More land will be under risk due to soil non availability will be yet another challenge as land become arid resulting in no ground water loss in productivity will result in economic loss further intensified by import of food and inflation as MSP will increase.We need multipronged strategy addressing underlying being a signatory to convention on desertification can leverage international calls for adopting sustainable approach and scientific use of land through community participation simran PDS ( public distribution system) is an Indian food security system.Established by the govt of India under the ministry of consumer affairs, fuel qnd public distribution and manage jointly with state govt in India , it distributes subsidized food and non food items to India’s poor.Major commodites distributed like staple food grains, such as wheat ,rice , sugar, kerosene, throug a network of public distribtution shop also known as RATION SHOPS established in several states across the country.

Food corporation of India, a govt owned coorporation of India, a govt owned corporation, processes and maintain the public distribution system.In term of both coverage and public expenditure, it is considered to be the most imp food security network.Fuctions of public distribution system in india has provode so many facilites they are as follows:: Facilities related to the product generation – AF, FEP, PF HS, IPFs Facilities related to the product administeration- ARF, DF MCF, GSPs CMC INV, USF, USCF PQF, ESF Limitation of PDS Public distribution system support in NFS adhere to the convention used in MVS.For eg you can’t have more than 1 member of PDSopen for output at a time.If u try to create, remove , remame or write a member of PDS while another member is open for output you get a permission denied message.

A PDS member stays open for the time out specified in the appropriate time out for processing attributeoruntill you try to create or write to another member.What are the full forms of different abbreviations used by you in your answer?? You should have mentioned the functioning in a paragraph form.I think your limitations are limited to the extent of functioning of NFS law which is still to become reality.You should have mentioned about the hitherto limitations of PDS simran Thnx for rply i’ll be surely tale care of these things ehich point out by ur side thnx for the rply Anjali Motghare Public Distribution System (PDS), assures food security and its objectives are i) price stability, ii)price support to farmers, iii) making grain affordable, through distribution from food surplus to food deficient region and to the people in the country.PDS offers to stabilize prices of food-grains as well by procuring after harvest when prices are low and releasing food-grain at the time of shortage in the market.

PDS was set up in 1965, and operated under joint responsibility of state and central government.Central government has the responsiblity of procurement, storage, transportation and bulk allocation of essential commodities namely wheat, rice, sugar, edible oil and kerosene to the states.These commodities are made available at fixed Central Issue Prices, which kept lower than original prices, means subsidised by the Central government.The State government has responsibility of distribution through a network of fair price shops.The PDS, however has not been very successful in providing food security to the poor.

Over the years its importance has been diminished due to steep and frequent increases in procurement prices.The real beneficiaries of the large increase in procurement prices have been the surplus farmers of wheat and rice in four states.AP, Punjab, Haryana, UP, which are major rice and wheat producres.PDS also failed in its another objectives of food security of the people.The quantum of PDS supply to each household formed only a small proportion of a family’s total requirement.

States with the highest incidence of poverty like MP, Orissa,Bihar, UP have lowest per capita PDS off-take.The universal PDS thus did not serve the poor well especially in poorer states.A need for targeted system arised and in June 1997 Targeted Public Distribution System launched.Govt fixed different prices for APL & BPL families.Most of the time market prices are lower than the APL prices, because of inefficiencies in the FCI operations, whose charges are high for handling and storage.Over the years off-take of foodgrains under PDS has been declining which is reduces market supply and push up prices.Stock of food grain is higher than required level, and extra stock maintained at an enormous cost to the nation, and somewhere lack of proper storage leads to spoilage of food grain.So nation is facing twin shock, malnutrition and semi starvation death despite of huge stock and extra subsidy burden to maintain the extra stock of food-grains.Anjali, In the first line itself you are giving objectives without defining what is PDS.

Also, there is no need to mention 1,2,3 in the first line itself.You have also contradicted your answer in the very first sentence – you say PDS is a food security measure but its objective is to bring price stability and price support to farmers! First paragraph is very important – it tells evaluator what the rest of the answer is all about.Here you would have just mentioned what is PDS and moved to next paragraph mentioning its objectives.

Again, your answer has very good points – but scattered here and there.

See below your modified answer (I have not added single extra word to your answer, just rearranged it – also you have crossed word limit!) “ Public Distribution System, set up in 1965, and operated under joint responsibility of state and central government, assures food security and its objectives are making grain affordable, bring price stability, price support to farmers – through distribution from food surplus to food deficient region and to the people in the country.PDS offers to stabilize prices of food-grains as well by procuring after harvest when prices are low and releasing food-grain at the time of shortage in the l government has the responsibility of procurement, storage, transportation and bulk allocation of essential commodities namely wheat, rice, sugar, edible oil and kerosene to the states.These commodities are made available at fixed Central Issue Prices, which kept lower than original prices i.The State government has responsibility of distribution through a network of fair price shops.

The PDS, however has not been very successful in providing food security to the poor.Over the years its importance has been diminished due to steep and frequent increases in procurement prices.The real beneficiaries of the large increase in procurement prices have been the surplus farmers of wheat and rice in four states.AP, Punjab, Haryana, UP, which are major rice and wheat producers.The quantum of PDS supply to each household formed only a small proportion of a family’s total requirement.

States with the highest incidence of poverty like MP, Orissa, Bihar, UP have lowest per capita PDS off-take.The universal PDS thus did not serve the poor well especially in poorer states.A need for targeted system aroused and in June 1997 Targeted Public Distribution System launched.Government fixed different prices for APL & BPL families.Most of the time market prices are lower than the APL prices, because of inefficiencies in the FCI operations, whose charges are high for handling and storage.Over the years off-take of food grains under PDS has been declining which is reduces market supply and push up prices.Stock of food grain is higher than required level, and extra stock maintained at an enormous cost to the nation, and somewhere lack of proper storage leads to spoilage of food grain.So nation is facing twin shock, malnutrition and semi starvation death despite of huge stock and extra subsidy burden to maintain the extra stock of food-grains.Anjali Motghare ya 5 star answer now, thanks a lot, I realised I didn’t think before writing, I will improve today itself.Asha Goud Q Discuss the causes and consequences of desertification in India.

A: Desertification is a process where fertile land is converted into desert or an unproductive land due to land degradation.It can be due to environmental factors or human interventions.Arid and Semi arid areas are most vulnerable to desertification.India has majority land under arid and semi arid region.Causes of desertification can be deforestation, improper agricultural activities and polluting industries.

Deforestation is a major cause of land degradation that makes soil vulnerable to wind and water erosion.Also land looses its moisture, useful microbes and organic content that contribute to its fertility.In India due to large demand of land forest are targeted for agriculture, industries, habitation and mining.Improper agricultural activities like over use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides, over irrigation, practice of slash and burn etc.With the advent of green revolution, modern agricultural practices are adopted in an indiscriminate manner.

Plains of Punjab, Haryana and eastern UP are now facing threat of land degradation.Also over grazing in arid and semi arid areas leads to desertification.Polluting industries that dispose off hazardous waste into are increasing in numbers.As a result the river bed looses fertility and turns barren.Apart from this deserts have a natural tendency to spread with wind like the Sahel region bordering Sahara Desert and the eastern Thar, if proper measures are adopted like creating a green belt on desert margins, it can be controlled.

Desertification has direct impact on the fertility of soil, as a result it adversely impacts agriculture and food production.In India a majority population depends on agriculture for employment, also to provide food security to the increasing population of India it becomes imperative to bring more land under cultivation and avoid land degradation through proper intervention.Asha Goud Q Analyze the functioning of PDS in India and bring out its limitations.World’s largest network of Public distribution system in functioning in India.Government provides cereals (rice and wheat), sugar and kerosene under PDS.

PDS starts from procurement, to storage, transportation and includes distribution.PDS works with collaboration of central and state government.The central government procures rice and wheat from directly farmers at MSP.Food grains are stored by FCI and distributed to the states according to their requirement cost is borne by the central government as food subsidy.

The state governments have the responsibility to the BPL and Antayodaya beneficiaries and build a structure for effective distribution to the people, like providing ration cards and ration shops.

Food distribution is of very crucial importance and therefore effective monitoring of the whole mechanism is vital.PDS system has come under criticism for lack of proper implementation.Certain states like Tamil Nadu, Orissa, Chhattisgarh are performing very well.However in many states it is found that food grains marked for PDS are sold in open market.Therefore there are leakages in the system at various stages.

Government does not have a food policy and a framework in place for managing the large amount of food grains procured.Therefore Food grains rot in the open due to lack of storage and a policy for distribution.From the perspective of economics, the food subsidy that government provides under PDS becomes a huge burden on the country’s finances due to improper implementation.Identification of BPL is not carried out properly.As a result many needy remain out of BPL list and fake beneficiaries are created for diversion of food grains.

States that are effectively implementing food distribution are adopting practices like geo-tagging of transport vehicles, introducing biometric ration cards, regular inspection to check quality of food grains being distributed.cppcontrol Discuss the causes and consequences of desertification in India.Desertification is a type of land degradation where a dry region becomes increasingly arid, thus losing its bodies of water as well as vegetation and wildlife.It is caused by a variety of factors like climate change and human activities and hence is a global ecological problem In India, desertification takes place in dry land areas where the earth is especially fragile.No rainfall and harsh climatic conditions like drought lead to destruction of topsoil followed by land’s ability to sustain crops, livestock or human activity.

Also, over cultivation exhausts the soil while overgrazing of land by livestock strips the soil of its grasses.Moreover, deforestation for fuel or construction materials continues which results in soil erosion.With decrease in the ground water level due to heavy consumption for agriculture has also led to ground water depletion.Removal of livestock or wildlife from an area under human influence is also a major reason for promoting desertification.Desertification adds to and worsens the impact of climate change.

Deserts in Western India are increasing at an alarming rate.Hundreds of acres of lands are becoming arid and semi arid and dry lands are becoming sand dunes.This means lesser amount of land are available for agriculture, livestock rearing and allied activities that provide livelihood to sources to many people.Desertification cuts the availability of food and water even as population of our country is increasing.It also causes sandstorms which wipe out large portion of habitual lands.

Aquifers vanish and there is a great reduction in biodiversity of the region.Moreover, dusts from dry lands blows to the urban places causing a lot of health related problems when inhaled.Battle against desertification is a long term commitment and investment.Reforestation should be encouraged to mitigate the issue.Preservation of water along with its minimal use of water should be practiced.

Countries like India should integrate its poverty alleviation programs along with strategies to fight the menace.The soil and land preservation issues needs to be prioritized and mainstreamed.Funds from climate change mitigation should also be diverted.Techniques like agro forestry, farmer managed natural regeneration, community programs like degraded land for grazing, growing fast growths plants, raising tall trees and to prioritise foresty programme are some of the measures required for fixing and stabilizing sands.GAGANDEEP SINGH Regionalism is ideology which demands or craves for separate entity to particular region due to its distinctive culture or other reasons.

Regionalism in India can be traced by the fact that India has 28 states and 7 union 1950’s first states were born on the linguistic basis when AP was born due to fast unto death by Potti.After that this phenomenon gains pace and many areas gained statehood.India is home to diverse cultures and due to vast expense of India there is need for smaller states so that government can implement its policies or decisions effectively.People of particular region has their own distinctive culture and languages, as long they felt proud of that it is normal but when their local political leaders begins to use that as excuse for separate state or autonomy to gain political advantage than it does some alism and regionalism is two separate things but when there is polluted atmosphere based on religion or political bifurcation of areas then they began to conflict.Significance of Regionalism in India is immense due to the fact that India has – many religions, cultures, languages,ethnic groups, castes,different there is need to maintain unity among them, so by decentralization or by creating new areas to safeguard their culture regionalism has played important al Parties can have confidence of people who belonged to their region and can contribute towards region’s long as there is positive motive behind the regionalism ideology in India no harm could be done to India’s integrity and unity.

Please tell my mistakes so that I can improve in those areas as I am a new player of UPSC.Thanks Anjali Motghare to provide a platform for dialog to resolve global and international conflict; to facilitate cooperation in international law, internal security, economic development social progress and human rights; and with the overaraching goal of ensuring world peace.No institution claims to be perfect at any point of time and there is always room for improvement.The situations in world have been changed over a period of time.So to remain relevant to changing needs UN reforms are necessary.

Further there are institutional shortcomings in UN’s structure.The Security Council most powerful organ of UN have Unequal representation and functions in closed doors.Its five permanent members dictate the rules of UN and carry on its business the way they like.UN is not a sovereign body, it doesn’t have its own finances and army.

These hinders its functioning in impartial way.

India being the third largest contributor to UN’s peacekeeping missions supports enhanced role for the UN in development and development cooperation dialog.It wants UN to be guided by the principles of transparency, non discrimination, consensus.With regard to the reforms in the Security Council India seeks for wider representation as present Security Council revolves around the industrialised nations while majority of the UN members belong to developing nations and hardly addresses their problems.India favours an expanded but democratically constituted and a more representative Security Council which would enjoy greater political authority and legitimacy.It favours expansion of UNSC be based on agreed criteria rather than predetermined relations.

It wants expansion of both the permanent and non-permanent member categories,demographically and geographically represented.India is instrumental in forming G4, with Brazil, Germany and Japan.They demands permanent seat in Security Council for themselves.These countries also pushing for the inclusion of more countries in UNSC, based on two principal criteria: the contributions made by countries to maintaining international peace and security; and increased representation of developing countries in both permanent and non-permanent categories.India feels it qualifies for the UNSC on both counts.

Apart from this India also putting effort to build consensus on UN reform through bilateral and multilateral dialogs with other countries,and most of the countries support India’s bid for permanent seat at UNSC.Anjali Motghare Insight introduction is one paragraph, setting went wrong, I ‘ll take care of it in next answer, please check there is improvement or not? Asha Goud Hi Anjali, the later part of answer is well written you have included all important points and also I can see you are incorporating all the suggestions made by Sir.🙂 The introduction could have been shorter and more focused on UNSC.Sahil has written a good introduction to this answer.Anjali Motghare Thanks for cooperation.

If u get time always suggest me for improvement.Ans Regionalism is an ideology driven by pursuing for gaining the territorial rights or acceleration of interest of a specific region.Regionalism in India is a product of multiple factors and has great significance in its politico-social sphere as India is a diverse country and every region has a unique culture, language, history etc.Regionalism in early 1950s to 1960s questioned to the power of centre, mobilizing masses to go for secession.Starting from Tamilian movement to Khalistan movement all started with regional aspirations which got converged into nationalist aspirations.

It has led to imminent split of the nation.It glorified certain matters related to water dispute, classical status of a language, questioned the presence of other linguistic groups in a particular region who have visible domination in employment and education.However, on the positive side regionalism has given way to decline of uni-party system providing space for coalition politics.It has given way to balanced centre state relations and is used as a mechanism to accelerate development programme in backward region.In a nutshell, meaning of regionalism and its outcome represent the ever changing nature of grammar of politics in India.

It was restricted to small states but later glorifying regional pride, sons of the soil movement is getting momentum in different parts of the country.Local population in a territory is looking into its comparative disadvantage as against outsiders and institutionalization of exodus as a process of ethnic separation is challenging the pluralist, democratic and equalitarian ideologies glorified by Indian Constitution.Therefore biggest threat to persistence of India as a Union of States is the divisive and pathological form of regionalism getting momentum in Indian society today.NB UNSC reforms World War second lead to creation of United Nation for maintenance of peace and stability in the world.UNSC is one of the six principal organs of United Nation.

There are five permanent gh dynamics of World polity has changes but there has been no change in structure and functioning of UNSC.Primarily UNSC reformed is required because of following : 1.Composition of permanent members and non- permanent members do not reflect the world reality today.Geopolitics have completely changed, therefore it must be more representative and democratic body.

Working and functioning of UNSC has not been transparent.Structural and functional reform will reflect new reality of world.India has been vociferous about UNSC reform.It stresses on expanding permanent members and non permanent members.

One of the role of UNSC is deploying of peacekeeping mission and India has one of the largest contribution and therefore thinks that it need to be part of permanent members.Further India being second most populous country and 10th largest economy having liberal democracy rightly deserves more active role in world decision making which impacts larger humanity.NB 2)What is regionalism? Critically comment on its significance in India.Human being have strong carving of identity.This identity can be expressed into various forms may be it is associated with nation,state,caste,religion and region.

Regionalism is therefore outpouring of human beings where they associate their identity with certain region where they reside.There can be various reasons for such an identity viz cultural, historical and also developmental.As democratic experiments unfolded in our country many regional aspirations started getting expressed.Significance of such regional aspirations led to creation of linguistic based states having their own cultural tion of regionalism is key aspect of unity and diversity of India.

Further nation would not mean negation of region.

Regionalism has increased democratic polity and helped in bringing governance more closer to people.India responded to tensions and challenges arsing out of regionalism by creating more states and by giving special powers under constitution.India has realized that best way to respond to regionalism is through democratic negotiation and not by suppression.However, recently regionalism has been fueled for benefit of party politics.This kind of regionalism undermines unity of country.

Divide and rule cannot be policy which our political parties can adopt.Therefore regional aspirations are good as far as they keep balance of unity and diversity of India.Nirmal Singh The reforms in international governance is a long pending issue.The need for ‘Global Perestroika’ is more felt in UNSC .The context in which UNSC was formed is different now.Economic prowess and military superiority are new mantra .New players with strong credentials have emerged namely India, Brazil, S.Presence of countries like France and Britain shows affection for legacy not reality and need to go away Secondly The UNSC is the major decision body for international affairs and there is strong deficit for Representation.The west seems to have share of pie with no representation for Africa, Latin America.The majority of decisions taken are on Third world countries.It feels there are enough reasons to prove its credentials .It is on the verge of becoming third largest economic power.It has formed multilateral groups like IBSA for the same.It remained one of the important aspect of bilateral relations .India is pursuing this agenda relentlessly to gain international support.

There are concerns about lack of consensus on India credentials in spite of its strategic and economic growth.Another issue is unwarranted opposition from countries like China, and swing Pakistan countries, Italy and Gulf countries.There is no unity among developing countries unlike issues like climate change and MDGs and are more concerned about their own credentials.The issue needs more urgency in the context of increasing globalization and imperialist wars one country waging on UNSC restructuring seems to be the only to correct aberrations of Old World order Though it is implied in your answer that India is seeking Permanent membership, you should have mentioned it.India’s role in UN peacekeeping missions, its democratic credentials must be stressed.

Key terms such as ‘regional representation’, ‘in Larger Freedom’ and ‘need for UNSC-General Assembly’ coordination, ‘misuse of Veto power’ etc must be mentioned.Anjali Motghare In the later half of 18th century changes intorduced in the industrial life by machine age due to scientific inventions which led to rapid industrialization in western Europe.First of all it started in England and then gradually spread to other parts of world Industrial Revolution triggered by the following reasons: Demographic Revolution: Increase in population led to increase in demand for various goods and prices increased.This motivated the British manufacturers to augment production and introduce various improvements.

Also more population increased the labour power .Agricultural Revolution: With the certain changes in agricultural practices British peoples produced surplus food which they sold to industries and made good income.It provided food to the the population in industrial sector; more income increased peoples purchasing power, so they might buy good produced by industries.Rich landlords invested in industries and provided sufficient capital; Agricultural labourers joined industries and supplied labour requirements of industries.Commercial Revolution: Overseas trade helped in many ways to bring industrial revolution.

Profit from overseas trade acted as essential capital for agriculture, mine technology and industrial development.In the 19th century European countries established colonies in most part of the es supplied raw material required to industries and provided ready market for manufactured good.Transport Revolution: The development of transport proved very advantageous in intensifying the process of industrialization.Rapid movement of goods increased trade and so demand for goods.Demand for more goods provided motto to produce more and find various means to augment production for more profit which led to rapid industrialization .

Amudhan hey i really liked you structure of your answer and its concise nature.In the ‘transport revolution’ you didn’t mention ‘market expansion’ which justified substantial capital investments.One factory could produce the requirement of multiple towns, villages and cities which was not feasible before.otherwise 🙂 Ans Industrialization is defined as a process in which a predominantly agrarian economy is transformed into a machine based industrial economy.

The industrial revolution took place in England in particular and west Europe in general for the simple reason that pre requisites to industrial revolution were present there.

Capital: It is the main requirement for purchasing land, machinery, raw material etc.Large savings by manufacturers and traders and plunder from colonies abroad was re invested in machinery and capital formation and expansion 2.Techniques: There has been invention of new technology and funds were mobilized for research and development of more machines and improving the efficacy of older ones.Availability of cheap labour and workers which were hitherto poor agricultural peasants and slaves from colonies filled the need for unskilled human resource.This led to their exploitation and acceleration of wealth production in the factories.Western Europe was endowed with riches of natural resources like coal for production of power and iron for production of machinery.New modes of transport like inland waterways, road network, ports and railway broke the hitherto isolation of far flung areas and also helped in transportation of raw material to the factories.The colonies provided the market base for the machine based products through disproportionate tariff policy The emphasis for rapid industrialization was also provided through the ideological support from the growth of philosophy of capitalism and rise of protestant ethics, new modes of education and science.The Calvinists and protestants receiving institutional support imbibed the value of material asceticism, entrepreneurship, law, discipline which had significant impact on the industrialization as a process.Arvind Q : factors responsible for the location and distribution of software industry in India.

The software industries made foray into India during the late 1980’s when the groundwork for liberalisation of Indian economy was being done.The growth of this industry has been phenomenal, but have their strong presence only in places like Banglore, Chennai and Hyderabad.Oflate, the industry has been spreading to other places and contributing to the economic development of those regions.Their locational factors include a combination of skilled manpower, good infrastucture and enabling environment like Tax concessions and educational places promoting and having science and research facilities.This combination of factors were available in States of AndhraPradesh, Karnataka and Tamilnadu.

Also these states formulated policies that further promoted these factors and thus became an Hub for Software industries.Bangalore, with the presence of defence and space research establishments naturally became the first choice for these software firms.Today, software industries employ a large number of skilled men and is seen as a promising sector for employment.Other states have also started taking steps to attract the software companies and hence we are able to witness the distribution of these companies throughout India, though at varying ng more knowledge centres and offering technical education to the youth will make a large number of people employable in this sector and further help in sustaining India’s position as software capital of the world.Arvind To Insights : Accidently posted my answer for ‘factors responsible for the location and distribution of software industry in India.

’ in feedback box! Be kind enough to post that in the answers column.simran United national security council (UNSC) is the principle organ of united nation organisation and it has 15 member among which 5 are permanent and 10 are temporary.Its form to establish international peace and security.Its power include, estalishment of peace keeping forces, passing of diff resolution and approch sanctiins.5 permanent member made a rule of UN and carry business the way they is not a sovereign body, its doesnt have its own finance and army.

World war 2nd leads to creation of united nation for maintainance of peace and stability in the world.India joimed the UN in 1945 and is the 3rd largest and a regular constant contributor of troops to united natiin peace keeping missions.India has been selected 7 times to the UN security council.Most recently India was elected to serve in UNSC from 2011 to 2012 as it had received 187 of the 190 total votes.India consider itself as one of the emerging global power and contributes about 16% to world population, interst and voice of new emerging power must be incorporated for making UN more participation and democratic.

India being 2nd most population country and 10th largest economy having liberal democracy rightly deserves more active role in world decision making which impacts large humanity.simran Regionalism is a political ideology that focused on the intersts of a particular region or group of regions whether traditional Or formal .Regionalists aim at inc their region influence and political power, either through movement for limited form of autonomy or through stronger measures for a greter degree of autonomy.Regionalism developes into a serious thread to the national unity if politicians dont go beyond their reginal loyalty and claims to stand only for their interest if regionalism is to be regarded as an unhealthy phenomenon , decentralization too would be ojectionable which offcourse its not.In a democracy ideological options are open in the sense that any individual or gp can adopt any ideology, provided of course it is within the legal framework.

In fact it has been decline of the party system im recent yr that has inflated the role of regionalism in the country.Regionalism startimg from Tamilian movement to khalistan movement all started with regional aspirants which got converged into nationalist aspirants.It has lead to imminent split of the nation.India is the large contry having continental dimensioms and comprising no fewer than 28 states and 7 union territories.Its a multi-racial, multilingual nation.

In principle regionalism need not be regarded as an unhealthy or anti national phenomenon unleaa it takes a militant, aggressive turn and encourages the growth of secesaionalist tendencies.Its not a new phenomenon , in fact the fillip given to regionalism by the emergence of the Telegu desam party in andra pradesh in 3982 has a historical community.The growth of this trend can be traced back to the fast upto death by Srivamular over the demand for the creation of andra pradesh which set in motion the reorganisation of state along linguistic lines in 1956.Causes of the growth of regionalism is prolonged maladministration and neglect of an area or state by the central govt.

There has been creeping disillustration,ent against central rule.

Regional symbols, regional culture, history and in many cases a common language all promotes regionalism.simran industrialism is period of social amd economic chnge that trnsforms a human group from an agrarian society into an industrial one.It is part of wide modernisation process, where social chnge and economic development are closely related with technological innovation, particularly with the development of large scale energy and metallurgy production.Industrialization also introduces a form of philosphical xhange where people obtain a diff attitude toward the perception of natural and a socilogical process of rationalisation.Industrial revolution was period in the late 18th nd 19th centuries when major changes in agriculture, manufacturing and transportation has a profound effect an socioeconomic and cultural condition in britain and subsequently spread throughout europe and north america and eventually the world, a process that continues an industrialization.

The onset of industrial revolutiin marked a major turning point in human social history, comparable to the invention of farming or the rise of 1st city state.8 main clauses lead to industrial revolution are…… i… AGRICULTURAL REVOLUTION ….welthy landowness bought village farmers land and made them tenant farmers to made them more to the country.The landowners made more efficent crops which led to less starvation, less people dying,.since there was more food going around less people died of starvation and people could have more babies which creating population boom.natural resouces made possible for factories to attain energy trains to run and for industries to growth.scientists knew that industrialization bring wealth so they shifted there research on new technologies that would help the proceed of industrialization.new transport system allow cheaper and easier way for people to ship their goods.since travel was become cheap , farmers decided to move to cities for job.MONEY=CAPITAL=POWER… since everyone wanted the newer goods its inc the wealth and this lead to powerful people than it was earlier Asha Goud Q Discuss the triggers for rapid Industrialization process in Western Europe and its growth during the nineteenth century.A: Industrialisation is process of transformation of economy from agrarian to industrial.It also involves a change in social structure of the society with increase in urban population.

Production levels increase due to increase in efficiency and production is no longer at subsistence level.Industrialisation initiated in the second half of 18th century in Britain following availability of favorable conditions.During the period Britain experienced a phase of agriculture revolution and increase in agricultural productivity.Therefore less labour could feed more people.Population also increased as a result people migrated to cities in search of employment.

British traders and merchants were making profits from trading with colonies and they had the capital required for investment in manufacturing units.The colonies provided a source of raw material and also a market for manufactured goods.However the most important factor that initiated industrialization was a series of inventions like Power loom in textile industry, Steam engine, blast furnace that uses coal as fuel.Availability of all these factors together triggered industrialization.

In the Western Europe on the main land industrialization did not spread at the same time and same pace as it did in Britain.It was only after the 1830s industrialization was able to stabilize in the region.The favorable factors were absent there.During later 18th and early 19th century Western Europe was experiencing revolutions like the French revolution and Napoleonic wars.Also Western Europe did not have ready available capital and market for its goods.

Therefore industrialization initiated in Britain in later 18th century but it could spread to the western Europe only after the region stabilized in 19th century.Asha Goud Q Explain the factors responsible for the location and distribution of software industry in India.A: In India the birth of IT industry is marked by coming of Tata Consultancy Services.Government also realized the importance of IT industry and supported the young industry with favorable policies.IT industry includes hardware, software, BPO, networking and realted services.

Software industry boom was experienced in India largely after the LPG reforms.India had become a favorable destination chosen by MNCs for availing software development and related services.The most important reason for favoring India is huge availability of English speaking young population that is ready to work at low wages compared to developed countries, therefore increasing profits.Also government of India adopted policies favorable to development of software industries like the development of Software Technology Parks (STP) in major cities, that provides ready to plug IT and telecom infrastructure, single window clearance, incentives under export-import policy.

It has been noticed that software industries are not evenly spread across the country.

Few cities have emerged as Software industry hubs like Bangalore, Hyderabad, Chennai, Delhi, Pune, and Mumbai.Initially metro cities were selected for the development of STP because of relatively well developed infrastructure and availability of English speaking middle class population, also preference of MNCs to work in an urbanized environment.The governments of states like Tamil Nadu, Andra Pradesh, Maharastra gauged the importance of the industry as software industry is not capital intensive, it can provide employment to young population and attract MNCs that are ready to invest.Governments therefore developed communication infrastructure in these cities also many engineering colleges came up where software industries are present.Therefore two important factors required for development of software industry is availability of skilled work force and well developed infrastructure.

Also very important is the political support for availing industry friendly policies Aravind Devanathan Q :Explain the major criticisms of civil services and evaluate its changing role in the Indian democracy since independence.The Indian Civil services is the permanent executive arm of the government, whose mandate is to implement the executive decisions of the government and help the Indian citizenry in realising the goods and benefits it duly deserves.Civil servants, thus are involved in all important areas of governance.This demands the highest standard of professionalism, integrity and genuine concern of the welfare of the citizens.The various roles donned by the civil servants requires them to have a sound understanding of all aspects of administration, forethought on the consequences of their action, and above all, a clean public image that reposes faith in the country’s administration.

Sadly, there has been mounting criticism on their functioning owing to inefficient administration, lack of leadership at many levels, low standards of service delivery , huge corruption and politician – bureaucrat nexus.Also , there has been demand for lateral entry of technocrats and experts from other fields into the civil services.This calls for unguent reforms in the functioning of civil services and a larger debate on the need for technocrats in bureaucracy .The role of civil services has expanded enormously because of greater decentralisation and social activism.In the wake of globalisation, the scope of economic development has become rapid and the civil service now has an additional role to play – increased concern about environmental and human security, deeper understanding of various dimensions of poverty and embracing cutting edge technology to provide services to the citizens.

When the role of civil services are evaluated in these aspects, we see a huge gap in the demands and the deliverance.Therefore, a complete reorientation is needed for a more efficient functioning.Amudhan Hey Aravind paragraphs one and two will not fetch you any marks since it does not answer the question directly rather it defines and describes the civil service.Lateral entry of techocrats to increase dynamism and subject-specific competence is an excellent point.🙂 Ans Agenda 21 is a voluntary, non obligatory road map perceived by different nations in 1992 au UN environment and development conference in Rio-de-Janerio, to be followed in 21st century for a sustainable, inclusive, efficient development and growth.

It calls upon the nations to leverage the resources in such a way that it does not harm ecological balance, increase equality and provide better access to education and health through research and development.With two centuries of industrialization which was marked by exploitation of resources for acceleration of wealth, there has been an increase in global temperature.The same thing is now happening is second and third world countries.Due to absence of better technologies and lack of funds and human resource in the poorer nations, there has been an increase in green house emissions and deforestation, unplanned growth leading extinction of biodiversity and low human development index.In order to bring down global temperature and protect environment without hurting growth, it proposes an integrative, comprehensive agenda which will reduce wasteful consumption and encourage investment in sustainable, global best practices.

It seeks to promote environmental sustainability through preservation of atmosphere, conservation of biodiversity, combating deforestation and desertification, controlling pollution etc.Further it reiterate the developmental activities in social and economic sphere by better investment in education, health, science, transfer of technology and international institutional support.The conference and agenda calls upon an end of economic and social polarization in world and proposes to establish an international platform for bringing in consensus for better progress and prosperity of humans which is environmentally safe and growth oriented.Jack Date- 06/08/13, 1)Explain the major criticisms of civil services and evaluate its changing role in the Indian democracy since independence.Ans- Civil services are rightly been said to be the “steel frame” of India.

Ranging from execution of policies to making of policies are being performed by civil servants in different positions.But there are certain criticisms that are continually being raised about it- Firstly, Nexus with politicians.Civil servants are expected to be party neutral & perform their duty without any political influence, but this is not the case actually.Many IAS,IPS officers have “‘good relations” with politicians.It acts as a win-win situation for them in the form of desired place of postings & non-interference in illegal activities but is a lose-lose situation for nation & its people.

This can be stopped only through insulation between the two.Politicians should be ripped of the power of suspension/transfer of officers.The recent incident of suspension of IAS officer, Durga Shakti Nagpal by UP Govt has created a lot of controversy.Earlier many such cases have come into attention of media concerning clashes between civil servant & politician-mafia nexus.

Secondly, they are burdened with too much of work which reduces their efficiency.Not only this, it devolves enormous power into the hand of civil servant which can be misused by him/her.The power need to be more decntralised by distributing the responsibilties on more officers.Since Independence, India has seen a lot of changes & hence the way it should be governd need to change.First, it needs to be proactive in actions, if development has to take place.

Only corrective actions will lead us to nowhere, we have to take preventive steps too.Second, with the advent of ICT, civil services should mould itself accordingly since it poses new challenges along with the oppurtunities.Thirdly, Climate change & pollution is a hot topic today which was not so when our nation became independent.Since CS are closest to the people, they can help in making & executing the policies for it accordingly.

Lastly, preferences of people have changed.

From “roti,kapda aur makaan”(food, clothing & shelter), it has gone to “pani, bizlee aur sadak” (water, electricity &road).Policies formulation & execution on these lines will lead India to a bright future.The role of RTI in administration – how civil servants are responding to it; challenges to civil servants because of internal security threats in many areas of the country; growing awareness among the masses because of education and dissemination of information which are throwing up new challenges in the form of protests and demands; coping with decentralization process; and ever increasing corruption and criminalization of politics and its effect on the functioning of civil servants.should have been mentioned (how these factors are changing the role of civil servants) Asha Goud Q “Agenda 21 is aimed at integrating environmental imperatives with developmental aspirations”.

Elaborate A: All countries of the world met in 1992 at the UN Conference of Environment and Development.The conference recognized the challenges of maintaining healthy balance between development and preservation of environment.The conference did not negate development; rather it aspired for development for all along with conservation of environment.In the present situation climate change has become a major global issue.The developed countries are reluctant to take responsibility of reducing green house gases, instead want under developed countries to share responsibility equally which would have adverse effect on the development needs of these countries.

In such situation Agenda 21 puts forward a very inclusive approach.Agenda 21 is a document that identifies the need to develop and adopt such strategies and technology aimed at achieving sustainable development.It is not a legally binding agreement and was voluntarily adopted at UNCED.Agenda 21 provides a framework for formulating strategies for sustainable development that are specific to the needs of the country.Also strategies can be developed at local and regional level with participation of all stakeholders.

It supports development of sustainable cities with efficient transportation, energy efficient infrastructure, improved waste management, water conservation etc.In villages environment friendly agricultural practices to be adopted, increased participation of people in formulating development plans.Therefore Agenda 21 calls for conservation and management of natural resources and environment taking into consideration its social and economic implications in such a manner development is not lost.Anjali Motghare Asha have a look at agenda 21 document which available on net u ‘ll get much more points of integration of environment and development.dhiraj s I liked your starting…but ecological imbalances is not only climate change but also desertification, sea acidification, pollution and so on.

Another is agenda 21 become basis for future steps like kyoto Third , add rio 20 points about sustainable dev goals and low carbon energy path, green economy .Last para is wondeful Amudhan Explain the Major criticism of the civil service and evaluate its changing role in the Indian Democracy since Independence? The Civil Service is seen as the Iron Cage of the nation.It is a continuation of our colonial past and still has remnants of its former modus operandi.Civil servants have traditionally not been available to the people.They perceive themselves and are seen by others as ‘Maibab’ with considerable discretionary powers.

It is has also been described as alien to the aam admi and not being in tune with their legitimate aspirations.It is a top-heavy organization and formulates policy without knowledge of ground realities with regards to their success.distribution of tailoring machines, during Indira Gandhi’s time, to generate employment was a monumental failure.

It lacks dynamisms and is slow to adapt to a changing world e.E-governance is still to be implemented fully in India and adoption has been slow.The role of the civil servant has undergone considerable change since independence.It has ‘on average’ (centralizing tendency of the Indira Gandhi period) shifted from being a driver of growth to a facilitator.

Civil servants now actively engage NGO’s, the local community and other non-state actors in implementing programs.They are increasingly in tune with the people and meet their legitimate aspiration by augmenting the PRI institutions.Some roles however have not changed since independence.They are still a unifying force within the diversity of India.They have faithfully executed the policies of the elected representatives of the people.

The Civil service is a significant part of the Indian polity and will continue to enjoy this pre-eminence.Nice answer, but I have few reservations regarding it- 1.formulates policy without knowledge of ground realities with regards to their success…”.

Civil servants are people selected from the people itself.Before being a civil servant, we are in the society itself fully aware of the ground realities.Many meetings, seminars, sessions are organised for the purpose of getting the feel of ground realities.

I don’t think we can blame civil services solely for failure of a policy.

Moreover, the policies are framed by legislators mostly.They perceive themselves and are seen by others as ‘Mai-baap’ with considerable discretionary powers…”.No doubt the power provided to the CS are huge but considering oneself the king is a personality problem not that of the service.

Not all civil servants think like are down to earth.Moreover, this case arises only with district admin.Civil service is a versatile service with a lot of variations in posts & positions.Amudhan Just a doubt, Meeta Vinay Myskar Industrialization is a process by which non industrial primary agrarian economy transforms into economy of manufacturing goods and services.It was a long, slow process of change, beginning obscurely in England, then spreading to other European countries.It brought series of changes in methods of manufacture, production and distribution of products.Factors that led to 19th century industrial revolution • Favorable political and economic conditions with stable govt.secured investments, improved trade and banking systems • Agricultural revolution due to invention of drill, crop rotation, wooden plough etc led to surplus of food, raw materials etc • Population boom with abundant semi skilled labor, emerging entrepreneurs, bankers etc • Favorable natural environment – abundant natural resources like coal and iron, ideal moist climate for cotton textiles etc • Major innovations in various fields led to both rise in production and also demand.

o Bessemer process (1898) for large scale steel manufacturing o Steam engine (James Watt) replaced hitherto used horse and water power o For textile industry – Flying shuttle (John Kay), Spinning Jenny (James Hargreaves), Arkwright’s Water Frame, Crompton’s Spinning mule, Howe’s sewing machine, roller printing etc o Submarine (Holland), rubber vulcanization, cycles, photography, cinematography, Portland cement, food preservation, electrical appliances like incandescent bulb, artificial heaters, etc • Urbanization increased due to new factory system replacing the household industry.Capitalists built mills and recruited laborers, who settled around factories.• Transport improved – construction of pucca roads, canals, railways, ports, steam ships etc made transport cheaper and quicker.It also connected the hitherto isolated interior areas.• Graham Bell’s Telephone, Samuel Morse’s telegraph, Marconi’s wireless etc improved means of communication augmented the spread of industrialization from England to other European countries.

Thus, rapid industrialization in 19th century was a result of industrial, technological, demographic, economic and scientific progress.The civil services is the permanent executive machinery of the Indian state.It can be broadly grouped into All India Services, Central Services and the State Services.The role of civil services has been changing since Independence, From the initial days of Nehruvian socialist, welfare state to the post liberalisation state.

At the same time, it is subjected to many criticisms as well.Red Tapism: The government machinery is notorious for the slow pace of work.The bureaucracy is often criticized by the people for sticking to rules adamantly which leads to unnecessary delays.India ranks poorly in “Ease of doing businness” report by the world bank because of the no.

of clearances required to start a business.Bribery and Corruption: Paying ‘greasing money’ for getting the work done has become so common in the government offices.Infact, the public service jobs have become so attractive because of the ‘under the table income’ that people are ready to pay huge amounts to get even simple posts.Insensitive to the common man: Though a lot of initiatives like Citizens Charters have come up, a majority of the govt.rules and procedures are difficult for the common man to comprehend.And the officers do not care to explain the purpose behind the rule.Changing role: The civil services of the 50’s and 60’s are different from that of what it is now.During the Nehruvian era, the civil services were primarily the machinery of the welfare state.

It used to plan and execute welfare schemes for the betterment of the socio economic condition of the people.Nowadays, the civil services role has broadened to various aspects, though its primary work remains the same.The civil services now has grown to meet the growing demands of the modern state.The way of recruitment, the training, the technology with which it is endowed with, the accountability and the transparency has all improved thanks to civil service reforms.Agenda 21 is an action plan of the United Nations members regarding sustainable development.Since, developmental activities of the past have been at the cost of detriment of environment, Agenda 21 aims to integrate environment and development.Sustainable development means use of the resources for the development of the society in such a way that they are available in abundance for the future generations too.One of the objectives of Agenda 21 is to explore ways of integrating environment and such development.

One way of achieving this objective is to integrate the two conflicting areas of environmental conservation and development at the decision or policy making level.

This means that the policy makers, planners for development should also be made responsible for the planning and policy making of environmental conservation.For example, the ministry of environment and the ministries of commerce & industry and urban development can be guided by the same think tank.At the implementation level, such integration mechanisms and institutions should be placed at all levels of the hierarchy, central, state ans local body level.This will not only make the decision makers responsible for environmental conservation but also sensitivise those who so far had no exposure to such areas.simran Software industry includes business for developmemt, maintainence and publication of software that are using dif business models, mainly either “license/ maintainance based”or ” cloud based”.

The induarty also includes software services such as training, documentation and consulting.Software industry expanded in the early 1960 almost immediately after cimputers were 1st sold in mass produced quantities.Firms such as computer science coorporation found in 1959 start to grows.The computer / hardware makers started bundling operating systems software and programming enviromental with their materials.Industry expanded greatly with rise of the personal comouter i.

ePC in mid 1970s which brought computing to the desktop of office worker.In early year 21st century another successful business model has arisen for hosted softward called software-as-a-service or Saas.Factor may be placed into 3 basic categories are natural advantage, acquired advantage and govt advantage.e cost , closness to a raw material, closness to a source of power, closeness to a market, closeness to an educated working force, closeness to a method of trnsprt, govt intervention in a suitable climate in a stable political , health facility.

Those factor factor which effect the distributiin of the software industries are selectiin of channel, organisatiin object and nature and extent of market .simran The civil service of India refers to the civil services and the permanent bureancracy of the govt of India.The civil service system is the backbone of the administration of the country.The present civil service of India is mainly based on the pattern of the IMPERIAL CIVIL SERVICE of the british India.It was formed after the Independence of India in 1947.

It was Sardar Patel’s vision that the civil services should strenghten cohesiin and national unity.The values of integrity imparticularly and merits remain the guiding principle of INDIAN CIVIL SERVICES.Civil services of India classified into 2 types ….ALL INDIA CIVIL SERVICE & CENTRAL CIVIL SERVICES.The recruits are university graduates selected through a rigorous system of examination called the civil services exam conducted by UPSC.AIS ( All India Civil Service) apponted are made by the president of India where as CCS ( Central Civil Services) are concernd with the administration of union govt.The most imp time for change in the civil services occured after 1988 with the so called Next Steps Reforms.These reforms were issued after the publication of a major issues that he felt shoild be add i.

e service lacked innovation; too lare to be efficient with too many jobs diplication and some deep overlaping what oyhers did; service was not providing a quality service for the country both the advice it gave and its policy implementation were poor.There is no doubt at 60s time civil service are diff from that of what its now.Nowdays civil service role has broaded to various as pets throught it primerly work remains the same.The civil service now grown to meet the growing demands of the moderate state.The way of the recuirtment, technology with which it endowed woyh, the accountability and transperacy has all improved.

simran Agenda21 is a non binding , voluntarily implemented action plan of the United Nations with regards to Sustain Development.It is a product of the United Nation conference Enviroment and Deelopment (UNCED) held in Brazil in 1992.It is an action agenda for the Unite Nation , other multilateral organisation and individual govt around the world that can be executed at local , national and global levels.21 in Agenda21 refers to the 21 st century.Its clear that Agenda21 is designed to replace the economic and social structure of US.

Yhe 1st version of the decalaration of independence used the phrase life, liberty and properly and was changed to pursuit of happiness.According to UN objectives of sustainable develop is to integrate economics, social and enviromental policies in order to achive reduced consumption , social equity and preaervatiin and restoratiin of biodiversity.Agenda21 have been grouped in 4 dection i.this secyion is directed towards combating poverty,especiallly in developing countries, changing consumptiin patterns, promoting health, achieving a consumption patterns, promoting health , achieving a more sustainable population and sustainable settlement in decision making.II … conservation and management of resoures of development ….includes atmospheric protection, combating deforestayion, conservation of biodiversity control of pollution and management biotechnology and radio active wastes.III … strengthening the role of major coorpration ,,.

ininclude the roles of child and youth, men , women, MGOs, local authority, business amd workers and strengthing the rule of indigeneous people their community and farmers.

IV… implementation… implementation include the science, technology transfer, education,international institutions and financial mechanisms.Agenda 21 is nothing less an anti human activites.Major point on America is though the educational system and caputre of children mind and bend them into global action.Agenda21 is an octopus with millionsoftentacles squeezing the very life of the declaration of independence amd limited status constituion from our god given unalianble rights.Ananya Basu 1)Explain the major criticisms of civil services and evaluate its changing role in the Indian democracy since independence.

-Civil services is the pith and core of the administrative machinery of government of India.The history of the civil service dates back to the days of Lord Cornwallis when India was ruled by the British.The members of the British government were appointed by the Government of India act lly all the 1000 officers were British .By 1947 there were 322 Indians and 688 British officers in the ICS.

All the officers, Indians or otherwise belonged to the so called aristocratic families and lacked sensitivity the general people.The hangover of various imperialistic tendencies can be seen even today, for example- 1) The ivory tower appearance- It maintains an air about itself which segregates the public from it’s servants.2 )Red tapism- Unnecessary delay in it’s functioning leading to corruption, inconvenience of the citizens.3)High handedness in dealing with others- Often a problem of superiority complex ,arrogance is seen of the bureaucrats in dealing with the public which hampers line of effective communication.4) Corruption- The veil of secrecy which is maintained in administrative functioning leads to unaccounted, rampant corruption.

5) Political affiliations- Very often, if not always bureaucrats get influenced by politicians who have vested interests and pressurize an officer to act in their favour.6) Lack of transparency and accountability-Though e-governance is trying to usher in transparency and accountability it is not well infiltrated in rural and computer illiterate areas.7) No real protection-It is mandatory under A 311(2) to make inquiry before dismissal,removal or reduction in rank of a civil that case a civil servant has to be informed of the charges against him/her and given a reasonable opportunity of being heard.cases of Ashok Khemka ,Durga Shakti Nagpal, Thulasi Maddineni are a living testimony to it.

8) Lack of proper grievance redressal mechanisms-Fast , efficient and effective redressal mechanisms are necessary to remove the lacunae in the functioning of the government.66 years post- independence we have evolved as a democracy.India is no more a fragmented country ruled by a foreign ruler.Our sovereign, secular country is a testimony to the world that diversity can exist peacefully.If India is to survive as a Democracy,it is important to imbibe best practices in the functioning of it’s administration like accountability, transparency, stringent laws against corruption and protective laws for the whistle-blowers ,a genuine concern for the welfare of the people, integrity, commitment to serve the people .

The essence of “Public Service” should be instilled in every new recruit so that civil service becomes the “ steel frame” on which our democracy rests.In your introduction, I think dates and numbers are not needed – basically it should talk about something on criticism and role of civil services.You have ‘enumerated’ all the criticisms, but haven’t written much about its changing role in our democracy.Ananya Basu Ananya Basu Q “Agenda 21 is aimed at integrating environmental imperatives with developmental aspirations”.Elaborate Agenda 21 is an important resolution of the UN which aims at resolving the dilemma arising out of the environment conservation Vs the development was introduced on 13th june 1992 at rio de janerio,brazil at the united nations action plan for sustainable development.

Sustainable development is the development which doesn’t harm environment and the living organisms living in understand and appreciate it ,it is important to understand what happens when a blind drive for development is carried out .The rapid growing population and economic development is leading to a number of environmental issues in india because of the uncontrolled growth of urbanization and industrialization, expansion and massive intensification of agriculture, and the destruction of forests.Major environmental issues are forest and agricultural degradation of land, resource depletion (water, mineral, forest, sand, rocks etc.), environmental degradation, public health, loss of biodiversity, loss of resilience in ecosystems, livelihood security for the poor.The projected population indicates that India will be the first most populous country in the world and China will be ranking second in the year 2050.

2 India having 18% of the world’s population on 2.4% of world’s total area has greatly increased the pressure on its natural resources.Water shortages, soil exhaustion and erosion, deforestation, air and water pollution afflicts many areas.India’s water supply and sanitation issues are related to many environmental issues.world is our home, and development is our sustaining cannot compromise one for the another.

Thus it can be said that Agenda 21 not only helps in planning a conservative development but also helps in environmental impact assessment of various projects.A non-invasive development strategy will definitely prevent disasters like uttarakhand floods.Nirmal Singh In spite of its merits and role in nation making, several criticisms have emerged over number of years.Considering the fact that civil servants are selected, not elected, the concentration of immense power at their disposal goes against democratic norms.Ironically it is the same which shape public policies though feedback not public.

The delegated legislation is another area of concern.Moreover politicization, corruption, red tapism, inefficiency, unresponsiveness, lack of accountability and control under disguise of anonymity has eroded their credentials.It has created “empires within empires”.Further its resistance to change and maintenance of status quo act as friction towards progress.

Another issue relates to the rising pyramid of bureaucracy which irrespective of workload is increasing its sheer size.

Adherence to procedure instead to objective is another area of concern Being a welfare state and developing country with a large section of society remain under developed, bureaucracy has played an important role in development and delivery of service since independence.Over the number of years with the arrival of globalization, liberalisation and privatization its role has become that more of facilitator.Further devolution of power to people through decentralization in form of panchayati raj, people empowerment through RTI, Citizen Charters, increasing tendency towards limited government and call for transparency and control has minimized its area of influence.Still keeping the development needs of country and its ability to deliver essential services up to last mile has not minimized its importance and has been instrumental in ongoing process of nation building.Rahul Singh Well written May be u can add sm recent controversies of whistleblower Civil servants and the need of real protection to sm of the integrated and upright,honest officers is the need of the hour….

RV Explain the Major criticism of the civil service and evaluate its changing role in the Indian Democracy since Independence? Established by Cornwallis during colonial times and envisioned as a sturdy steel framework for the nation by Sardar Patel the Civil Services has failed to live up to the expectations of the people.Mired by red-tapism and elitism the civil services has been increasingly furthened from the people and the lack of ground contact has only increased the apathy.The desertion of many posts in far-off areas only further fuels the doubts of the people who have increasingly begun to see the bureaucracy as agents of the political class indifferent to the “service” of the people.The lack of vision , diplomacy and sensitization has often warranted the debate of favouring technocrats and privatising many institutions of the public services.The onus to prove Rajiv Gandhi’s statement of just 15 paise out of the allocated rupee reaching the intended beneficiary has aptly been shouldered by the civil services in nexus with their political bosses.

Quite often honest civil servants are reduced to mendicancy by their superior officers/politicians and in due course of time in an environment where fawning and flattery is the currency of the realm these officers either leave the services or are suitably shunned into oblivion by repeated transfers/dismissals.In the present times where gloabalization poses new problems for the rising economies including environmental , economic and human security , where increasing bottom up approach is being followed the civil services has a chance to prove the faith entrusted to them by the constitution makers.If only flattery and apathy can give way to resilient honest ground work the rusted steel frame can redeem itself to be the shining armour for progress.Nirmal Singh A brain child of Earth summit 1992 under frame work of UN,Agenda 21 aims at promote sustainable ering the fact that sustainable development is global issue with local solutions,it rightly underlined needs for synchronizing the local and national development needs with that of global without compromising implement the same developing countries will be provided green technology,education,aid by international institutions and developed development is ensured by strengthening group roles like NGOs ,farmers and women,conservation of resources like biodiversity,and preventing deforestation,radioactive waste disposal,controlling pollution and further by socioeconomic development by reducing poverty,housing needs,health,controlling is criticism of Agenda 21 labeling it as “communist plot” to strengthening state control and sizing civil liberties by depriving them of property and car criticism is unwarranted considering the fact that it is not legally binding agreement and is purely a voluntary recent failure Rio+20 meet to reach any consensus regarding funding is a retrogressive step and needs attention keeping the fact that without it the developing countries has less options and is against the basic principle of common but differentiated responsibilities.Nonetheless its has become a unique opportunity to leverage international attention and support towards one of the most pressing issues of our time.

Meeta Vinay Myskar 1) What was the effect of Russian Nihilism and Irish nationalism on indian national movement? Indian national movement (INM) encompasses a wide range of movements spanning over 19th till mid 20th centuries with a common aim to end company rule.Unorganized, scattered uprisings were weaved into organized mass movements over years.Dadabhai Naoroji’s economic critique of exploitative British imperial policies, coupled with, volatile international scenario augmented INM – Russian revolution, Russian nihilism, French revolution, Irish nationalism etc.Nihilism is a radical skepticism & pessimistic belief that all values are baseless.In 1860 – 1917 Russia, it was identified with complete destruction and a revolutionary movement that rejected authority of state, church and family.

It advocated social arrangement based on rational & material knowledge and individual freedom.Political nihilists were associated with clandestine political groups advocating terrorism and assassinations.Nihilism’s & INM • Rise of extremists,& revolutionaries like Bhagat Singh, Chandrashekhar Azad etc sowed seeds of disrespect and antagonism to govt.• The Kakori conspiracy case (1925), Muzzafarpore tragedy, increasing murder attempts (Mr.Kingsford, Andrew Fraser etc), widespread conspiracies, secret societies etc indicate nihilist ideologies.

Na) in late 18th century inspired by French revolution repeatedly demanded self govt.and autonomy from British parliament – particularly Poyning law, which allowed British to rule Ireland.While Irish Radical republicanism advocated use of force to found a secular & egalitarian republic, moderates advocated non violent reformist nationalism.Mass nationalist mobilization began when Isaac Butt’s Home rule league (HRL)(1873) adopted social issues, especially land redistribution issue.

Land League campaigned for 3 Fs – fair rent, free sale, fixity of tenure.Cultural nationalism (Celtic Revival of 19th century) concerned with furthering Ireland’s individual native & cultural identity.Na & INM • Chittagong armory raid (1930) – to replicate easter rising of Ireland • Anne Besant and Tilak’s HRL movement in 1916 • Nationalists increasingly supporting land reforms, peasants problems also mobilized masses (like Ireland) Thus, over the years both internal and external factors gave INM its true essence.Amudhan Hey Meeta This question had me stumped.

After reading your answer i have a better idea about external influences on INM….are there any other such influences that we should know about?? 🙂 Meeta Vinay Myskar Thank you Amudhan! Well there are influences of French revolution, American war of independence and also Russian revolution.Russian revolution mainly led to the emergence of communist ideology in India, indian communist political parties and mainly our leaning towards USSR during cold war.I might have still missed few things here.phani Which factors accelerated the process of decolonization post World War II? Explain the role played by the UN and US in this process During the war years itself ,in 1941 , USA president Franklin d Roosevelt has mooted the idea of having an international organization which can act as the sovereign force on behalf of all nations to instill peace and avoid the prospects of another world war like situation.

Taking cue from this , the major declaration came from the USA and Britain through YALTA CONFERENCE in 1943 in which they declared “none of the allied forces has any intention of holding onto their colonies once the war is over”.It might have been their strategy to muster the support or the learning from the humiliating treaty of Versailles which eventually lead to the WW2.The Potsdam conference and the oaks conference has finally lead to the creation of United Nations organization through sanfrancisco declaration.War destructs and there will be no winners and losers in a war.Both the allied forces and the axis powers were equally destructed and post war reconstruction of Europe which has lost its glory became the primary interest of the United States.

The birth of communist Russia though happened in 1919 but its mark on world affairs became so prominent after the USSR supporting the freedom movements in other countries and the inability of the financially and militarily torn Europe, large scale revolutions for independence in the colonies have left USA with no options but to aid the decolonization.Poland, Hungary , Bulgaria , Czechoslovakia ,Romania which were French colonies became independent with the support of USSR.In Albania and Yugoslavia communist governments took oath.India , Pakistan , Burma were freed from British and other south eastern countries too became independent soon.

The birth of third world and the policy of pursuing an independent foreign policy as advocated by the leaders like Nasser, tito , sukarno and Nehru through NAM pitched for the independence and peaceful coexistence.

With the onset of cold war and a fear of its spread USA fought wars in Korea and Vietnam which made more damage to it than good by stirring the national consciousness of the people in other countries aswell.The birth of UNO with 6 principle organs could able to create a level playing field for the thirld world countries to pitch for the total decolonization of the world .The economic and social council and trusteeship councils played a major role in the post war reconstruction and decolonization respectively.The 11 countries put under UNO trusteeship became independent one by one with the last one being Namibia.The emergence of national leaders with new national consciousness has greatly helped UNO in fulfilling its mission.

phani sir i expect an assessment from u , this is first time i am writing in insights on initiative is awesome.it has literally created a space for all the interested aspirants to assess and reassess themselves by constantly improving their reasoning skills and honing their journalistic aptitude which i think now a days UPSC is looking for.Ritu Konar FOREIGN INVESTMENT is far from being critical to india’s economic ally comment.Growth of any country largely depends on the volume of its capital formation requring high savings within a on the eve of 1991 Balance of Payment crisis in India,under IMF compulsion it necessiated to liberalise Indian economy thus opening its door wide for global investors to invest in our n Investment i,e.DIRECT and in terms of ownership and Indirect in terms of investment in shares and policy makers of the land restrained the maximum cap an foreign investors can put into a particular sectorbut very recently, after the recession in world economy in 2008 efforts had been made to enhance the limit with requisite limit on govt -hand.

In this age of economic globalization foreign investment helps to better India’s Balance of Payment scenario,infrastructure ,employment generation in many ways thus paving way for better standard of living of the here one thing we never can ignore that foreign investment is always made with a profit making purpose by the investors thus many a time creating economic unstability by way of flight of capital or capturing local market and generating less than expected profit for the host country.Therefore ,Indian economy can expect better growth by developing manufacturing and industry sector and improving its service sevtor performance rather than being over- dependent on foreign investment.phani 2)Examine the role of the Finance ministry of the Union government in designing and implementing monetary and fiscal policie The finance ministry at the center is entrusted with the task of supervising the overall financial health of the country as a whole.In doing so, it draws its powers from the FRBM act.There are two very important policies which govern the financial soundness of any country .

The mismanagement of the either of the two will lead to a precarious situation which may hinder growth and development and infuse negative investor sentiment in an economy.Monetary policy is determined by RBI, basically concerned with the money flow in the economy and in reigning in inflation by making necessary adjustments using its liquidity adjustment tools like the repo rate , reverse repo rate , MSF , CRR etc.the finance ministry can only ask the RBI to take a necessary policy decision but can’t dictate the terms.The finance ministry’s main prerogative is to form a sound fiscal policy to deal with the receipts of money through various taxes and levies and allocating them under the head of expenditures both revenue and capital according to the policies of the government on the day by assessing the overall scenario of the economy.

Balance of receipts and expenditures will lead to either deficit or surplus.How to manage the deficit or utilize the surplus are all decisions taken under the aegis of the finance ministry.The FRBM act has made it the nodal agency and put some restrictions on the current account deficit figures as to inculcate a good financial managing culture.Though the two policies look different, they are the twin tires on which the economy must move.In a developing country like india , growth is always associated with inflation both must go in a synchronous way to reach a stable and equitable distribution of resources 3) Ethnic conflicts in South Asia.

Ethnicity is the feeling of being different , either culturally , socially and a distinctiveness a group of people feel than the majority.South asia is a museum of various cultures and ethnicities.One of the main reasons for the backwardness of SA is the ongoing conflict of interests among various groups inhabiting a common territory.Be it hindu-muslim-christian conflicts,nagas and kukis revolts, bodos,gorkhas emancipation and revolts for political p0wer and in india , rohingya muslims issues in china and mayanmar., Sinhala and tamil conflicts in sri lanka, conflicts in Philippines among various groups , revolts of balooch groups in Pakistan , issues among the thai and combodians regarding the angorvat temple all are various socio political conflicts plaguing south asia which have to be dealt with firmly to see SA as an emerging leader on the world map.

Kirthi Though stability, time tested nature, recruitment based on merit characterize civil services, they suffer from many disabilities as instruments of governing various developmental measures.Its hierarchical and centralized nature resulting in decision making divorced from the people, diffused accountability, divorce of authority and responsibily etc, lack of empathy, service providers at lower hierarchy being over burdened lead to poor delivery of services and horrible experience for common citizens.Though the proportions of civil service s to population remain more or less the same as other countries, it had more than required supporting cadres nt involved in decision making like peons, drivers,clerks etc.and less human resources in developmental fields Ike govt teachers, health workers, judicial officers etc.Red Tapism, coercive corruption, emphasis on the procedures, lack of flexibility, generalist even in specialized divisions etc hampered its effectiveness With the LPG and economic reforms 1991 , the role of state has shifted from provider to facilitator of goods and services.

State played important role in regulation, coordination, perspective planning rather than in production functions.This led to shifting of corruption from coercive to more collusive nature – 2G scam, coal scams etc.which affects sovereign decision making, constitutionaliztion of PRIs led to divorcing of some of its functions, RTI, increased civil society participation, citizen charters, e governance etc.had pressurized to extent to govern well.Whistle blowers bill, timely delivery of public services bill , e governance initiative etc are proposals to induce transparency.

Unless genuine empowerment of PRIs with funds, functions and functionaries happen, civil services will continue to play a dominant role Nirmal Singh The moderates failure to yield results through constitutional methods from 1985 to 1905 had convinced youth of ineffectiveness of their methods and had caused widespread frustration This yielded ground for new alternatives like revolutionary terrorism drawing inspiration from foreign movements.Russian Nihilism and Irish Nationalism need special mention here.Russian nihilism basically a branch of anarchism believes in natural state i.no state, no political religious authority and no value system .

It employs violent means whose success attracted extremist attraction.This led to a the era of individual heroism and extremist movements .For the first time the INM reached masses and not limited to elite section.New underground organisations like “Abhinav Bharat”,”Anushilan Samiti and ideologically committed press began to take roots.

Activities like decoity(Kakori conspiracy case, murder of officials and arms manufacturing took place.

A new class of leaders like Bhagat Singh, Chandrasekhar Azad, and Aurbindo Gosh emerged.The Indian nationalism is different from nihilism in the sense that former is committed to nationalism with a idea of nation unlike later which is anarchist.Irish nationalism is yet another movement which influenced INM although in a more moderate way.The self rule movement in Ireland became inspiration for Indian version i.Home rule league movement led by Tilak and Annie goal changed from mere constitutional reforms to self rule.It had comparatively less impact on extremist ideology.Further cultural revivalism doesn’t left India untouched The impact of Irish nationalism can be gauged from the fact that later India adopted Directive Principals from Ireland.Although the impact of these movements is immense, yet Indian nationalism had developed its own strategy widely different and worked to complement much active non violent mass struggle unlike movement like nihilism.Nirmal Singh I have tried to answer this question my best yet I know it is not complete .

Sir can you suggest what is missing and how it can be improved 1)Briefly explain how fast breeder reactors differ from regular nuclear power plants? Comment briefly on their significance for India’s nuclear energy programme.Ans- Regular nuclear power plants use U-235 as its fuel to generate electricity whereas fast breeder reactors use natural uranium (U-238), bombard it with fast neutrons to convert it into reactor grade neutron (U-235).Need for a fast breeder reactor arises because U-238 is abundant in nature but not U-235.So, in order to generate electricity, it is required to enrich U-238 with U-235.Not only uranium, but thorium & plutonium can also be used to generate nuclear fuel.

India’s nuclear energy program is in a developing stage.The 3 stage nuclear energy program, as was proposed by Mr.bhabha, has reached upto its second stage.While in first stage, he proposed generation of electricity using natural uranium.In second stage, he had proposed generation of nuclear fuel using Thorium & plutomium through FBR.

In last stage, we will generate electricity using thorium as a fuel.The huge importance given to thorium is due to large reserves found in monazite sands of southern states of TN etc.India will be self sufficient in the field of nuclear energy as there will be no need of nuclear fuel imports.In fact, by exporting thorium as a fuel, India can gain a lot of foreign reserve in future.Apart from this, breeder reactors use the spent up fuel of regular nuclear reactor to further generate fuel which can again generate power.

This is a huge relief in the worry of disposal of nuclear waste as the waste will get reduced with reusal of fuel.Future prospects are very bright if we are able to use thorium as a fuel.Then, It can be used in our space programs too as the fuel will be abundant.Lesser geopoltical pressure will enable government to establish more & more nuclear power plants in the country that will eventually pull the country out of energy crisis.India’s progress so far in developing FBR should have been mentioned.India’s first Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (Plutonium based, 500MWe) goes critical next month at Kalpakkam – a milestone towards energy security.Also, along with TN, Kerala and Odisha must be mentioned(Thorium deposits) – though it seems minor correction, Kerala has the highest deposits, so should be mentioned.Nikku Q) What are the areas of cooperation for India and China in the international arena? Discuss.Ans) Indo-China relationship is characterized by cooperation, competition and conflict.

While both the countries are in a constant state of competition, there are several avenues for them to cooperate and reap mutual benefits.With the western nation’s economy plumetting, it falls on India and China to engineer a recovery and lead the revival of world economy.While the current trade balance might be skewed heavily in favour of China, there is plenty of opportunity to cooperate in this domain.Both the countries are growing fast and need energy to pump this.Thus ensuring energy security and gaining access to the vast natural resources of Africa has been a priority for both nations.

Instead of competing, there is more to gain from mutual cooperation here.The Sea lanes of communication are important to ensure the free flow of trade and cooperation is essential in ensuring their safety and combating maritime piracy.Organisation like BRICS have provided a forum that could draw a new world order.Although still not completely matured, India and China should cooperate in shiting the centre of geo-political power to the east and stand together to check US and western hegemony.Similar interest are also shared in respect to combatting climate change and advocating the doctrine of “common but differentiated responsibility”.

The two must provide common leadership to the developing nations in securing a fair deal with the developed world.India and China, find them on the same side on numerous occasions in the WTO and Bretton Woods institutions.Their interests converge in enabling free and fair trade.China is a manufacturing hub, whereas India is a service hub.

Both can learn from each other here as well.

There is a need to have greater people to people exchange and strenthening of educational and cultural ties.The elephant and the dragon have several stage set to dance together.All that is needed is plitical will to make this happen.2)What are the areas of cooperation for India and China in the international arena? Discuss.Ans- India & china not only share geographical boundaries but also imperialist history, a developing stance & more importanly a strategic position in global politics.

All this opens up wide areas of cooperation between the two nations.With passage of time, both nations have emerged as an educational g hands in this field will not only prove to be gainful for both of them, but will also help in improving relations by cultural sharing.Frequent tours, seminars, joint research institutes & universities will also attract student from all over asia & hence will help them in strenthening their position amongst asian neighbors.Second is exploration of minerals & rare earths.

India & china are mutual competitors in this field, but if they join hands, they can fully control the market of rare earth which is gaining more & more importance day after day.Buddhism is a unifying bond between the two nation.Not only India & China, but other buddhist nations of ASEAN should make up a tourism net that will attract tourists from all over the world & also will enable tourism in between them.The strategic position that is shared by India & china can be materialized only through mutual cooperation & understanding & will benefit both the nations in their development.

You have missed important areas of mutual cooperation: Climate change, Energy Security, combating terrorism, striving towards reducing economic inequalities in the region, maintaining/providing global economic stability, cooperation in the multilateral fora – ex, announcement of BRICS development Bank(as an alternative to WB and IMF) etc.Nikku 1) Briefly explain how fast breeder reactors differ from regular nuclear power plants? Comment briefly on their significance for India’s nuclear energy programme.The regular nuclear power plants use enriched uranium for power generation i.e the naturally occuring U-238 with greater concentration of U-235.ALongside, generating energy the U-238 is also converted to Plutonium-239.

Sala instal lacions write my annotated bibliography for free nbsp

Wheras in a fast breeder reactor, Plutonium-239 is used as a fuel along with naturally occuring Uranium.While Plutonium generates energy it also converts U-238 into more Plutonium-239.The entire strategy of India’s nuclear energy is based on the three stage plan of Homi Bhaba Design of Solar Powered Airplanes for Continuous Flight PhD Thesis nbsp.The entire strategy of India’s nuclear energy is based on the three stage plan of Homi Bhaba.

India is not very rich in Uranium and even lesser in enriched Uranium.Thus the country needed an alternate fuel This lesson is part of the Energy in a High-Tech World Project, which examines the science behind energy. Energy in a High-Tech World is developed by AAAS and funded by the American Petroleum Institute. For more lessons, activities, and interactives that take a closer look at the science behind energy, be sure to check  .

Thus the country needed an alternate fuel.

Thorium seemed to fit the bill as it was widely available in Monazite sand of Kerala and the country possesed almost 30% of the world’s reserves This lesson is part of the Energy in a High-Tech World Project, which examines the science behind energy. Energy in a High-Tech World is developed by AAAS and funded by the American Petroleum Institute. For more lessons, activities, and interactives that take a closer look at the science behind energy, be sure to check  .Thorium seemed to fit the bill as it was widely available in Monazite sand of Kerala and the country possesed almost 30% of the world’s reserves.However Thorium was not readily fissible, but had the potential to be converted to a fissile isotope of Uranium ( U-233).But this process of conversion needed some other fissile material like Plutonium-239.Thus, the First stage was conceived to use the naturally occuring Uranium in Pressurised Heavy Water Reactor to generate sufficient Plutonium-239 that could be used in the second stage.The second stage envisioned the use of Plutonium-239 along with natural Uranium to generate more of Plutonium-239 and energy.

When sufficient Plutonium-239 had been generated, it was proposed to introduce Thorium into the cycle so that it could be irradiated to U-233 and thus provide energy security to the Nation for centuries.Thus the first two stages are crtical to the success of India’s nuclear energy programme as they provide the eddfice for the thrid and final stages.Besides quenching the country’s thrist for energy, the success of the plan could help India share it’s methodoloygy with 3rd world energy starved country and help them attain self sufficiency.Amudhan Hey Nikku Your answer shows a very sound understanding of the techinical process however the questions asks us to ‘comment’ on FBR in relation to our nuclear program which should be the Main body of the essay rather than at the end.otherwise it was good Ans India and china have emerged as new leaders of developing and underdeveloped world in the past two decades due to their strong economic strength and core competence in various sectors.

This led to competition and cooperation between the two at regional and international forums.Despite contentious regional issues both share similar view and strategic interest in international geo politics due to similar historical imperialist background and demographic profile.Many areas like climate change provide a platform for both to uphold the principle of Kyoto protocol and common but differential treatment to preserve the interest of second and third world countries.The conservation of biodiversity is another forum in which both can cooperate to press for better fund allocation from developed world.On economic side, both share a common view for the transformation and reform of world’s finance institutions which are currently polarized towards west.

Further both being stakeholders in BRICS and its idea of development bank, there is a need for greater cooperation.Both can assist each other in WTO negotiation and bring consensus on Doha Development Round.Political sphere calls upon both to combat terrorism at regional and international level, strengthening Afghanistan to bring normalcy in South Asia, reiterating their demand for a Syrian led political transition in order to avoid blood bath, and opposing any western led sanctions on Iran and provide a window of consensus through UN.Further in order to avoid any war like situation in Asia with US pivot, both needs to bring a consensual roadmap for better geo politics.Despite some challenges on border issues and trade disparity, there is much scope for India and China to cooperate in political, social, economic, environment front in world diplomacy.

It has in no way diluted the pardoning power of president.While pardoning someone, there is a chance that president does not have the true objective knowledge and facts about the person.There is also chances that pardoning or rejection may be based on political reasons as President have to work in aid and advice of CoM who are none but politically elected representatives.Thus in order to prevent president to act in malafide manner, SC in SK Roy case evolved a proper mechanism through which a pardoning petition may be dealt with.

Further Judicial review in the basic feature of constitution and president cannot override it.

Ananya Basu 1)Briefly explain how fast breeder reactors differ from regular nuclear power plants? Comment briefly on their significance for India’s nuclear energy programme.-In the age of industrial and economic revolution ,each nation is competing to be the best.Nuclear energy programmes is the fastest way to achieve and maintain it.

Nuclear reactors bring about a controlled chain reaction and the available energy is used for power generation.Hence the more power a country has, the more it’s development without depending on other countries.Nuclear reactor is a proven source of clean, abundant energy.Besides, since energy is obtained by fission, it is a renewable source of energy.A fission reaction is a process by which a nucleus splits into two smaller nuclei.

When a uranium nucleus splits into two, it produces two neutrons that can be used to initiate a nuclear reaction .Neutrons produced by fission have high energy and move extremely fast.Due to this a chain reaction takes place in the reactor and energy obtained is used for power generation.A liquid or gas moderator(water or helium) cools the neutrons to optimum energies for optimum fission.A breeder reactor is a type of nuclear specifically designed to create more fissile material (nuclear fuel) than it consumes.

It was considered a good option until the fissile material created was uranium.Natural uranium consists primarily of U238, which does not fission readily, and U235, which does.Although the U235 does most of the fissioning, more than 90 percent of the atoms in the fuel are U238, potential neutron capture targets and future plutonium atoms.A nuclear reactor can derive a significant amount of energy from such plutonium fission.But because this plutonium fissions, it reduces the amount that is left in the fuel.

To maximize plutonium production, therefore, a reactor must create as much plutonium as possible while minimizing the amount that splits.A breeder reactor thus creates more fuel ,however it a concerning because the plutonium can be used to make nuclear weapons.India should weigh the pros and cons of nuclear reactors before coming to any conclusion.Though they significantly contribute to growth and development ,it’s hazards shouldn’t be ignored.Strikes of people near Kudankulam NPP shouldn’t be blindly dismissed as they are really worried after the Fukushima NPP accident in Japan.

They should be educated and taken into confidence as they deserve to know the merits and demerits of nuclear energy.After all , the price we pay for security is insecurity.sai sir, thank you for such a wonderful initiative.This is one of the most useful forum of all the available ones.Right now I am not able to participate in answer writing as i don’t have enough understanding of the topics.

If answers, by all members of each day, can be made available to download as a pdf? so that they can be printed and revised later.If you can spend time on writing your thoughts on each question? it will really enrich our understanding Sai, Thanks a lot.Though you are short of understanding about some topics, you can still participate by going through materials on net.🙂 1) After 30 days, I will publish articles as PDF by putting best answers on top.If you have observed, all answers are already available here.

2) I thought of writing model answers, but it is not a good idea.The major intention is to generate ideas and content – not feed it.Some people may differ in their opinions also.I will give my honest feedback only if someone seeks it or when I see someone has missed important points.Thanks 🙂 Looking forward to read your answers soon.

sai Thank you for your encouragement and I respect your views.Yes i will try soon may not be from tomorrow.🙁 sai cryosphere represents the areas of earth which are frozen, viz ice, snow, permafrost, glaciers, this is an imp part of global climate system.

it affects the global climate in a significant way by feedback and interlinkages that are generated by ocean circulation, atmospheric circulation, clouds, moisture and energy content.

cryosphere affects the global wind circulation and hence rainfall pattern, moderates the temperature of low latitude areas, sequestrates greenhouse gases But in recent times melting of glaciers, receding ice sheets in antarctica, which can have devastating effects like rise in sea level and more global warming, has brought the significance of cryosphere to the fore.So understanding and protection of cryosphere has assumed importance for the survival and growth of mankind sai @all: Dear all, please provide your valuable comments Ananya Basu 2)What are the areas of cooperation for India and China in the international arena? Discuss.The areas of co-operation for the neighbouring countries india and china can be many yet not devoid of many problems.Our relationship with china dates back to historical times and the silk route is a testimony to it.But we can’t say so as china claimed it’s power over the south china sea citing historical references.

However for two countries vying for regional supremacy in south east asia, tensions are abound.The areas for co-operation can be trade, respect for each other’s territorial extent,non-invasionist policies, respect for other’s culture and traditional integrity.Merely saying “hindi-chini bhai bhai “ is not enough.Despite being larger in size,china often acts like a small brother to tolerant India.Carrying peace talks on one hand and threatening to close the chicken neck corridor(siliguri) is not good for maintaining regional peace.

Similarly to help Pakistan just to contain india or showing Arunachal Pradesh as a part of china are not healthy ways to deal with india for being pro US.With the look east policy of the US, the pivot of power is shifting to the such a scenario when there is cut throat competition for power and oil reserves,india and china should stand together than against.It is high time to be tolerant towards each other and create their own niche in the world economy.Ananya Basu Thank you Sahil,realised it just now after reading other answers.i did not touch international forums at all!! VIPUL Nuclear energy is produced due to the fission reaction of U235 atom.

During fission, U235 atom splits in to two smaller nuclei and small mass is converted in to enrgy.Fission process releases enormous amount of energy & 3 n released during fission reacts with another U235 atom and chain reaction starts Chain reaction is completed in a controlled environment ,energy thus released can be utlised for commercial purposes as well.Regular nuclear reactor: Naturally found uranium is U238 (an isotope of u235) which has only 0.U238 found naturally is enriched to increase the percentage of U235 to 3-4 percent, before being used in Normal reactos.

At present in india ,most of the nuclear reactors are PHWR (Pressurized Heavy water reactor).In normal reactors, neutrons released during fission reaction are slowed down using down neutron are called thermal neutron.Thermal neutron reacts with u235 atoms more efficiently and chain reaction is continue.Fast breeder reactor: Fast Neutrons released after fissions are captured by U238 and it converts it in to Plutonium 239.This plutonium isotope can be reprocessed and used as more reactor fuel.

Reactors can be designed to maximize plutonium production, and in some cases they can actually produce more fuel than they is the reason such reactors are called breeder reactors.Nuclear program in India: Nuclear program in India was started under the guidance of Visionary, Dr Homi Jehnagir Baba way back in 1950s.We have acheived the prowess in nuclear technology over a period of limited availability of natural uranium in India is still the biggest challenge for future nuclear present,nuclear power contribution is miniscule in India’s total power supply.Fast breeder reactors offer an opprtunity to use the reprocessed fuel as extra breeder reactors are not without concerns.To extract the plutonium, the fuel must be reprocessed that can create more radioactive waste and potentially high radiations.

India’s Ananya Basu lakshmi prasanna 2.India and china international cooperation and friendly consultations was strengthened on controversial issue and disagreements in exchanges.It is evident from cooperation in WTO, Doha round; climate change at the world level appointed joint cooperation commission and improved trade targets.India and china has historical relations through silk route.India was the first non communist country in recognising PRC and 16th country in establishing diplomatic relations.

But 1962 war deteriorated relations on both sides.In 1978 again officially trade was resumed.In 2003 first bilateral relationship document at highest level was signed.Their cooperation includes; multilateral cooperation in BRICS, BASIC, SCO, G20, during the Copenhagen climate change summit good cooperation was witnessed, to increase bilateral trade to $100 bn by 2015,banking, cultural cooperation, student exchange, tourism, infrastructure development, S&T agreements, pharmaceutical companies, economic policy research and development, cooperation in IT sector etc.

2011 considered as year of India china exchange.They also work jointly in curbing terrorism, drug traffic and maritime problems.Despite of all these cooperation’s, differences also exist in border sharing, trans border rivers, china dumping goods, insurgence of china soldiers into India, granting visas to Kashmir’s, supporting Arunachal Pradesh for independence, strengthening Pakistan against India, affecting our relations with Africa, exploration of India in south china sea with support of Vietnam.Therefore fields in which cooperation can be impacted include S&T, banking, trade etc.

people to people exchange is in great need.High level visits between governments for improving trust.hi lakshmi, The second last paragraph was not required.Rather, i think, you should have explained briefly about the areas of cooperation on international front.

The recent visit of chinese premier was to promoting regional goodwill in areas of border, trade and transnational river issue.

They are not related to international cooperation.Most of the things you mentioned are the review of india-china local issue.What is take of both countries, standing together, in international diplomacy??? lakshmi prasanna when they can settle their disputes then only they can strengthen cooperation.if locally they are not well how can we expect better coordination in international level.so strong cooperation comes on better diplomatic relations locally so i mentioned it.

As Sahil said, that paragraph was not needed.What you are saying above would have itself made a good conclusion.You have excellently covered many points.If you read your answer again, conclusion though is valid when seen in isolation, is not related to the body of your answer.

I totally agree to what you have said above -“ so strong cooperation comes on better diplomatic relations locally” – just it would have been good if it was part of your answer.lakshmi prasanna thanks sir, for giving opportunity to do mistakes and learn from it.i am trying to clarify my doubts on doing mistakes.Ashish Mandal 2)What are the areas of cooperation for India and China in the international arena? Discuss.

India and China being two emerging economies with huge market potential have much to offer in international arena.Following are the areas where India and china could cooperate :- a) After cold war world has become unipolar and in order to minimise hegemony of USA which often is against interests of developing world.Together India and China can aim for a multipolar world by cooperating in various international and regional fora like IMF reforms etc.b) Cooperation in order to suit interests of developing world at WTO which often works against the interests of developing world under developed nations dictat.

c) In order to maintain peace and security in Indian Ocean by protecting sea lines of communication especially against piracy and maritime threat, Sino-China cooperation is must .d) World peace is always at stake due to various threats like climate change, terrorism (religious, cyber), territorial conflicts etc.Both India and china can help resolve or mitigate such issues.e) Future Arctic melt due to global warming have much to offer, together India and china can put pressure to declare it as global commons.f) In Afghanistan, together by increased investments and cooperation in security both can help in creating peaceful in south central Asian region.

Same hold true for middle east and north Africa.g) In Africa together India and China can help in upliftment of Africa by cooperating in trade, commerce, aid and security.h) There is much to offer for BRICS to international arena which again can be a success by Sino-China cooperation.To conclude, India and China cooperation is not only necessary but essential for world peace as well as prosperity.Briefly explain how FBRs differ from Regular Nuclear Power Reactors?comment briefly on their significance for India’s Nuclear energy programme.Energy or Power is the lifeline for development of any increasing requirements for energy as a result of rapid industrialization,energy sustainability is becoming a challenge task for this crave for enegy security ,nuclear power offers a viable r Power Generation uses nuclear fission as a process whereby one giant nuclei gets fissioned into smaller nuclei and in the process lost mass converting into useful r power reactors are the structures which allows the process to be carried out in a controlled requires U-235 as fuel but as U-235 is limited in nature hence everyday new improved versions of these reactors are developed.FBR is one which is promising alternative with lots of advantages over regular reactors.Regular reactors uses U-235 as fissionable material,because of scarce U-235 in nature it is necessary to use it efficiently thus they uses moderators to slow down neutrons hence making them more efficient at extracting the process,radioactive waste is the advancement in R&D,FBRs came to the replaces U-235 with U-238 which is readily available in nature moreover they produce Pu-239 which can be reprocessed to be used as a fuel hence decreasing the fuel in these FBRs actinides wastes particularly plutonium and minor actinides are reduced .In addition these reactors uses fast neutrons thus no need of above are beneficials of FBRs over normal reactors.

India with world’s largest Thorium reserves hopes a lot from FBRs which can convert Thorium into useful U-233 which is even better than ’s BHAVINI is almost on the verge of completing its first FBR at Kalpakkam, r India plans to build 6 more FBRs over next 15 years.Although Nuclear technology offers a lot but it is not without evils Nuclear waste is one of the biggest problem owing to it many nations like UK,France has stopped there only India,Japan,Russia and China have operational FBRs.Radiation exposure is also a in the future more R&D is to be carried in order to make it a safe and solid waste free,less polluting and efficient form of Energy generation.Amudhan Briefly explain how fast breeder reactors differ from regular nuclear power plants? Comment on their Significance towards India’s Nuclear Energy Program? Normal Nuclear reactor converts U-235 into radioactive material and fissile Pu-239 whereas FBR’s use Pu-239 as fuel along with U-238, during the fission reaction in the FBR U-238 converts into additional Pu-239.FBR reactors have more nuclear fuel at the end of the reaction cycle than the start.Stage 1 of the nuclear program involved using U-235 as fuel in a heavy water reactor.Pu-239, which is the byproduct of stage one will be used in FBR reactors for stage 2 of the program.When Sufficient quantities of Pu-239 is stockpiled we can use the Pu-239 nuclear reaction to convert Thorium into the U-233 which an artificial fissile material, which is Stage 3 of the Program.

India has one the largest reserves of Thorium in the world and Thorium based reaction are far superior to FBR due Thorium’s greater atomic stability.India’s nuclear program is a sequential process where one stage must be successfully completed before initiating the next.Therefore stage 2 is a critical component and a perhaps the hardest stage due to difficulties with ‘doubling time’ of Pu-239 in FBR reactors which decreases our stockpiling abilities.With India-US civil nuclear agreement the importance of this stage has declined due to market access to U-235 from Australia, and availability of new technology due to the NSG waiver.

These options however carry the risk of compromising India’s Energy security which was and is a fundamental aspect of our Nuclear Program and any decisions must not compromise this.

Biman Ghosh 2)What are the areas of cooperation for India and China in the international arena? Discuss.India and China have enshrined as the two most significant countries not only in Asia,but in world the current scenario of the world(,Euro debt,slowdown of US economy,Kyoto2,etc)India-China have a very large field of scope for fields of scope can be discussed under following subheads: *IN REVIVING WORLD ECONOMY-China and India has grown very firstly and still have one of the highest growth zone debt and slowdown of US economy has appalling effects over world -China economic cooperation can revive world economy up to greater fair cooperation can be proved as a “stimulus package” for Euro zone and growth engine for world economy.*COUNTER TERRORISM AND WORLD PEACE: there must be anticipation of massive violence in Afghanistan in post 2014 and China have greater roles there to bring peace and counter terrorism cooperation will be proved as a boon for Afghanistan.*TOWARDS MDGs-There is a substantial part of world population living in these two developing - China can adhere to great co-operation and endeavors to fulfill these MDGs.These two countries have immense potential to achieve the MDGs and hence it will be resulted the overall achievement of MDGs in the world.

*ENVIRONMENT CONCERNS AND POLLUTION- India and China are among the countries,which emit a substantial part of global pollutants,like 2 these two countries are in industrial transition phase so,they polluting the environment can form a framework together and can work towards the less one of the largest fields,where the cooperation between both countries will drag the pollution level down immediately.India and China with impressive cooperation can help the world to tackle the major challenges, it is have very much potential to bring peace,prosperity and sustainable growth across the world.Biman Ghosh Amudhan What are the Areas of Co-operation for India and China in the International Arena? Discuss India and China are large and populous developing countries.They require and aspire towards development and Security and it is on this plank that they co-operate internationally on strategic issues.India and China co-ordinated in the UNFCC to make Equity on Emissions as one of its fundamental values, ensuring that both countries are not unduly burdened by meeting climate change objective when pressing matter such as poverty need to be tackled.

Security is another area of co-operation especially in Afghanistan.The SCO is expected to be a key player in the region in post-US Afghanistan.India is worried about the rise of Terrorism once US troops pull out and China is worried about the influx of Narcotics and increased rebellions in its Xinjiang province.Both Countries have a lot to gain from a stable Afghanistan.Bilateral Issues have been a serious hindrance to the development of strategic initiatives such as the South China Sea, Border Dispute and troop movements beyond the border facilitate distrust.

However the potential for India-strategic co-operation is vast.These areas include Co-operation in the UN in matters of Geo-strategic importance, promoting regional stability, ensuring that the artic remains a commons and if necessary provide strategic limitation to the US tilt towards Asia.Nirmal Singh Often referred as political and economic rivals, not so good relations of China and India has silver lining too especially when it comes to international forums.On economic front, Issue of farm subsidies given fresh life by G-33 recently, unfair tariff and non tariff barriers imposed by Developed countries at WTO are areas of mutual interests.The recent regional FTA proposed by Japan which will comprise China, India, S.

Cooperation through BRICS and recently mooted BRICS Bank at Durban summit is another progressive act of cooperation.At strategic level, The security of Malacca strait is important for both China and India as majority of Oil imports and trade with rest of world occurs through it, although both are suspicious of one another yet forms an area of convergence .Another important area is Afghanistan security where both have heavily invested with important Pipelines.Recent turmoil in Syria and Egypt are also important considering fact that both countries have substantial Diaspora there.

Further India supports BRICS position of non intervention in Syria in agreement with China.Further India bid for SCO can ensure further closeness on issue of Terrorism.Talks on Climate change seem to be the most important area of cooperation at international forums.Leading developing countries both have expressed concerns over inability of developed countries to provide funding and technology and have been vocal about their attempts to dilute responsibilities.Recent gain of observer status at arctic council will give stake in decision making over global warming issue and research to both.

Although mutual rivalry at multiple fronts has created more gaps than bridges yet the sphere of cooperation cannot be held hostage to short term issues.The urgent need is to leverage common strengths to create win -win situation for both in the long term.Nirmal Singh Often referred as political and economic rivals, not so good relations of China and India has silver lining too especially when it comes to international forums.On economic front, Issue of farm subsidies given fresh life by G-33 recently, unfair tariff and non tariff barriers imposed by Developed countries at WTO are areas of mutual interests.The recent regional FTA proposed by Japan which will comprise China, India, S.

Cooperation through BRICS and recently mooted BRICS Bank at Durban summit is another progressive act of cooperation.At strategic level, The security of Malacca strait is important for both China and India as majority of Oil imports and trade with rest of world occurs through it, although both are suspicious of one another yet forms an area of convergence .Another important area is Afghanistan security where both have heavily invested with important Pipelines.Recent turmoil in Syria and Egypt are also important considering fact that both countries have substantial Diaspora there.

Further India supports BRICS position of non intervention in Syria in agreement with China.Further India bid for SCO can ensure further closeness on issue of Terrorism.Talks on Climate change seem to be the most important area of cooperation at international forums.Leading developing countries both have expressed concerns over inability of developed countries to provide funding and technology and have been vocal about their attempts to dilute responsibilities.Recent gain of observer status at arctic council will give stake in decision making over global warming issue and research to both.

Although mutual rivalry at multiple fronts has created more gaps than bridges yet the sphere of cooperation cannot be held hostage to short term issues.The urgent need is to leverage common strengths to create win -win situation for both in the long term.simran Russian revolution was 1st successful socialist revolution which changed the course of the world history Czars in Russia ruled in a highly autocratic manner.they believed in the Divine theory of was not only despotic but also inefficient and weak.

common people didnt enjoy the freedom of expression nor they were allowed to hold meetings or organise themselves.

Russian bureaucracy was incompetent, corrupt and dishonest.Neither farmer not workers had any meaningful place in the society.There was a wide spread dissatisfaction among non-Russian.The liberals and radical ideas of the west penetrated into the country in a way or the other and gave birth to an intellectual the last quarter of the 19th century the intellectuals started spreading their ideas to the peasants through a movement k/s ” going to the people”.During last decade of the 19th century there was a rapid spread of socialist ideology in Russia.

Participation of Russia in the 1st world war proved fatal and brought about the final collapse of the Russia autocracy.This spirit of change was dampened which sets the stage of nihilism Nihilism was a youth movement a philosophical tendency and revolutionary impulse.It has new approaches to aesthetic, criticism and was also a contradiction between studied materialism and desire to annihilate the social order.Irish nationalism in late 18th century inspired by french revolution demanded self govt and autonomy from british parliament particularly ponying law which allowed british to rule ireland.

The socio religious reforms movement of 19th century triggers the resolution of the Indian national consciousness.The Indian nationalist movement was the political expression of rational and religious uproar and social and economic develop.Indian nationalistic movements with the goals of autonomy and self rule were the circumstance which lead to the unification or the division of a place were alike.The catalysts for nationalism based on the corruption or in effectiveness of a govt on its subjects.Indian nationalistic movements for independence were a direct reaction to imperialism.

India had experienced long periods of programmed nationalistic movement rose up in an attempt to throw out foreign influence and gain independence.simran Decolonization is the undoing of colonialism, the unequal relation of policies where by one people or nation establishes and maintained dependent territory over another.It can be understood politically or culturally.The terms refers particularly to the dismantlement in he years of the world war II throughout Africa and Asia.Decolonization is a political process frequently involving process of decolonization coincide with the new cold war between soviet-union and united states and with the early develop of new UN.

Decolonization was often effected by superpower competition and lead a definite impact on the evaluation of that competition.3 key elements played a major role in the process of decolonization: i… colonized peoples : thirst for independence.ii… 2nd world war which demonstrated that colonical power were no longer invulnerable.iii… New focus on anti colonialism in international area are such as United nation.United Nation having objectives regarding the decolonization i.

settle the population:UN objective is to settle the population of the country without any loss of their life.: End of civil war within country : the UN wants to end the war within and outside and solve the problems with mutual track.: Promote social infrastructure which was damaged by war, the UN helping the promotion of social infrastructure which include health, wealth and sanitation.: Complete freedom of newly born countries.

: Help new born country for growth in every matter.e , FBR (fast breeder reactors) and regular nuclear power.The difference is in the overall sophistication of the technologies involved.

Generation II and generation III nuclear reactor used low or unenriched uranium and produce high level radioactive waste than remains dangerous for many many years.Breeder reactors are the next generation.These are supposed to “burn” the uranium fuel hunger and break it into different isotopes which can also be burned.This extends the life of the fuel inc power output and creates a waste product that is far less dangerous than previous generation reactors.India follows 3 stages program for it nuclear energy development under Dr.

Stage 1st and 2nd has been completed and 3rd stage is in the process of development.1st stage :: pressurized heavy water reactor 2nd stage:: fast breeder reactor 3rd stage:: thorium based reactor or an advance nuclear power system involves a self sustaining series of thorium 232-uranium-233 fueled reactors.India has an active development program featuring both fast and terminal breeder reactors.India’s 1st 40mwt fast breeder test reactor(FBTR) attained critical on 18 oct,1985.

At the present the scientist of Indira Gandhi center for Atomic Research (IGCAR) one of the nuclear R&D institution of INDIA, are engaged in the constructional of another FBR 5000mwt prototype FBR with plans to build more apart of its 3 stage nuclear power programme.India has the capacity to use thorium cycle based processes to extract nuclear fuel.This is of special to the Indian Nuclear Power Generation strategy as India has one of the world’s largest reserves of thorium, which could provide power for more than 10000 yr and perhaps as long as 60000 years simran kindly help me by point out my mistakes….i know still i have done many mistakes but plz guide me regarding where i m lacking now … plz help meeee… Thank u “Foreign investment is far from being critical to India’s economic growth”.

Post the 1991 reforms, India has opened up several of its sector to foreign investment and integrated itself more deeply with the international economy.The foreign investment flowing into India are generally classified as “Foreign Direct Investment” which are long term, and “Foreign Institutional Investment” which are basically portfolio investment and are genrally short term and volatile.Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) is generally encouraged as it brings in new and better technology, best practices of global management, the much needed capital for infrastructure development and generates employment thus providing impetus to overall development and growth.However, FDI too isnt without it flaws.Experts argue that foreign companies are generally insensitive to needs of the local environment.

They exploit natural resource of the country and drain it’s raw material.Moreover, their intervention in strategic sectors like telecommunication could be a challenge with regard to security concerns.On the other hand, the portfolio investment done via FII are relatively less benificial as they are considered to be volatile and are very susceptible to the global market trends.Checks need to be in place to ensure that these investments do not destabilize the currency by making a quick flight as happened in the south east asian crisis in the 1990s.India needs foreign investment at the moment, as the domestic mobilisation of savings is not sufficient to pump in the capital that is needed to sustain the high rate of growth that the country needs to bring its masses out from the clutches of poverty.

The govt needs to provide a stable and enabling policy and legislative framework while ensuring that the domestic needs of the country are not compromised in the zeal to attract to foreign investment.At the same time, we should also ensure that we do not become completely dependent on foreign investment.Efforts should be sustained parallely to generate domestic capital and entreprenuiral skills so that the country can achieve the desired degree of self sufficiency in case the foreign investments dry up.Nikku Amudhan Discuss the demands and Expectation of the Indian Diaspora in North America from their Host countries.Are these demands justified? Critically examine Indians in the North American countries are predominantly engaged in highly skilled labor unlike Indians on work permits to Singapore or Dubai.

These labors in in North America require Job security from their employers and in case of termination a period of respite to find new jobs and stable visa regime.There have also been demands by the Indian government to provide social security to these workers which flatly refused by US government.Additional the Diaspora wants equal treatment in Taxes and benefits arising from them; and equality in the job selection process along with ability to hold a broader range of jobs.The US government allows for a highly skilled labor force to come and work but its objectives are not to create to new citizens but procurement of a temporary skilled workforce for its aging population.It is very hard to judge the legitimacy of these since each country treats immigrants according to their own laws and values.

The Indian Diaspora as foreigners must abide by them as we expect foreigners to abide by ours.These aspirations can however be reached by Bi-lateral government level talks rather than lobbying by the Diaspora itself.Amudhan “Foreign Investments is far from being critical to India’s economic growth” Critically comment India’s CAD is currently at levels of 4% and sometimes touching 5% mark.However our balance of payments has been marginally positive, for which we owe some level of stability in our foreign exchange market, is due to foreign investments.India has high savings rate and sufficient domestic capital to meet most of its own demand however in the present context foreign is averting a BOP crisis – concurrent to which economic growth will not happen.

The RBI allowed access to ECB’s for domestic companies during the liquidity crisis which galvanized our growth story through the liquidity crunch however a sizable amount of their foreign loans are due in March 2014, which in the absence of foreign capital will precipitate a BOP crisis and a spiraling exchange rate not auguring well for the economy.Foreign capital also brings in new technology and provides competition.However some circles point out to a positive cycle triggering this situation where in foreign capital creates a bubble in the real estate and finance markets triggering a wealth effect which increases our imports.Subsequently the rupee will also be overvalued leading to a higher CAD and the need for more capital.In which case we would need lower our dependence on capital and devalue the rupee to appropriate levels and brace for the long haul.

Our politicians and the RBI for political and humanistic reasons consideration (33% of our imports is Oil – with a low exchange rate the common man will feel the pinch of price rises) have decided to pursue both in a phased manner in the medium term.Please may I get your critical feedback on the answer I wrote above on India-China border issue affecting trade? Please keep up the good work.I have seriously started following your blog and intend to follow all that you have said for various GS papers.Thanks Anjali Motghare Insights this is my humble request, if u can please frame question by paper wise, topic wise first finish any one paper then start next.Means it will give a sense of completing one paper and the like.

It will also help in collecting data on one paper at a time.Other aspirants needs also be taken care of.lakshmi prasanna sir i to feel the same, pls let us choose a systematic and planned path.

From next week, I will do that but alternately – three days from paper-I and next three days from paper-II, Sunday holiday! I will see if I can increase number of questions to 3 or 4 (with varying word limits – 250, 150, 50) But questions won’t be asked topic-wise – they can be asked from any topics within a paper.(if not, it becomes boring, predictable and monotonous, an element of surprise should be there.Also I assume that most of you have covered paper-I and II already in your preparation) I started this in your interest only – ok, larger interest.

(You have asked a 5 Star question!) 😉 lakshmi prasanna Anjali Motghare Thanks a lot Sir !!! ya you are right paper 1 and 2 are already familiar to everyone.Nirmal Singh Indian Diaspora forming a large chunk of population of N.America has a number of issues and demands seeking to be addressed by host country.

Incidents like recent attack on Sikhs through firing on Gurudwara motivated by racial discrimination raises important security raises reservation and need immediate attention.

The immigration issue is another area which need reforms considering its discriminatory character and rigid conditions to sponsor one’s relatives.Indians are demanding parity in rights with fellow citizens in certain areas like more Political representation .The denial religious rights and freedom for Muslims and Sikhs is a matter of concern.The low wage migrants suffers from exploitation by employers and especially diplomats abusing diplomatic immunity under Vienna convention.They are demanding grievance redressal measures like ombudsman and helpline to address the same.

Related issue is legalisation of undocumentated migrants gaining entry through illegal means.It is indeed a tragedy that USA and Canada has done little to prevent anti-racial attacks ,turning back to their constitutional obligation to guarantee security to its residents.The approach to minimise immigration considering its influence on demographic transition and economy must be replaced by transparent ,anti discriminatory measures.The religious freedom should be viewed in light for liberal civic rights of which USA is a ardent supporter rather than security needs.The issue of diplomatic abuse is more serious and complex as it is out of their domain and needed to solved through source country negotiations to include provisions for applying host country laws under special circumstances.

The ombudsman and helpline would be a good step here.Further issue of legalisation of illegal migrants has no grounds since it is against country laws.The Diaspora seems to have reasonable and justifiable demands which every country is supposed and must give heed to considering the Diaspora contribution to country economy, human resources and secular credentials Anjali Motghare Nirmal Singh I gathered all data from The Hindu specially opinions over the r good source can be has given excellent strategy for diaspora it helps Anjali Motghare shanti Foreign investment is needed for any country in two cases.1) When domestic investment is inadequate.In domestic investment front, position of India is fairly sound.As for foreign exchange, it can either be an asset or a liability depending on its repatriability.If it is repatriable it is liability foreign exchange else an asset.This way only three types of foreign exchange can be considered as assets – exchange earned from exports, NRO deposits of NRI’s, foreign aid from other countries or agencies.The rest are liabilities like foreign direct investment (FDI), foreign portfolio investment (FPI), foreign currency loans from other countries etc.

FPI is investment in the capital markets by foreign institutional investors for quick and short term gains.It is called ‘hot money’ or ‘fly by night money’ since it can be withdrawn overnight.FDI is investment in the plant or enterprise by a foreign investor which is part of the paid up capital.It is a debt inflow or a liability foreign exchange because the profits it generates will have to be repatriated in foreign exchange.Foreign investment should be avoided unless the yields are more than the repayments.

It is not to be forgotten that the South East Asian crisis in 1997 was due to capital flight.In Indian context, in retail sector, if supply side management or technology was what we needed, strengthening these would have been better than opening it to FDI.No economy ever developed with FDI alone.Sustainable economic growth takes place only when the foreign investment is coupled with domestic technological development and application, indigenous mobilization of resources with the help of government’s support and regulation.

shanti Sir, its heartening to see your efforts to help us.It’s one of the first answers i have written.Realised that i havent added many points relevant to India.

Regards Shanti, Your answer is too technical and everything you have mentioned is correct and valid.Read the question again – the statement simply means that foreign investment is not critical for India’s economic growth.

You have to ‘comment’ on this statement ‘critically’.When you are asked to comment, you have to take a stand – either support the statement and strongly defend it, or oppose it and justify it.So you should make your stand clear in the introduction and give a logical flow to your answer.This question, though was asked by UPSC in 2009, is very relevant today also(last month we saw easing of FDI norms, increase in capping etc).Going through India’s history – in economic policy making regarding foreign investments – to present scenario and its effect on economic growth, you have to either defend or oppose it.

You will get points to justify both stances.Choose one and defend it with reason and logic.shanti Insights, Your review and others answers gave me a perspective of approaching this answer.But i was clueless when i started to write the answer.

I love the way things are happening here.During last few decades FDI has become important, as it improves savings and investments for improving production capacity which in turn causes economic development.FDI mostly greater between OECD countries, but recently attracted by developing economies ie BRICS.

India started FDI in 1991 through FEMA act.Recent survey revealed India stood in second position after china in attracting FDI.Moreover FDI showed marginal significance in Indian economic growth.FDI improves economic growth of a country by bringing capital, technology, managerial skills and capacity and access to foreign markets etc.But the host country should have certain conditions like good per capita income, trade openness, educated labor, developed financial markets and absorptive capacity in order to see FDI impact on economic growth.

The survey shows reasons for negative impact of FDI on Indian economic growth.The fact is increase in growth rate of FDI is much higher than GDP growth rate.To absorb this excess FDI inflow employment generation is needed.But unfortunately employment growth rate is lower than FDI growth rate.Resulted high inflation pressure and dropped economic growth.

Therefore allowing FDI inflow into economy only cannot warrant economic growth minimal level of economic growth should be there in the economy to absorb the excess FDI inflow.So government should come up with a policy where FDI enhances domestic production, savings and exports.conclusion is FDI in exports oriented sector is advisable for better economic growth.lakshmi prasanna lakshmi prasanna but sir can u give some idea of authenticating a source like things we need to mention.is it based on author or name of survey or time period or news paper names.

i do avoid authenticating due to this confusion.pls educate me in this thanks for everything.You need to do this when you mention data (lest examiner thinks it is all cooked up) It is better to cite widely accepted, neutral and respected reports – economic survey, UN reports, WB/IMF reports, NFHS etc.In some cases reports of reputed NGOs can be cited.You don’t have name newspapers in your answer.

(papers follow a set of ideologies) It depends lot on context too.By chance if there is a question on leaked diplomatic cables related to India, depending upon the question you may have to mention Guardian/The Hindu newspaper names.It all depends on the nature of the question and quality of your source.lakshmi prasanna premkumar Paper wise question makes easier to understand it s feels easier to aspirnts like pls consider this request phani 1) Discuss the demands and expectations of Indian Diaspora in the North America from their host countries.Are these demands justified? Critically examine.

The immigration of Indians to North America particularly USA and Canada has been happening from pre independent times.After independence many people from india belong to all kinds of skill sets migrated to these countries temporarily and permanently.The lucrative idea of “American dream “ and the development of those countries with relatively less accommodation in Indian industry based on their skill set many young IT professionals and especially IIT graduates migrated to north America and are in all walks of life .Out of total population, though Indians account for only a mere 0.7% , 75% of them continue to held very important positions in both private sector and public life.

But they continue to face racial and cultural discrimination in some parts of North America.The recent attacks on Sikh gurudwara in USA are a standing testimony of the racial prejudice of some sections of the American population.Especially in times of economic hurdles and growing unemployment Indians are being seen as the biggest job snatchers.Many students are doing a less than skilled jobs like pizza delivery, working in grocery shops and petrol pumps to meet their ends meet.They do not come under any social security programs.

They lose their jobs as and when their employer wishes.There is a difference in the wages too.A recent study says a Canadian Indian is getting an average income less than 10% of a Canadian though are endowed with the same skill set.With increasing terrorist threats, sometimes Indian Muslims are facing a hard time to clear the immigration checks at the airports is increasing the trust deficit.The NRI’S AND PIO’S expect not less than a fair and equal treatment in employment form countries which boast of equality and freedom.

There is a need to increase the trust and value their contributions in the development of north America and constantly pursue the goal of safeguarding them by allying their fears and by providing a social security and stricter punishments against racial discrimination, the onus is on the host countries.Discuss the demands and expectations of Indian diaspora in the N.America from their host these demands justified?Critically examine.

In this era of globalization when the world is turning into a global village,Indians are also spreading their wings to other countries in search of better Indian Diaspora is expanding with America is one of the leading recipient of the Indians because of economic chances and values offered .

But this is not so harmoniously every now and then there comes complaints regarding continous discriminations Indians are being subjected in these concerning issues broadly refers to 3 categories – Social security- This covers issues related to attacks on Indians in workplaces or educational institutions on racial lines like Dot busters gang of New is currently most burning topic.Religious issues –like relating to observance of ritual rites by certain religious communities ,for g of turban by Sikhs,recent attack on gurudwara.Economic problems-this relates to problems like job security,wage security etc.Some other problems raising heads refers to visa problems and providing of basic facilities to Indians.Pointing to these lithora of problems,Indians in alien countries continues to seek support from their host countries as well as their countries can try and sort out these problems at their levels by opening helplines ,extending support facilities to Indians ,discussing issues like religious ones with concerned religious heads and home countries through diplomatic channels while at the same time Indians diaspora must refrain from making any demands which prejudices the local laws and rules of the country the whole Diasporas could well be a part of devt.

Process as it participates in economic prospects and integrations process of the host countries as well thus they must try and protects foreign diasporas within their borders.Vijay Pateriya Second half of the questions is not answered.For specific information please have a look at this: /diasporapdf/ (page 188).Your conclusion is not related to the question or introduction.

From introduction to the conclusion the whole answer must flow logically.After writing each paragraph, have a look at the question.See if your answer is in the right direction and write accordingly.Your answer is good one, but try to make it the best one.🙂 Nik “Foreign investment is far from being critical to India’s economic growth”.

What got started in the late 80’s had its result in 1991, when India announced itself to be Liberalized, Privatized and Globalized (LPG reforms).The concept was clear in itself to prove India being a part of the Global Village.The doubts, however still hover around whether the foreign investment is critical for India’s economic growth? Certainly, a country’s growth in this era cannot be in isolation.It needs to have the benchmark practices of the world in order to be a real competitor.

This is not at all possible unless the foreign players are actively involved in the country.We cannot deny the fact that our process of industrialization started very late as compared to the developed nations.Idea of getting started from the scratch and development by its own was rejected thoroughly at the time of independence.Help from foreign countries and their companies certainly helped in improving the condition of the people along with improving the economic growth of the country.Results came slow but steady when India saw the GDP riding at 8% in 11th Five Year Plan.Yes, the reason was rise in internal demand but had not foreign players been active, fulfilling of demand was not at all possible.Indian rural market as an untapped niche market was also realized by the foreign investment when the companies started selling sachet packets of bigger brands at affordable prices.The overall result not only profited the companies but the Indian economy as a whole.It is this investment which will bring necessary changes to the infrastructure, logistics support and overall policy framing.

Raising doubts about it being critical is like looking backwards to old economic era.Foreign investment has proved itself worthy before and will continue to do so.Ans Indian Diaspora is one the major immigrant community in North America especially USA and Canada.Due to lack of opportunities at home, these Indians who are skilled laborers are looking abroad especially in American markets.However lately, there has been a sense of alienation among them due to growing intolerance of the Americans towards outsiders and rising protectionist attitude of the governments.

Most of the Indian population present in America suffers from racial threats, economic constraints and religious fanaticism.This can be seen in context of the racial attacks on students studying in different educational institutions, racial biasness in the period of recession etc.In addition to this our diaspora still demands a level playing field for both domestic and immigrant labor force as most of them, being professionals working in trans frontier companies, are suffering from visa policy regime of US etc.Other issues involve the attacks on religious places like gurudwaras etc.There has been growing concern from community about the rising fanaticism from the indigenous people.

This may lead to the rise of religious extremism.With these concerns Indian diaspora is expecting the host governments to take a pragmatic view of some of their legitimate demands like racial biasness and religious intolerance that are more of a real threat to the very existence of the community which has took the relations between Americans and Indians governments to a new height.However, visa policy regime is more a technical issue with the increasing slowdown in American economy and must be dealt at the inter-governmental level.Ashish Mandal “Foreign investment is far from being critical to India’s economic growth”.Foreign investment, comprising of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) and Foreign Institutional Investment (FII), in the current environment of economic turmoil in India, is seen as augmenter of economic growth.However, critics argue that foreign investment is no panacea but a toll of neocolonialism.FDI being a stable and much sought investment helps in getting much needed foreign reserves, transfer of technology and generation of employment .FDI also helps in improving quality of goods and services by inducing competition, thus indirectly helps in increasing export potential.

Thus, FDI can be said to be helpful in boosting economic growth of a country.

Even FII adds to foreign reserve by bringing global liquidity into the equity markets.FII being non-debt creating flows reduces cost of capital and raises price earning ratio and supplements domestic savings.Thus, FII indicates a positive relationship with the economic growth of a country.Large FII flow often indicates good economic prospects of a country and reinforces further investments.However, critics point that FII being ‘fly by night’ or ‘hot’ money is a risky and poses potential threat of destabilization of economy due to its nature of short term for FDI, it is argued that FDI indulges in cut throat competition and monopoly and is a threat to domestic firms.

In long term, profits flow out of country just like colonial ‘economic drain’ and thus can be detrimental to the national interests.But in India macro-economic concerns of high current account and rupee depreciation calls for foreign investment, as India desperately need foreign currency.FII is no doubt accepted as risky so more focus should be more on FDI, evident from the current FDI policy reforms.Opening up market in new sector will boost economic growth of India as seen in 90s reform especially in telecom sector.RV Foreign investment in the form of Foreign Direct Investment , FII , QFI are deemed to bring much needed foreign capital , enhance technology transfer and establish world class management and industry competetiveness.

There has been much hue and cry over the recent “tapering” fiasco in the Indian markets and many have questioned the wisdom of foreign Investment citing reasons from low technology transfer to not so efficient management .I find this view myopic and stand by the long term gains the country stands to hold from Foreign Investments .India is destined to be the global growth engine and for this it requires huge injection into the infrastructure and the capital market which need to be partially sufficed from foreign investment as has been the case in the past.Foreign Investments have undoubtedly brought in competitiveness in the markets thereby reducing the inefficiency if not totally eliminating it and has brought in customer centric good have shown interest time and again in the Indian bond markets and still hold a considerable weight in that area.The condition of Indian economy had it not been for the 1991 reforms would have been abysmal .

The belief in Foreign Investment has been aptly reflected by the competent authorities like SEBI and RBI which have proposed to ease the norms for foreign Investors and club them into a new profile of Foreign Portfolio Investors and is considering of increasing the avenues for tax benefits to furthen their interest in the Indian market.India would do well to not repeat another Vodafone and bring on amicable legislative and market reforms to augur well in the new era of Indo-China led growth.RV The Indian Diaspora in the North America has been one of the main contributors for their resounding success on all the fronts today.The plethora of success they have achieved as doctors , entrepreneurs , engineers and of late legislators and judges in the U.has established them as a strong aspiring community and has filled all Indians with a sense of pride.However the recent cases of racial discrimination , crackdown on Muslims post 9/11 , increased attacks on Indians and the violent attack on the Gurudwara in Canada , paints a not so rosy picture when it comes to effective protection and grant of rights on equal footing by the host countries .The Indian Diaspora’s demand for greater security both political and socio economic is justified and has rightly been taken up by the Indian Government through bilateral talks.Indian Diaspora also contributes to our economic growth through remittances , NRI deposits and investment in the bond markets and the recent case of Totalisation agreement talks with U.The dotting cases of abuse of Diplomatic Immunity especially in case of low wage migrants needs to be taken up at the world forums due to their universal nature under Vienna Convention.and Canadian Governments preaching moral values standing on the high pedestal of being liberal and biggest supporters of civil rights would do well to address these issues .

They should realize the importance of the Vikram Pandits , Bobby Jindals and Sunita Williams of the country and the prospect the Gen-next holds for the country which needs their free , peaceful and non-discriminatory environment to realize their full potential.RV phani 2)Critically comment on the extent, scope and implications of Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs) in India.Non communicable diseases like cancer , diabetes , cardio vascular diseases , stroke ,lung problems ,respiratory infections ,hyper tensions , stress , heart problems etc are a growing in India with changing life styles and food habits .Though the trend is similar in all developing countries but the south asia accounts for majority of deaths due to the combiled effect of both infectionery and non communicable diseases.The recent study says Over 52 lakh people died in India of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) which accounted for 53% of all deaths.

Among men, 38% of the deaths were under 60 years the most productive age, while among women it was 32%.Different to the popular belief NCD’s are not urban phenomena alone.A recent study published in Hindu says the rural population who might not have migrated to the urban centers but are effected by its culture are at the increasing risk of getting NCDS.These diseases are different from others as they demand a lifelong treatment and related life style changes which are normally ignored by the subsistent rural population due to the cash crunch and lack of awareness.

With increasing out of pocket expenditures, these diseases effecting the productivity of the people and thereby the national growth.A report says every year the amount of loss due to NCDS is around 54trillin worldwide.The geographical spread of NCDS is also a factor to reckon with.Out of all deaths in tamilnadu 10 % are due to diabetes in 2012.Up,Maharashtra ,assam , Karnataka,kerala are among the highest.

Kerala, the most progressive of all the states in terms of socio economic indicators is at the top in the list of states with NCDS.Understanding the importance of prevention, GOI has come out with a national programme to prevent cancer , diabetes , cardiovuscular diseases , stroke (NPCDCVS) to sensitize people and to urge the state governments to take care of the medicinal needs of the people.Tobacco use , alcohol consumption are the main causes of cancer and premature deaths before 60 are effecting the life span of the populations and the death of the food winners is increasing the vulnerability of the elderly.Whatever the GOI’s intervention could be ,NCDS can only be managed by a sensitive and cautious population and changing life styles ,reduced consumption of intoxicants with proper exercise and diet.

Nikku 1)“India is losing its strategic influence in the Indian ocean region”.

In the light of the recent developments in the region, critically analyze the statement.The Indian Ocean region is critical for India on two basic fronts.One, the securing of sea lanes of communication that carry most of India’s energy needs and trade that feeds the burgeoning economy.And two, the strategic importance from security perspective given India’s vast coastline.Off late, there has been a growing presence of China in the Indian Ocean region triggering apprehension in Indian strategic circles.

The “strings of pearl” theory of China surrounding India via naval bases, China’s role in the infrastructure development of the small states has built up an atmosphere of suspicion.The recent cancellation of the GMR deal by Maldives and the subsequent visit of Maldives defence minister to China has accentuated the problem.On the other hand, the US “pivot to Asia” policy to contain China and recognising India as a strategic partner in the region has flared up doubts in the minds of Chinese of a possible Chinese encirclement.This has led to a race of naval modernisation between India and China that has acted like a vicious circle in conflict escalation.While some experts believe that the Indian stronghold in the region is loosening as China makes further inroads, India too has been active in securing it’s strategic position.

The growing military relationship with island nations, the frequent visit of Indian Navy and Coast guards to assist Seychelles, Maldives, Mauritius etc, The DOSTI excercise with Maldives and adding Sri Lanka in this earlier bilateral engagement are all signs of healthy activism.India is also assuming a greater leadership role in the Indian Ocean institutions like IOR-ARC and the Indian Ocean Naval Symposium.The need of the hour is to realize that this is not a zero sum game.China’s increasing influence does not necessarily translate to India loosing it’s strategic advantage.India’s geographic advantage in the region is unmatched and its deep ethnic and historical ties with smaller nation add to it’s strategic armour.

At the moment, we need to work towards establishing institutional engagement that can address India’s concerns with regards to China’s growing influence in the high seas, as well as assuage China’s fear of encirclement which only makes it more aggressive.Nikku Actually, your conclusion would have made a great introduction to your answer which has all the points.The question asks you to answer in the light of the recent events – you have not explained any of them.Critical analysis demands insightful examination of each issue concerned.neeraj Briefly explain how fast breeder reactors differ from regular nuclear power plants? Comment briefly on their significance for India’s nuclear energy programme.

Fast breeder reactors(FBR) are second generation reactors in the Indian Nuclear Program.These reactors are plutonium based reactors generated by fission of uranium in the first phase of Indian Nuclear program instead of uranium used in regular nuclear power plants.FBR also differ from regular plant in use of coolant.They use liquid sodium for cooling instead of heavy water.India’s nuclear energy program is a three phase program based on the vision on great nuclear scientist Homi J Bhaba.

The three phases are Pressuriesed Heavy water reactor, Fast Breeder reactor and Advanced Heavy Water Reactor.As we have 2nd largest proved reserves of thorium in form of monzite found in sand of South India and very small amount of Uranium reserves, we need this three phase program to be self sufficient in energy requirements.In view of volatile international scenario and unreasonable demands put by NSG with backing of the western countries for procuring uranium, it would be prudent to develop indigenous program which will utilize our huge thorium deposits and help us to be self sufficient.But it would be much better if give better elaboration on your first part.

Ananya Basu 2)Critically comment on the extent, scope and implications of Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs) in India.Non communicable diseases are the diseases which are not transferred through contact from one person to another.Due to the advancements in medical science communicable diseases are controlled but non-communicable diseases which are mainly life style related diseases are gaining strength.The UN reports states that the NCDs are the leading causes of death worldwide.

They can be classified into two types- A)GENETIC DISEASES B)ENVIRONMENTALDISEASES The genetic diseases are hereditary i.they are passed generations after generations through -muscular dystrophy, color blindeness, c ystic fibrosis, downs syndrome etc.genetic engineering experts are trying to prevent genes related diseases by gene mapping.They plan to identify the causative gene and then remove /modify it’s DNA with another .

The environmental NCDs are a serious cause of simply mirrors the ills of our so called development and modernisation.Man has found many ways to reduce his his quest to simplify life, he has invited many troubles.Due to the day to day stress, he is subjected to insomnia, ulcers, acidity, hairfall, hypertension and even migraine.Sedentary life leads to obesity,diabetes, arterosclerosis.Lack of exercise ,faulty eating habits have given rise to CANCER which was unheard of in the past few decades.

Despite having a inverted demographic pyramid, we are facing a grave issue of caring for our children and looking after the elderly and we cannot completely eradicate NCDs,inculcating good habits of hygiene,health ,lifestyle ,daily exercise,consumption of fresh fruits on a daily basis will definitely make NCDs less lethal.There is no mention of India in the whole answer.The question asks NCDs’ extent, scope and implications in India.

Except last paragraph, where ‘we’ implies India, the rest of the answer is not related to Indian context.

Anjali Motghare India has a strong footholds in Indian Ocean though recently there are issues of voting against Sri-Lanka in UN resolution and Maldive crisis, it doesn’t affect to that level of loosing strategic interests in the region.China’s “string of pearl policy” and its growing influence in Sri-Lanks and Maldives is a matter of concern but so far India has been successful in its foreign policy in Indian Ocean due to its multipronged strategy of trade and investment; concessional loans; diplomacy; multi lateral initiatives such as India Africa forum and the Indian Ocean Naval Symposium; education training placements for foreign students through the Indian Technical and Economic Cooperation; Tele education, Tele-medicine and Pan African E-Network programmes; training billets in Indian military academies for foreign military personnel; capacity building programmes in education; government and military affairs ; and defence cooperation.India has a high level bilateral relation with immediate neighborhood Myanmar, where it is buliding a port, with Bangladesh it has solved its boundary disputes.It is bulding homes in Sri-Lanka for IDP’S.It held bilateral and multilaterl naval exercises with Maldive and Sri-Lanka.

The Indian Navy and Coast Guard frequently assist Seychelles, Maldives and Mauritius in maintaining security by providing maritime surveillance, hydrographic surveys, training, and maritime military equipment and repair, in addition to engaging these countries in exercises.In the extended neighbourhood it shares economic ties with west Asian nations.With African countries it relations mainly focused on development.India provides security to trade vessels of many countries from Strait of Hormuz to Malacca strait.India is a rising naval power but things should not be taken granted and focus shoud be on restoring estranged relations to keep its influence intact.

Ans Non communicable Diseases cannot transmit from one person to another through any medium like air, water etc.Some examples of NCDs include cancer, asthma, diabetes, heart problems etc.According to WHO, there has been a shift in health burden of NCDs in India due to growing culture of consumerism and lack of adequate health facilities.This led to an increase in the number of people infected by the chronic yet deadly diseases.The extent of NCDs lies in the changing behavioral pattern of the Indian society with economic prosperity and rise of income which led to marked shift in eating habits.

The unhealthy diet pattern, tobacco and alcohol use, insufficient physical activities coupled with urbanization and increased pollution have enormously contributed for loaded numbers.The NCDs have infested to every social group whether rich or poor.The stressed social life leading to hypertensions has increased the death, diseases, disability to the people.The limited scope due to insufficient hospitals data and political will to enforce rules regulating sale of harmful substances have added to the woes of the government.In addition to that, lack of better and affordable health care infrastructure and human expertise with lack of awareness about the diseases have made India a rising global disease hub.

The prevalence of NCDs results in a higher burden with low productive labor having high mortality and morbidity.It leads to high out of pocket expanses resulting in extreme poverty accelerating a vicious cycle.It has social costs in the form of lack of education facilities to children, lack of employment opportunities etc.India needs a practical approach for establishment state of art facilities for early diagnosis and treatment coupled with proper legal measure for containing the sale of tobacco products and creating awareness about healthy dietary fibrous food.Anjali Motghare Sahil again very good structure and language you use but extent u missed.

i think extent and scope is one and same thing.No?? i mentioned the extent in second paragraph.I request you to give me some data on what i should mention , if possible.Thank you Anjali Motghare Article in sci-tech The Hindu on NCD so sir may have asked the question.

According to study conducted in 2010 suggest that one in every ten Tamilians is diabetic and another eight percent of the population is pre-diabetic.The leading cause of death in middle aged men is heart disease, even in poorer states such as Uttar Pradesh and Bihar.neeraj “India is losing its strategic influence in the Indian ocean region”.In the light of the recent developments in the region, critically analyze the statement.Alfred Mahan’s statement ‘Whoever controls the Indian Ocean will dominate Asia, the destiny of the world will be decided on its waters.

’ , describe the importance of Indian Ocean.India’s relation with countries in Indian Ocean has gotten sour.India’s vote against Sri Lanka in the UN combined with China’s support vote in the UN has aggravated the relations between the two countries.Also the politics at home is playing against the relationship between the two countries.The DMK and AIDMK parties are supporting the Tamils against the Sri Lankan Govt.

AIDMK went as far as banning the Sri Lankan Players from playing in IPL in their state.This combined with China’s aggressive policy has brought the relations to a new low.Chinese companies are grabbing new contracts in Sri Lanka thereby reducing the Indian influence.Also, relations with Maldives are also on a low ebb since the new govt.reneged on the deal with GMR for the development of new airport in the capital.Also the national police academy has been put on back burner.The rouge attitude of the new govt and the increasing Chinese influence is a huge concern for India.

Also, the problem with Mauritius being the tax heaven for companies like tata docomo has been a big dent.

has shown some interest in regulating the misuse of the concessions provided to it, things still need to be sorted out.With China gaining influence in the Indian ocean, and Maldives, Srilanka and Mauritus being strategic islands, care must be taken in formulating policies regarding the future with these countries.Anjali Motghare Neeraj new govt in Maldives reiterated its stand to have strong relations with India as before .Tax issue because of double taxation agreement not because of that govt.GMR issue is under consideration in Singapore court.Further it is not good to strain relations with a nation for a petty private company.

There is consultation between the two governments(India and Mauritius) over a better tax avoidance regime in consonance with global practices outlined by FATF neeraj phani 1)“The peasant movements of the second half of the nineteenth century lacked a positive conception of an alternative society – a conception which would unite the people in a common struggle on a wide regional and all-India plane and help develop a long term political developments”.British conquered india as part of their expansionary colonial policy , they never intended to make india their homeland unlike the previous order to fuel their industrial revolution ,the economic policies pursued by them has adversely effected the traditional Indian agrarian economy,handicrafts and social system.The zamindari , ryotwari,mahalwari systems introduced were mainly designed to extract as much tax as possible from the land holdings with out giving any surety of tenure and ownership to the peasant folk made Indian agriculture commercial and increased the rural indebtedness , power of money lenders , and eventual loss of dignity of the peasants.Though they agitated against the might of british to secure some concessions , the movements became largely confined to some regions.

Be it , the indigo revolt against the existing tinkathia system, pabna revolt against the tax beyond the legal limits , and the Deccan riots in pune and ahmadnar etc were largely regional basis an dnever spread across their boundaries.The uprisings got subsided as and when they got some concessions and lack os support from the intelligentia and not so popular press.The mode of communication was also primitive and largely through the publication of books.The lack of central leadership , political agitation ,mass based organization severy dented the the possibility of inciting a national consciousness unlike the peasant movements of 20th century.The decline of mughal empire and division of india into various princely states too negatively impacted the psyche of people to think in a pan india sense.

But though the peasant movements of 19th century never became big national movements , they could able to pave the way for the next generation moderate congress leadership to protest with the british taking the exploitation doctrine forward.rahul aggarwal 1)Despite some unfavourable recent developments in the indian ocean region(IOR),India still enjoys its deep strategic influence in the region.India’s strategic influence in the IOR depends upon following factors: a)its geographical location, c)relations with countries of IOR As far its geographical location is concerned India would always continue to enjoy the benefit of its vast coastline in influencing the affairs of IOR.The naval capabilities of indian navy is ever expanding due to its regular modernisation programme eg.-indigenous submarine Arihant,INS Vikramaditya, indigenous aircraft carrier in cooperation with Indian COAST Guard it is capable to take up any challenge in indian ocean.

The only factor which is of concern in recent past is its relation with other countries of IOR and increased engagement of China with the countries of IOR.China is aggresively engaged in developing various ports in the immediate neighbourhood of India which includes Gwadar, Hambantota, Sitwee, Chittagong, Marao .Also it has increased its engagement levels with Maldives,Srilanka,Mauritius and Sychelles by providing aids and assistance.Even India’s intelligence agency RAW has shown concern in this regard.In addition to in recent past there has been some concerns over india’s relation with srilanka over tamil issue and some minor concerns with maldives like indian company losing airport contract Despite all these facts india enjoys strong relations and influence with the countries of IOR, some examples to show it are:this year india concluded DOSTI exercise with maldives and even included srilanka this year, maldive’s former president nasheed took refuge in india’s embassy, srilanka regularly shares with india its situation with regards to tamils,indian navy and coast guard often assist seychelles,maldives and mauritius in maintaining security by providing maritime surveillence.

Thus we can conclude ,though india can’t take its central position for granted ,presently it enjoys strategic influence as far as affairs of IOR are concerned and it has to carry on the good work to maintain it.Nascent Writer vipul Critically comment on the extent, scope and implications of Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs) in India Deaths in India due to Non communicable diseases are almost double of deaths due to communicable leading chronic NCDs in India are Cardiovascular,cancer,diabetes,Chronic,obstructive pulmonary causes of NCDs are smoking,alcohol,lifestyle and unhealthy life which are preventable.Indian people spend handsome amount of their earning on tests,treatment and medical devices for per reports,total expenditure by Indian people on NCDs is nearly four time the total government expenditure on health (3.NCDs affect mostly the people in age-group (35-64 years).

It means many productive life are lost due to NCDs.Displacement of communicable disease with NCDS is generally regarded as good but India case is far away from making such y of the India is that large population is suffering from NCDs and they remain unaware of it till the last in many developed countries ,India must increase their expenditure on health to prevent the chronic detection,new medical treatment,prevention of NCDs are essential for health of India and India’s economic progress.Biman Ghosh “India is losing its strategic influence in the Indian ocean region”.In the light of the recent developments in the region, critically analyze the statement Indian Ocean Region(IOR) is one of the most important regions across the importance of IOR can be understood by the fact that once a wise British thinker had said that the “Asia will be ruled by, who rules over IOR” Amid recent turmoil in Pacific region,IOR also has not been “Insulated” has taken a number of steps to get Pivot role in region.India on the other hand, has lose its influence steadily In southern part of IOR .

Though,India still have very good command over North-eastern part of IOR,yet In recent years,India has got numerous setbacks in its strategic advances in the southern most important one is China’s “String of Pearls” policy,which apparently shook the complete Indian Influence over IOR.China’s most touted policy has not only created the possible threats to Indian maritime security but also reduced the Indian influence from the IOR provided an alternative to Indian neighbors in order to make Indian influences inferior as happened in the case of Lanka’s Hambantota Port,where the minor deleyance in Indian responses took heavy toll in it’s diplomacy.In a recent Business tycoon’s summit in China some south Asian countries,like Maldives,Srilanka, .strongly advocated to increase the bilateral ties with China,instead of India.To some diplomacy in itself is responsible for loosing influences over southern has failed to make a cohesive relationship of trust among it’s the north-eastern part of region where India has developed a significant relationship with ASEANs.

The frequent assertive call from Vietnam for India further strengthen ,while India has strengthen its command over northern part of IOR it lose significant Indian influence over southern IOR and its neighbourhood have a holistic command over entire IOR india should be cautious while handling its southern ’s geographical location lies in the very heart of this important region and if the strategical advances,that India have by its location could be applied properly,India can easily influence almost every activities that take place in IOR.Biman Ghosh Biman, You have made sweeping statements at many places (“India still have very good command over North-eastern part of IOR”, “China’s “String of Pearls” policy,which apparently shook the complete Indian Influence over IOR”, “India can easily influence almost every activities that take place in IOR” ) Also, Vietnam was needed here.You have repeated – “while India has strengthen its command over northern part of IOR it lose significant Indian influence over southern IOR and its neighbourhood have a holistic command over entire IOR” Words you have used is 332.🙂 Nascent Writer Nascent Writer 1)“India is losing its strategic influence in the Indian ocean region”.In the light of the recent developments in the region, critically analyze the statement.India, being a littoral state with projected land mass into the Indian ocean and with her distant islands of Lakshadweep and Andaman and Nicobar islands, has an immense economic, strategic and geopolitical advantage in the Indian ocean region.Owing to this advantage, India has developed a strong navy with 150+ warships and naval bases in her littoral region and Andaman and Nicobar islands.Recently she has also announced building of a naval port in her western island group of Lakshadweep.

Although India had been and is being a dominant player in Indian ocean region, recent developments in this region has brought in many more international players due to the growing importance of Indian ocean.China, a growing economic power, claiming to satiate its energy security has deployed a number of naval vessels to protect its commercial interest (fighting anti piracy) in the Indian ocean region.This deployment along with building of ports at Gwadhar in Pakistan, Humbantotta in Srilanka and Chittagong in Bangladesh is seen as Chinese encircling of India and is dubbed as the “String of Pearl Policy”.Also China’s recent securing of deep ocean exploring license in south western Indian ocean region for poly metallic sulpide nodules is viewed as China’s keen interest to dominate Indian ocean region.Barrack Obama’s “Pivot to the east” policy, announced recently, to counter the rising Chinese influence, has also increased the insecurities in Indian ocean region as America has increased its naval presence in its Diego Garcia islands.

These recent developments seem to jeopardize India’s influence in the Indian ocean region.However, merely considering the geographical location, India has a lot of room to increase its presence and dominate the situation in this region.So it would be incorrect to say that India is losing its strategic influence in the Indian ocean region.Your answer considers contribution of external forces in weakening India’s influence in the region.

Recent developments have indicated that India is itself blundering in the region.You would have considered this also in your word limit is crossed.Nascent Writer Mohit Foreign investment in India was allowed for the first time in independent India in 1991, as a part of economic reforms.

It comes through two routes: Foreign Direct Investment(FDI) and Foreign Portfolio Investment(FPI).$33 billion while FPI was US$ 18 billion.In comparison to these meagre amounts of foreign investment, India’s GDP(nominal) for 2011-12 was approx.

The economic growth in India broadly depends on the growth of 3 sectors: Agricultural sector, Industrial sector and Services sector.In agriculture, there has been no foreign investment since independence and whatever growth has been witnessed is due to the investment by government or Indian farmers.However, in the industrial and service sector, the situation has been different.

The economic reforms of 1991 led to the flow of foreign investment in both the sectors.In the industrial sector, there has been foreign direct investment mainly in oil-and-gas industry (BP-Reliance deal) and manufacturing sector.But the contribution of FDI in the growth of this sector has been negligible.The growth has been mainly driven by domestic capital of public and private sector.In the services sector, there has been relatively more FDI than that in industrial sector.

Over the years, telecom, insurance, banking, hotel, and single-brand retail sectors have witnessed considerable FDI but the contribution of FDI in growth of service sector was also negligible.The foreign portfolio investment goes in the equity and debt markets.Thus it doesn’t contribute directly to economic growth.Thus from the time of economic reforms in 1991 till today, foreign investment has not been a critical factor in driving economic growth in India.However, in the years to come, as the government moves to liberalize the economy more to FDI, it might play a critical role.

For more FDI to actually come in the first place, it would be important to remove the bureaucratic bottlenecks that investors face today.Critically comment on the extent, scope and implication of non communicable diseases.Ans:- Diseases which do not spread from person to person by some form of communication i.are called non communicable diseases (NCDs) e.Diabetes, Cancer, Heart diseases, migraine and other mental diseases.

India has now become a hub of all NCDs having maximum number of patients.

These diseases are the product of life style change.Urban life restrict physical labour and also expose humans to pollution.Changing food habits involving more intake of fat & carbohydrate is making the situation worse.Use of chemical fertilizer and pesticide is also a probable factor of cancer.

The spread of such diseases is more in urban areas while manual working rural people are still on the lower side off it.in agricultural has affected rural and urban areas of Punjab equally and make it the cancer capital of India.Previously these diseases were related to mature and old age group but now youth and children are also affecting.Heavy pressure to perform in different fields and less outdoor activities have resulted into this situation.

The symptom of these diseases were mostly ignored until it becomes too late to cure the disease.NCDs are affecting India’s growth story.On one hand, they are decreasing productivity of our workforce while the expenditure on the treatment is also wiping the saving of affected people.has also need to allot more funds to meet the challenges.

Awareness campaign to make people realize the importance of healthy life style, avoiding fast food, opting for organic food and more health facilities to diagnose early and treatment will be few important steps in this direction.Government of India has already launched a special programme to fight NCDs.shanti Non- communicable diseases are non infectious or non transmissible i., they cannot be transferred from a human being to another human being.Some of the examples are diabetes, obesity, hypertension, high cholesterol, cardio-vascular diseases, cancer etc.They are called ‘life style’ diseases in common parlance because they are known to be caused by changes in life style.Some examples include exposure to radiation, unbalanced diet, pressure due to deadlines etc.The recent “lancet report” on diseases indicates that the infectious diseases in India and elsewhere are on the decline owing to developed health care facilities while the non communicable diseases are on the rise.

It is a myth that these NCDs are common only among only the rich in India.The studies indicate that the poor are more vulnerable to NCDs but the only difference is that they do not take notice to most of the NCDs.India is only second after China in diabetes.The recent studies show that about 60 million people live with diabetes.Cardiovascular and cancer contribute to more than 60 percent of deaths due to NCDs.

It is projected that the deaths due to NCDs are to be doubled by 2020.It is important to avoid these premature deaths.Health ministry has undertaken a program in 2010 to screen the entire population above 30 years for NCDs.Such programs are to be effectively and inclusively implemented by integrating them with programs like National Rural Health Mission along with the awareness programs particularly among the marginalized and under privileged sections.shanti Yes sir, should have included them.

I realised it after reading others answers.I am feeling so lucky for having found this site.Nascent Writer 2)Critically comment on the extent, scope and implications of Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs) in India.Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs) like cardiovascular diseases, cancer, diabetes, mental disorders, stroke, respiratory diseases, etc.

, which don’t spread for one to another have been showing an increasing trend in taking human toll in India.According to a WHO report, NCDs accounted for 53% of all deaths in India in 2008.Cardiovascular diseases topped the list accounting for 24% of all deaths.Most of NCDs also called Life style diseases was thought to be prevalent among the rich.But its now proved to be a myth by a recent report which showed poor people are more affected by NCDs.

NCDs, unlike Communicable diseases can be easily prevented if precautionary measures are taken sufficiently.Government of India, in these lines has taken several steps to curb the NCDs.Many state governments have banned tobacco products in their states which are major causes of cancers and respiratory diseases.In a recent verdict, Supreme Court has also banned advertising of tobacco products.

Free medical checkup for citizens over 30 years of age to identify, disorders like high blood pressure, high blood glucose level, etc is carried out regularly by the state run hospitals.

Awareness drives about necessity of exercise, avoidance of alcohol and healthy food consumption are taken periodically.NCDs bring heavy implications on country’s economic growth by increasing the health subsidy bill, creating problems with procuring and distributing the required medicines (Most medicines are patented and have high costs).Also NCDs increase the out of pocket spending of the individuals pushing many towards poverty.NCDs reduce the individual and national productivity Giving due precautionary care to NCDs would not only help individuals but also the country as a whole.Within the given word limit you have answered it well.National Programme for Prevention & Control of Cancer, Diabetes, Cardiovascular Diseases & Stroke which was started on pilot basis in 100 districts in October, 2010, and which is extended to the entire country during the 12th Plan should have been mentioned in a line.cppcontrol “India is losing its strategic influence in the Indian ocean region”.In the light of the recent developments in the region, critically analyze the statement India has been a dominant force in the Indian Ocean Region.The recent developments in these region has led many to think about India losing its strategic influence.

These has cast a doubt about India’s maritime cooperation with the littoral countries of the IOR.India voted in favour of the UN sponsored human rights resolution against Sri Lanka recently.India could not oppose the resolution due the actual human rights violation by Sri Lanka and also due to pressure from political parties like DMK, AIADMK,CPI.Moreover, India did not go for amendments in the resolution regarding crime and genocide against the ethnic Tamils by Sri Lanka as desired by these parties.Thus, India avoided a full scale confrontation with Sri Lanka.

The recent cancellation of 500 million dollar contract by Maldives government to India’s GMR has led many to think about India’s shrinking influence in this country.However, the silver lining is that the with presidential election around and if Nasheed happens to win it, it would revitalize the relationship with India.With China investing heavily in countries like Pakistan, Myanmar, Sri Lanka which wants to secure its energy routes, there is ample scope for both countries i.India has also renewed its vision and has had detailed talks and bilateral cooperation with countries like Madagascar, Seychelles, Maldives, Mauritius.

With India co-hosting the recently held meeting of IOR-ARC , there has been call for enhancing maritime security control as well as economic cooperation.India, in fact is trying to assert its influence in the Indian ocean.With capable defense capabilities including the recently included INS arihant, India’s interest in these region is immense.This can be gauged by the fact that India’s navy has on many occasion confronted with the Somali pirates and saved many lives.India is trying to actively work with all the IOR countries as the geo strategic importance of the regions has increased over the years.

Critically comment on the extent, scope and implications of Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs) in India.There has been a big shift in the health burden of India with a change from communicable to non communicable diseases like cancer, diabetes, heart diseases etc.With change in the life style of India’s relatively young population these diseases are set to rise in near future.NCD’s was initially assumed to occur mainly in the urban places.However, these perception has changed and people from rural areas are also equally vulnerable to NCD’s.

Also, relatively young people are also found to be affected along with people in their mid ages.Change in lifestyle, eating habits, unbalanced diets, use of tobacco along with very less physical work and exercises are the main reasons.National Programme on Prevention & Control of Cancer, Diabetes, CVD & Stroke has been formulated by government and it has been increasing its share on prevention, early detection and new medical treatments to reduce the health burden.Implications of NCD’s include gradual health related issues of vital working population of the country including widespread deaths.There is an overall increase in the spending of the common masses for treatment of these diseases which indirectly leads to children not been sent to school and child labour due to decrease in the earning capabilities of the family.

Many superstitious belief and rituals have been relevant till today for treatment of these diseases due to lack of healthcare access in remote places.High scale unawareness , inadequate information , expensive treatment are major constraints for the people.India’s economic development should be coupled with increase in government’s spending in the education and the health sector.Both these are the primary forces that would dictate the future of the country.Emphasis should be given for better awareness to maintain good health and healthy eating habits among the young population of the country so that burden on these diseases come down in near future.

Prashant S 2)Critically comment on the extent, scope and implications of Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs) in India Non communicable diseases are distinguished by their nature of being non infectious and non transmissive.They include a range of diseases from cancers, heart diseases, cataracts and rising diseases of obesity and diabetes.A host of factors like age, gender, food, exposure to pollution and physical activities are responsible for the occurrence of NCD.NCD is widely prevalent in India in its many manifestations.Traditionally we only had the problem of mal and under nourishment of our children and citizens.

As per reports of WHO and Health Ministry more than 48% of our children are undernourished and we have far left behind sub Saharan Africa in this respect.With the recent changes in the income and living patterns a major chunk of our population is seeing problems of over eating and obesity.More than 22% of our population is reported to be obese with 40% being diabetic.Hence we now have a twin paradoxical battle of addressing malnourishment and obesity of our children and citizens.

There has been more than 60% increase in the incidences of heart attacks and diabetes amongst our citizens.

Thus the challenge that was once concerned with feeding our teaming population has now grown to address the issue of regulating the consumption pattern of a section of our population.Hence our policy makers are saddled with the twin and diametrically opposite challenge of under and over consumption.This is further attested by the influx of health and yoga centers, gyms, weight loss clinics and fitness centers.This unhealthy trend cannot be addressed only at the level of policy makers.Rather what is needed is to spread an awareness & importance of dietary requirements so that a health conscious generation evolves.

This would also go a long way in addressing the problems of food scarcity.Daily Answer Writing Challenge – 11th August 2013 Q.Do you think china’s emergence as one of the largest trading partners of India has adversely affected the settlement of the outstanding border problem? Answer: India and China understands that settlement of any international border disputes takes time and hence the India-China model entails focusing on scaling up trade while resolving outstanding issues in a “step-by-step” incremental manner.Border disputes involve sensitive nationalism factors which need to weighed in carefully lest it can give rise to domestic unrest.Last decade saw multi-fold increase in India-China bilateral trade which increased from $3.

5 Billion in 2001-02 to around $75 Billion recently.Today China is the biggest trading partner of India and the two countries have much to gain from each other and have pledged to increase their bilateral trade to $100 Billion by 2015.It was during the same time that there has been significant development towards resolving Sino-Indian border dispute.Apart from recent hiccups (Chinese incursions in Ladakh, stapled visa for Arunachal military general, terming Arunachal Pradesh as South Tibet), overall there has been positive developments like acknowledging Tibet and Sikkim being part of respective countries, setup of 3-stage political agreement and guiding principles to resolve border disputes and appointment of Special Representatives (SR) to resolve border disputes were some path-breaking initiatives.It is also to be noted that majority of the trade currently happens over the seas, there is an urgent need to use border to trade, which will help development in NER of India.

Opening of Nathula pass is a positive welcome.The possibility of china using force to resolve border dispute is rare, we hope SRs arrive at a mutually agreeable solution soon.Answer end rather abruptly – there is no conclusion in the end.This question particularly demands your opinion to be registered.Though its very clear what is your stand in your answer, may be a line or two in the end would have been good.

Hello Insights, Sir will u please tell the kind of books one should rely for science and tech part for the upcoming mains exam.The kind of questions UPSC asks is very basic.Thank You Sahil, I don’t think reading a book helps for S&T.

For non-science grads, reading NCERT from 6th to 10th std is advised that too only for getting basic concepts cleared.Mains syllabus has this – “Awareness in the fields of IT, Space, Computers, robotics, nano-technology, bio-technology and issues relating to intellectual property rights.If one gets ‘Basic Understanding’ of these concepts from Wikipedia and other sources, it is enough.If you observe Mains previous year questions, all have been asked from syllabus.

Anyway, I am putting strategy for Paper-IV in two days.Anjali Motghare I don’t think that China’s emergence as one of the largest trading partners of India has adversely affected the settlement of the outstanding border problem.Instead of that it helped in building opinion to bring out peaceful solution to border we observe relations in the 21st century are driven by economic interests.The China-India boundary question is a problem left over from history.

It dates back to 1950’s,and efforts to bring out peaceful negotiations started in 90’s.High level exchanges between two started in 2000’s.Since 2003, 15 rounds of talks on the boundary question between the Special Representatives of China and India have held , and made positive progress.The two sides have signed the Agreement on Political Parameters and Guiding Principles for the Settlement of China-India Boundary Question, and reached an 18-point consensus on the resolution framework.In 2006 boundary question was included as one of “outstanding issues” in the “Ten-pronged Strategy”.

In 2012 both the countries signed the ” Working Mechanism for Consultation and Coordination on India-China Border Affairs.Recently there was flare-up in Depsang area but that was solved within existing mechanisms.The current Chinese leadership have a different stance.They have indicated that they would like to move forward as soon as possible.During the recent visit of Defence Minister to China, they agreed to increase both the frequency and number of locations of border personnel meetings held along the LAC.

Both countries want stability and prioritise economic development, so they don’t want to clash with each other.A mutually acceptable agreement requires perseverance and patience and more importantly needs a friendly and favourable atmosphere.Trade resulted in strong economic ties which helped to create mutually cooperative and favourable atmosphere between the two countries.Anjali Motghare Your suggestions helping me lot to improve.

I feel its more from Chinese view point.It would have been even nicer from Indian perspective.Sagar Manish Since it’s inception in 1969, ISRO has been committed to its objective to apply advance technologies in real problems of men and society.In last five decades Indian space program has provided many jewels in India’s glory.Today, ISRO is 6th largest government space agency and among the leaders in advance space technologies.

It’s INSAT series is one of the largest domestic satellite system in Asia-pecific region.The IRS series is one of the largest constellations of remote sensing satellites in operation.It was the vision of father of Indian space program, Dr.Vikram sarabhai, that today India has achieved self reliance and developed the capability of build and launch communication satellites and remote sensing satellites.At present, ISRO has polar satellite launch vehicle (PSLV) and Geo satellite launch vehicle (GSLV) to launch IRS type and INSAT type satellites respectively.

ISRO is in final stages of developing GSLV-MK III series vehicles to launch heavier satellites in orbit.Under ISRO’s INSAT series, it has currently 10 satellites which application ranging from DTH services, telephone connectivity in remote areas, e-commerce and e-governance through 20,000 VSATs.Kalpana-I is India’s first dedicated meteorological satellite for weather forecast.In 2004, launch of EDUSAT has opened the distance education service.ISRO’s IRS series, has 11 satellites for effective management of natural resources.

It has application from agriculture to disaster management.ISRO also started village resource centers (VRC) which combines the services of IRS and INSAT to provide tele-medicine, tele-education etc in more than 500 villages of India.Today ISRO has established its role in making India a space power.It is a member of UN committee on peaceful uses of outer space.has removed ISRO from entity list to drive hi-tech trage and forge closer strategic ties.It’s marketing wing Atrix is now among the ‘mini-navratna’ and helped ISRO to achieve self-reliance.ISRO is continuing it’s commitment for explore the space and after its successful ‘Chandrayan I’ mission in 2008, it is now being ready for its Mars orbiter mission (Oct.The GSLV MK III series is in its final testing stages which will make ISRO to carry heavier satellites.It is also developing ASTROSAT, a national observatory for astronomical observations.Finally, ISRO is range of satellites which will be launched in near future.To summarize, while the world is being mesmerized and envied by India’s space power ISRO, it is quietly working on it’s commitment to make India second to none in advance space technologies which can be used in solving real problems.Asha Goud Q Comment on the role of ISRO in making India a space power and briefly explain on its proposed initiatives for the future.

A: ISRO is India’s national space agency dedicated to attaining self reliance in the field of Space research and development and utilizing technology for development of society.Major areas of activity are developing launch vehicles, satellites, payloads and instruments for the purpose of communication, broadcasting, meteorology, remote sensing and navigation.ISRO has achieved excellence in Polar launch vehicle technology through PSLV.PSLV is preferred as a launch vehicle for satellites by many countries because of its precise satellite deployment and low cost.ISRO now ready to launch GSLV with indigenously developed cryogenic engine that would make India capable of launching heavier satellites in higher orbits ISRO has developed for India a series of satellites, the INSAT and GSAT series of communication satellite and the IRS series of remote sensing satellites.

Communication satellites provide services like telecommunication, broad casting, meteorology and innovative use in field of tele-education and tele-medicine.Remote sensing satellites provide services in field of resource mapping and planning, earth observation, disaster management surveillance.Also ISRO is developing a constellation of 7 satellites that would be similar to GPS but will be dedicated to the Indian subcontinent, therefore reducing India’s dependence on other nations.ISRO is working in collaboration with space agencies of USA, France and Russia on various projects.ISRO and NASA have in past collaborated for Chandrayaan 1 and planning future cooperation in Indian Mars mission.

ISRO and Russia are working together for development of Chandrayan 2 that includes a lander, rover and a orbiter.India and France have collaborated in development of 2 meteorological satellites, Megha-Tropiques and SarAl that will study tropical climate and various parameters of oceans respectively.With all these indigenous developments and bilateral collaborations, ISRO is charting way for India to become a important player is global space research.Asha Goud Q Do you think that China’s emergence as one of the largest trading partners of India has adversely affected the settlement of the outstanding border problem? (GS 2012) A: The India China border dispute is a long standing issue.The two share a long boundary that is not demarcated with consensus and both having individual stands.

In 1996 mutually agreed LAC was accepted and since then negotiations are being carried out at various levels but with of no avail.In the midst of this the trade relations between India and China increased many fold from $4.8 bn in 2002 to $70 bn at present and both countries are working towards reaching $100 bn mark by 2015.It is important here to understand the nature of trade relations between the two countries.

China is emerging as India’s largest trade partner.

China majorly imports iron ore and raw materials from India, with iron ore consisting of 50% of imports.India on the other hand imports manufactured goods, such as engineering equipments and machinery.Also India is experiencing huge trade deficit of around $30 bn, the issue was also taken up by Indian PM with visiting Chinese Premier Li Keqiang.India should diversify its trade market and decrease its dependence on China.India should utilize its large coastline and advantage of proximity to the South East Asian countries as well as Africa.

Increasing the trade relations and putting the border dispute in the background is a very pragmatic approach adopted by the two countries.However it must me noted that Chinese military incursions too have increased, with more than 150 reported incursion in last ten months.Chinese authorities provided stapled visa to people from Jammu and Kashmir and Arunachal Pradesh.China is therefore becoming more assertive about its stand on the border.A healthy trade relation between two countries does help to keep the border negotiations on track but if China emerges as India’s largest trading partner, India might have to soften its stand and therefore India should focus on diversifying its trade market.

Kirthi India and china have significant border disputes and any border settlement might involve significant give and takes.Both countries tend to wait for the right moment favorable to them to settle the issue and meanwhile have instituted talks between special representatives.However, the rise of china as the largest trading partner with potential to exceed 100 Bn dollar was taught to provide a solid base to the bilateral relationship, interlink their economies and contribute positively to the relationship that would bring in conducive climate for future border talks However nature of the trade with enormous trade balance in favor of china, with 40 Bn dollar deficit at a time when india is fighting on widening CAD and macro economic stability, rising inflation, subdued global demand remained worrisome.The nature of trade with china resembles that of colonial era where india is supplier of raw materials and imports cheap manufactured articles in return which is unsustainable.Non trade Barriers to IT in name of security, Pharmaceuticals, phyto sanitary conditions on agricultural commodities etc.

shows unwillingness on part of china to lessen the deficit.Though china,by and large, doesn’t mix political border dispute and settlement issues with trade evident from trade with Japan, Vietnam, phillipines etc, the nature of trade and deficit therein between India and china instead of contributing positively in the overall bilateral relationship and help the border settlement process has become an irritant in itself in the relationship.China emergence as largest trading partners, by and large, did not adversely affect the border problem and border settlement might depend mainly on the level of political commitment rather than on economic interdependencies.Ans ISRO is the pioneering space research institution of the modern India which shoulders the responsibility of design, production and development of launch vehicles, propulsion systems and satellites.It has been instrumental in bringing India on par with industrialized arena in the space arena through its PSLV and GSLV models and successful missions.

Its success can be gauged from the fact that it recently launched the 100th satellite mission in a short period of about 40 years.The success story lies with the growing attractiveness of India as a satellite launching junction with more countries looking forward to join hand in different areas.It had developed and launched many significant satellites from remote sensing which helped in data collection to providing services such as telecommunication, broadcasting etc through its geosynchronous base.It also launched mission to moon to collect data about the origin and evolution of moon.Its propulsion system is in advanced stage of development.

The recent launching of Indian regional navigation system has brought it to elite group of nations.The success of re entry vehicle will provide India with much needed manned missions.The ISRO had many operations in pipeline with much awaited Chandrayaan II mission to moon and Mars orbital in near future.Further it is planning to launch the 6 more regional navigation satellites which will make India capable of indigenous navigation and increase its defense capability.In addition to that, ADITYA which is poised to study Sun; an exclusive satellite navy is in conduit.

It has been working on producing its 3 stage cryogenic propulsion system that will reduce India’s dependence on other country for heavy satellites.Other missions include ASTROSAT, GAGAN payloads etc The success of ISRO is both historic and contemporary and its future missions will bring India as sense of security, pride and scientific advantage in this competitive world.Sudha Do you think that China’s emergence as one of the largest trading partners of India has adversely affected the settlement of the outstanding border problem? (GS 2012) Indo China border dispute has been in history for decades.Despite that both the developing economies opted for Bilateral cooperation on trade through several institutional mechanisms which led to the emergence of china as the largest trading partner.Instead of having a setback in settling border issues, the urge to attain economic significance made both the countries to negotiate on peaceful terms to settle their border issues on LAC though minor disputes like intrusion into Ladakh region arises.

The objective to reach $100billion Bilateral trade by 2015 will act as a motivating force to settle the border disputes in a fast pace which china has openly stated to move forward in settling the issue at the earliest.Recent developments like opening Nathula pass after decades to trade efficiency and appointing Special Representative’s to resolve and negotiate border issues is a positive move.The close ties of China’s neighbours including Japan, Vietnam and Philippines with US and India’s autonomic foreign policy with China will pave way for a good future between the nations.Though, India should be careful with the trading patterns of china as 21st century wars will be on economy and diplomacy.An informal boycott of Japanese products by china is a strategic move on the border problem with the former which India can avoid in future by not depending more on Chinese market alone.

Hence the growing trade deficit of $29 billion with china needs attention.Anjali Motghare But you have to prove your stance with more points, which u missed.Yes on reading other answers I realized that.Also I am finding it bit difficult to prioritize and compress many information in the word limit.

Please keep providing feedback to improve 🙂 Liked the different take in your answer.But your opinion is not clear here – whether you think China’s emergence as India’s largest trading partner affects border dispute settlement or not.This question explicitly demands your opinion – yes or no – to be registered.Yes I should have done that 🙂 I was about to say that it dint affect till now but should make sure the same continues in the future.

Thanks 🙂 Please let me know whether the structure or any other improvements I should concentrate on Amudhan Comment on the role of ISRO in making India a space power and briefly explain on its proposed initiatives for the future.Upon Independence the Sub-continents with a majority illiterate population and dismal progress on industrialization still decided to pursue space research.It was founded not on lofty ideals of competing with the developed nations but with the belief that space technology would be useful to the country in its developmental progress.As such ISRO’s contributions to the nation have been pragmatic in nature including satellites INSAT satellites for use in telecom, broadcasting and use for the IMD.

IRNSS-1A is a navigational satellite and IRS for earth monitoring.ISRO’s played its role in package delivery and in development and deployment of these satellites being a critical component of this nation’s progress.The notion of India being a ‘space power’ is still to realize itself.Pundits have however noted the use of ‘Space diplomacy’ with smaller nation but in relation to the levels of the US and China we are yet to yet match them in Man missions to space and Lander technology.However the ISRO does have a vibrant plan to realize its potential to be ‘space power’.

India is partnering with Russia to send a Lander to mars with the Russian providing the Lander and India providing the launch vehicle.In Oct/Nov 2013 there is a proposed mission to orbit Mars and we are also in progress towards making a successful GSLV launch which would reduce our dependence on foreign nations.We also have a ‘Human Space Flight’ Program which is still under development as well as GSLV III.Amudhan Do you think China’s emergence as one of the largest trading partner of India has adversely affected the settlement the outstanding border dispute? The outstanding border dispute problem preceded India’s and China’s economic interactions.This emergence has likely strengthened the chance of a border settlement in the future due to increased interactions highlighting the interdependence of both nations and a need to find a peaceful solution.

After the 1962 war, the ‘border dispute’ was unequivocally recognized and an equilibrium of sorts has been maintained over time.When the new Chinese leadership took over last year they were eager to settle the border dispute and renew India-China relationship on condition to meet them ‘halfway’.There has been a tacit compliance by both countries to functionally separate political and economic interactions and realize the benefits for both countries in each separately.Even in this de-linked scenario progress made in one field allows for improvement in the other.Consider the ‘India-China Strategic economic dialogue’ as a stepping stone for the ‘working mechanism for consultation and co-ordination’ between India and China that recently resolved incursions on Depsang.

One can appreciate the progress on one field creating an environment for progress in another reducing the trust-deficit and historical transgressions by both nations.Increased economic co-operation has also increased the need for peace to play a central part in conflict resolution.Trade breeds a substantial population of peoples in both countries that require a peaceful resolution.Therefore the emergence of China as the largest trading partner has positively affected the outstanding border dispute.lrlevin 1)Comment on the role of ISRO in making India a space power and briefly explain on its proposed initiatives for the future.

Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO), the space agency of India, has been instrumental in augmenting India’s space power and facilitating her to join the Elite group of Space power Nations like the USA, Russia, EU, Japan and China.Established in 1969, the ISRO, till today has launched more than 100 mission starting from Aryabhatta to recent launches like Kalpana-1, Cartosat, Oceansat, Mega tropiques, SARAL, Risat, INSAT series of satellites, etc.Chandrayan-1, the first Moon orbiter, requires a special mention which brought worldwide fame to our country.Currently ISRO is working with GAGAN project which is a GPS based Navigation system to improve the Navigation of Aircrafts.

Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System (IRNSS) is an autonomous regional satellite navigation system being developed by ISRO under which plans are to launch a constellation of satellites.The first IRNSS satellite IRNSS-1A was launched in july 2013 and the remaining 6 satellites are to be launched by 2014.ISRO plans to undertake 58 missions, 25 launch vehicles and 33 satellites, during the 12th Plan The future projects of ISRO include 1.Mangalyaan – The mars orbiter which is set to be launched in Nov 2013 to study the Mars environment and about the possibility of life there 2.Aditya-1 – This mission is to study the solar Corona in visible and IR range and Coronal mass ejection of the Sun.

Astrosat – It’s the first Astronomy satellite mission of India for multi-wavelength observation of celestial bodies and cosmic rays.Planned in 2014 ISRO is not just a space agency for India, it’s a “Pride House” Your answer is again good.Mention of how India is becoming hub for space products and services marketing (global context) is missing.I understand one can not remember all points while writing.Good going 🙂 Prashant S 1)“The peasant movements of the second half of the nineteenth century lacked a positive conception of an alternative society – a conception which would unite the people in a common struggle on a wide regional and all-India plane and help develop a long term political developments”.Critically examine Ans – The peasant movements of the second half of the 19th century was an outcome of the economic and political lacunae due to the imposition of an alien rule over the indian peasants.It emerged as an expression of resentment against the arbitrary & unjust taxes which was excessive in character and led to increasing land alienation and indebtedness.

It was further compounded by the role of moneylenders.Thus the movement was aimed at addressing the immediate local grievances and lacked a pan india character.The introduction of permanent settlement deprived the tillers of land the customary rights that they held on their lands.A new class of zamindars with proprietary rights emerged who aimed at collecting maximum rent.

This proved to be a great source of resentment for the peasants.

The british imposed arbitrary and unjust taxes which was very high.This led to impoverishment of the masses.The problem was further accentuated by the usurious money lenders who played hand in hand with the colonial officers.Thus the 2nd half of 19th century witnessed large scale peasant distress.This found expression in many popular protests and movements against the perceived injustice.

But these movements tried to address only the immediate causes and never aimed at overthrowing the imperial yoke.They were in a nascent phase of awakening and lacked a broader vision for a pan – india movement.Most of these movements were organized by local leaders who were satisfied once their immediate grievances were addressed.They lacked the conception of a modern age and was regressive which failed to see the imperial motives of a colonial of the peasant movements turned out to be violent, hence facing severe repression and turning out to be short lived both in its impact and extent.Thus we can say that the peasant movements of the 19th century could not develop in to long term political movements, was limited in its reach and lacked a positive conception.

But these weaknesses could be the attributes of the age as we were in a very nascent stage of nationalism.2)“The railways, instead of serving as the catalyst for an Industrial revolution as in Western Europe and the USA, acted in India as – ‘the catalyst of complete colonization’.” Critically examine Ans – The railways were introduced in India solely to serve the british economic and military interests.Unlike serving as a catalyst for industrial evolution in india it served as a catalyst for complete colonisation.The various processes involved with the establishment of a railway network like transfer of technology, capital, forward and backward linkages etc could have helped give birth to modernisation on a limited scale in india.

But the british aim of limiting the modernisation of India was a crucial factor in restricting the benefits of a railway network.The british imported from England most of the items required for the railway networks, thus the benefits of a forward and backward linkage was hampered.Only lower end technology like tunnelling and plate laying was developed.Even the capital for the development of railway network was british and that too on guaranteed returns.Thus the railway network proved to be a big setback to the interests of Indians.

The mercantile interests in London and Manchester were the initial advocates for developing railways in india.The railways provided greater access to the rural hinterlands and threw open vast markets.British merchants could now source raw materials from places far away.The cheap factory made products now found deeper markets inside the countryside, thus harming the local manufacturers.With the railways India got more geographically united and the railways facilitated faster movement of military and personnel.This ensured faster conquest of indian provinces.The railways had played a key role in putting down the great revolt of 1857.Thus we can see the contribution of railways in colonising India rather than acting as a harbinger of industrial revolution.Firefly Your first answer has scope for improvement in terms of richness of content.

Your style of writing engages the reader.Liked the different dimensions you brought to your second answer.The military angle, backward and forward linkages, mercantile interest, geographical unification.Firefly Also, the first railway link was from Bombay to Thane which came up in 1853.I think railways could not have had “a key role” in putting down the revolt.Prashant S Nikku Q) “The railways, instead of serving as the catalyst for an Industrial revolution as in Western Europe and the USA, acted in India as – ‘the catalyst of complete colonization’.

Ans) Railways considered as the hallmark of development during the 19th century helped many countries in their quest for development.By providing a fast, cheap and effective means of communication, it helped in the facilitation of trade and commerce.It expanded the market and diversified the sources of raw materials.Thus it became the first step towards industrialization in Western Europe and the US.

However, the colonial motive was different in regards to the expansion of railway network in India.It was done to realize the following: 1) Provide an area to absorb British investment.Infact a separate budget was started for railway to ensure that the investor’s interest were being served as intended.2) Provide a means of communication to facilitate the exploitation of raw materials.

A careful inspection reveals that the network was developed fully in areas of interest and was completely undeveloped in areas that did not yielded returns on the exploitative criteria.

3) Provide a fast means of communication for the Army to help crush any rebel that could arise.With these primary motives, the railways proved to be a great catalyst in deepening the roots of colonization of India.Railways helped in building of national unity and narrowing the social cleavages after an institutional national struggle started under congress.It became a means for greater interaction and integration between communities that were hitherto separated.

It also helped in giving an impetus to the indigenous industries and they benefited greatly from it.But despite the few positive contributions, India never was able to utilize railways as an asset for industrialization as the western nations did.Railways turned out to be an instrument in the hands of the British masters to harvest India and perpetuate it’s colonization and exploitation.The widespread discontent with British economic policies led to a number of small scale revolts in various parts of the country which inspite of its fragmented nature influenced Indian Nationalist Movement in a subtle way.

The economic policies like introduction of intermediaries for e.Zamindari System coupled with high Rent system and seizure of land in case of inability to pay the same laid the ground for peasant revolts.These are characterized by their limited scale and lack of vision.The purpose is to restore the old order.

These are not targeted against British Government at any stage but against new intermediary system.Government as a result found it easy to curb these by offering incentives or in extreme case by brutal repression.As soon as their demands were met revolts were withdrawn.The cause for their failure is widespread.There was a very loose notion of unified nation i.

India at that time which is still divided into a number of independent provinces.The absence of any nationalistic leadership with a long term future vision further crippled the same.The newly created class of zamindars side with Government .

The revolts were highly unsynchronised with temporal and spatial variations.Inspite of its inherent weakness, its legacy has inspired the future generation leaders still at their infancy to deeply analyze the hegemonic character of colonial government.The peasants became an inseparable part of freedom struggle through kisan sabhas and satyagraha .Its failure revealed the weaknesses which acted as lessons for latter struggles Therefore to say that it has failed completely to unite nation for common struggle against Colonial government would be a half baked truth and against acknowledging its contribution.Anjali Motghare Santhal rebellion at later stage directed against govt.

after 1920 they appeared on political scene.Nirmal Singh Hey Anjali Thanks for feedback !.Can you rephrase what you have said i did’nt get you completly,so that I can Improve.Nirmal Singh @INSIGHT Sir,can you explain what was expected of this questions? and what should be the we have to give positive and negative points of both or to defend the can I improve my answer? You have misread the question.It specifically mentions latter half of the 19th century – so examples of Indigo, Mappila, Kuka and Pabna revolts must be given.

And the nature of these revolts should be examined.Your answer is not wrong – the points you have mentioned are valid but are generalized and apply to whole span of the national movement.Kisan Sabha, Satyagraha were alien to national movement during the 19th century.look a at the answer in the light of post-1857 revolt and how peasant uprisings were not against colonialism.Read chapter 3 of Bipan Chandra’s Struggle for India’s independence.

Nirmal Singh Nikku Q)“The peasant movements of the second half of the nineteenth century lacked a positive conception of an alternative society – a conception which would unite the people in a common struggle on a wide regional and all-India plane and help develop a long term political developments”.Ans) The peasant movement of the second half of the 19th century were directed against the immediate economic grievances and characterized by being local, having a parochial view on the issues, and a lack of long term strategy.The movements were in no way radical or aimed at creating an alternative societal order.For example, the indigo revolt in Bengal was concerned mainly with the fraudulent contracts that were imposed on the planters.

The pabna agrarian league was directed against the undue taxation imposed by the Zamindars and the land alienation that was done under the guise of Act X.The Deccan revolts, in turn, were organised against the money lenders who were seen as outsiders charging huge interest that was leading to penury.Thus we can observe, that there was no common enemy or an ideological base for these various revolts.The movements were disjointed and each had a very local character.

Besides, once the immediate concerns were addressed, the movement ceased to exist.

They were devoid of any long term strategy and there was no desire to overcome perpetual subordination.Neither did the movement tried to get rid of the exploitative society marked by torturous practices of casteism, untouchability etc.Infact, the movements were undertaken in the existing societal framework, which remained undisturbed during or after the movement.It was only after an organised national struggle against coloniolism started, that these movements too got influenced and subsumed under the greater struggle and devised a more unitary character touching multiple dimension of economic, social and political exploitation.phani nikku i think they had a common enemy , british and common ideology , good living but they lack common character.

it woud have been much better if small citation of zamindari , mahalwari and ryotwari systems.I beg to differ on the common enemy aspect.As I mentioned in the answer, the indigo revolt, pabna leagues or deccan revolt each was fighting a different enemy .Similarly, the revolt lacked an ideological base .

they were just addressing the immediate grievances that entailed on them.1)“The peasant movements of the second half of the nineteenth century lacked a positive conception of an alternative society – a conception which would unite the people in a common struggle on a wide regional and all-India plane and help develop a long term political developments”.Ans- The motivation behind peasant movements were different in the beginning.These movements began in a segregated fashion & had local reach & implications.

Santhal rebellions arose against moneylenders & then turned against government only because it was supporting moneylenders.Similarly during the Deccan riots of 1875, revolution was against the marwari & gujarati moneylenders.Similar was the case of Bengal indigo cultivators who just wanted freedom to grow anything they want.Even Congress was not much interested in grievance redressal of peasants , keeping them away from the common national struggle.But it would be wrong to assume that they lacked the positive conception of an alternative society.

The change came after emergence of Gandhiji.He sought to involve the peasants in the nationalist g of a common struggle came alive in them after he involved peasants in the movement of champaran & Kheda satyagrah.After that, in support of Khilafat movement, many Moplah rebellion arose in revolt.It was involving the feeling of common struggle against the harsh treatment given to sultan of turkey.Formation of Kisan sabhas in 1920s paved a long way in consolidating the peasant power for agitation against the injustice happening to them.

So, the peasant movements even if started as small uprisings against local exploitation, gradually it took the shape of a class struggle.In fact, in later periods, reflection of communism was easily visible in them.phani sagar , the first para was after that , its not part of the qustion where it specifucally mentions about the nature of peasant movements in mid 19th centuary.The Gandhian politics itself developed in the 20th century.Your are giving information on the peasants movement in british colonialism rather than on a specific period.

Thhough u did not provide any wrong fact and right in ur approach try to write it in the specific context of late nineteenth century Keerthi Narayan 1.The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) is our country’s pioneer organisation involving in space research.From being dependent on Russia for launch vehicles, to launching foreign satellites like SARAL through its own satellites, it has grown consistently from its inception in 1972.However, whether it has made India a space power is a matter of debate.ISRO has made significant contributions to the country’s growth through its various satellite systems and launch vehicles.

Launch Vehicle Developments In these areas, ISRO has achieved significant milestones.India has the largest set of remote sensing satellites.In Communication satellites, it has been successful in putting GSLV mark 1 & 2 type of satellites in geo stationary orbits.

However it has failed so far in attaining similar success in .It is still dependent on France’s Arianne launch vehicle for placing such ly IRNSS, a navigation satellite was launched successfully through themore consistent workhorse PSLV.Regarding space missions, Chandrayaan 1 was a successful venture which raised the prestige of ISRO among world nations.Future Projects: ISRO is involved in developing GSLV mark 3 since last few years.

It is set to take a GSAT satellite in August 2013.It is trying to repeat the success it attained in PSLV missions.Besides ISRO is also planning for a MARS orbiter mission in 2013.There are plans for manned missions to space as well but at a rudimentary stage.

Though the achievements of ISRO are remarkable, it cannot be said to have made India as a space superpower.

Nations have attained far higher milestones like placing space stations operating for years, development of more robust, reliable space shuttles, manned missions to moon and space, development of advanced navigation and communication satellites on their own etc.Considering all these facts, ISRO has a long way to go.The India China border issues are yet to be resolved and a clear both countries agreed, demarcated border has not yet been established.However, the emergence of China as India’s largest trading partner is not the cause behind this.

China’s trade with India has reached around $60 billion and both the countries want to take it upto $100 billion.This makes China India’s largest trading partner.However, this emergence is a recent phenomena largely arising out of the remarkable growth of India and China post 1990s.Whereas, India’s border issues with China have a history of about 50 years.The major reason behind the border issues being unsettled is the attitude of China and the complicated nature of the issue itself.

China has repeatedly mentioned that border issues with India are a ‘complex’ issue and not to be settled in a quick manner.Moreover, there is no agreed border between the two nations.China accuses India of unilaterally changing its map in the disputed area of Jammu and Kashmir.India claims that the Himalayas are its natural boundaries and the regions under dispute has been traditionally and historically part of India.Though bilateral trade is mutually benefitting and both India and China are not ready to let the trade volume go down because of diplomatic issues, this is not the major reason for the unresolved lingering border issues.

Nirmal Singh The railway had played a pivotal role in both making and eroding the influence of colonization unlike USA and Western Europe where it give rise to industrial revolution.To British delight it enlarged their geographical and strategic influence through unprecedented access and timey deployment of forces in case of any insurgency and rebellion.It ensured widespread loot of tribal and forest lands as it require large quantity of woods and iron.It firmly established colonial hold over Indian economy by linking resource areas with ports and industrial regions.The raw resources when processed into cheap finished products like clothes, machines found its way back to India further damaging local industries.

The status of railway as a colonial symbol can be gauged from the fact that these were at the receiving end of public fury during Gandhian struggles.Contrary to widespread perceptions the same had become a tool against colonial tragedy.The previously unconnected areas got new life strengthening freedom struggle by spreading ideas of nationalistic movement across ma Gandhi especially used railway to visit countryside.The nationalistic leaders began to interact and congress sessions at different parts were held owing to easy connectivity.The railways gave pan Indian struggle to struggles like Quit India Movement, non-cooperation Movements, Civil Disobedience.

Further revolutionaries activities owed their growth railways.The role of railway in western nations as a tool for Industrialization is due to absence of any colonial rule but the absence of same bred ground for colonism and against it.Ans Railways as a modern means of transport has been used extensively by the western nations for the acceleration of their industrialization process in the home country and for the consolidation of their political, economic and militaristic dominance in the colonies.This is the reason why most of the western countries gained from the introduction of railways while colonies like India lost due to augmented exploitation of resources and quick suppression of their voices by imperial rule.In western countries like Europe and America, railway was introduced as means of economic expansion and civilian purpose.

It helped in ferrying resources like coal, steel to the industries which helped in increasing the productivity of these economies.However in case of India, railway was a deliberate introduction of imperial government for the acceleration of British interest and exploiting the hitherto unexplored market of Indian economy.It was not used for the civilian purposes in the initial period.It was also used by the British government for the deployment of its troops in case of any rebellion.Therefore any rebellion or revolt in the mainland was met with severe confrontation and suppression from British.

This can be gauged from the quick suppression of revolt of 1857 by the east India company in which railway was used.This consolidated the British rule and substantiated colonization of India.Hence, introduction of railway was an industrial prerogative for acceleration of wealth in the western countries while it was having a political and economic exploitation dimension in the India for the consolidation of colonization.In 19th century peasants uprising were seen against the inhuman exploitation with an objective to end the extent of exploitation.

The peasant’s movements during this period were not well organized and were free from political color.British revenue policies kept the agrarian structure away from modern scientific changes.Old structure was collapsed under new administrative policies.New land tenure systems like permanent settlement, mahalvary and ryotwari system helped in exploiting peasants by zamindars, moneylenders and government itself.All this drove peasants into deeper poverty.

The causes for movements include high revenue beyond the capacity of peasant, commercialization of agriculture, no measures to improve peasant conditions and new legal system helped zamindaris and money lenders to exploit further.The main peasant movements include indigo revolt, pabna revolt and Deccan revolt.In 1859 under thinkathia system peasants were forced to grow indigo and paid low prices to their produce.Peasant’s condition was vividly portrayed by Dinbandhu mitra in Nildarpan.

Peasant’s revolt paved way for formation of indigo commission by government.

Pabna revolt against increase of revenue by zamindars above legal limits and it ended on passing Bengal tenancy act.Deccan revolt raised as ryotwari system demanded high revenue from peasants and forced them to borrow from moneylenders at high interest rates.On failing to pay, they occupied their lands.This caused peasants to attack moneylenders home and burn bonded papers.To protect peasants Deccan agriculturist relief act was passed.

The weakness of peasant movements were short term goals, lack of specific plan or strategy or ideology for the formation of new social order and failed to form an organization .The support of intelligentsia and media was not sufficient and was not active support like it gave to the peasant movements in the 20th century.2)“The railways, instead of serving as the catalyst for an Industrial revolution as in Western Europe and the USA, acted in India as – ‘the catalyst of complete colonization’.Ans- Britishers took the task of development of railways in India not for the development of India or Indians but for their own good.

If we talk of the industrial revolution, railways served the purpose of transfer of goods & raw materials from one part of country to the other.No foreign power was present there & so all the developmental activities led to their common good.On the contrary, in India, railways meant the development of foreign trade in our country leading to further decay of traders & craftsmen.Not only goods, railways helped british government in crushing the revolts that cropped up by transport of army men.It increased the reach of britishers to many parts of country, leading to the spread of their colonies further in India.

Moreover, the industries that were being setup in India ended up helping the finances of britain only & turned into the machines for draining the wealth of India.It can’t be denied that railways has helped in increasing colonization in India but it was responsible for many social benefits too which was the result of the rise of Industries in India.Amudhan hey Itsmesagar your point about the Investments in the railways (were guaranteed by the GoI with a stable return) being a another form of the drain of wealth is an excellent point.tushar The conclusion feels incomplete.You have nicely described how railways led to subjugation of Indian economy to British interests, but in the end you tried to bring the counter view also.

I think you should have supported it by some evidence/ it would have been nice if it was in a different paragraph.tushar 12/08/2013 2) “The railways, instead of serving as the catalyst for an Industrial revolution as in Western Europe and the USA, acted in India as – ‘the catalyst of complete colonization’.Invention of railways was a turning point in the industrial revolution taking place in Europe and America.It revolutionized the transportation and gave a huge boost to the industrial revolution.

However, while on one hand this development led to rapid spread of industrial revolution in developed countries, it paved the way for further impoverishment and destruction of Indian economy.The Indian colonization essentially began from the coastal areas.The Portuguese,Dutch, French and the English traders initially set up their trading posts and factories in coastal cities of Madras, Surat, Calcutta and Mumbai.Their markets were mostly confined to nearby areas due to limitation of effective transportation.The mainland ares were largely untouched by the economic exploitation by the colonists.

But the spread of railways removed this shortcoming.With growing demand for raw materials in there home countries and efforts to search new markets to sell the finished goods led the colonists to put the railways to there best use.India was a home for both- cheap raw materials and a huge market for the finished goods.The spread of railways quickened the process of colonization.Railways had a huge impact in changing the face of the Western Europe and USA by enhancing the pace of Industrial the benefits were reaped by the countries in Western Europe and USA.

In the colonies like India, this served as a tool in the hands of colonial forces to bring the entire economy under their control.Anjali Motghare collection methods pushed the peasants into depth of poverty.Peasant had to face oppression at the hands of not only foreign but indigenous exploiters and capitalists also.Theie grievances led them to revolt to make themselves free from bonds of feudal exploitation.Santhal of Rajmahal hills in Bengal revolted against moneylenders, zamindars against extortions, oppressive exactions and forcible disposition of their property and land.

This revolt was limited to Santhals area.Bengal Indigo cultivators revolt directed against British planters confined to only indigo growing area as their grievances was about forced indigo cultivation.and Gujrati moneylenders and spread over a some districts of Maharashtra.They protested against enhancement of rent, evictions,, usurious practice of money lenders; their demands included occupancy rights, commutation of produce rent into money rent etc.These revolts were in the nature of protest, revolts and rebellions with the aim of ending exploitations and were confined to local or regional revolts had a explosive character as peasants suddenly rose in revolt over certain issue without proper planning and strategy.

Though in all parts of countries peasants were facing same oppression they never tried to unite at pan India level to raise their demand as their demands were also related to local cause.Their revolt primarily aimed at loosening the bond of feudal exploitation.In the absence of class consciousness or proper organization the peasant movement did not develop a political matrix.lakshmi prasanna kalyani As is the case with many small movements in India, which emerged during British rule, peasant movement in India also spring out in various parts of India.

Here what made peasant movement different from other freedom struggle movements was that, their immediate concern was not India’s freedom, rather an improvement in their situation to eke out a decent living.

Their life became worsen by increased tax on land, low farm production, irrigation problems and so on.

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But they were forced to pay taxes at any circumstances.So in the case of indigo revolt, champaran revolt, then in North Kerala, Maharashtra, they all suffered from a common problem only that is poverty.To a great extent even if British succeeded in suppressing such revolts, peasants’ attitude were so strong and they even refused to pay high taxes even under any pressure The programs in the Department of Mechanical Engineering (ME) emphasize a mix of applied mechanics, biomechanical engineering, computer simulations, design, and energy science and technology. Since mechanical engineering is a broad discipline, the undergraduate program can be a springboard for graduate study  .To a great extent even if British succeeded in suppressing such revolts, peasants’ attitude were so strong and they even refused to pay high taxes even under any pressure.

They opposed vehemently with teeth and nail.

By the mid 1930s condition of peasants improved with many reformative measures from government’s side.We cannot forget Indian National Congress’s role in gaining them their goal.But as British noted, peasants’ feelings were very instant and spontaneous.So for the same reason, they didn’t come to the forefront of freedom struggle and they shrank to their own world.But they could have contributed more if they possess a unity among themselves.

Sudha could have analysed more on what was lacking in peasant movements for the national unity.structuring could have been made better.kalyani Anjali Motghare economic exploitation led Britain to construct means of connectivity like roads and railways.Investors in railway construction were also mainly British capitalist with guaranteed profit in return.So it served one of colonial purose while construction itself.

They constructed railways initially between port cities to urban center only for speedy transportation of raw material for export and distribution of imported manufactured goods.First line completed was of Calcutta-Allahabad-Delhi 1880 the network route was about 14,500 km (9,000 mi), mostly radiating inward from the three major port cities of Bombay, Madras and these port towns were used for export and import of goods.Later they connected mainly those cities which were important from their point for commerce and procurement centre of raw ys serve the purpose of faster movement of goods and with hinterland connectivity by other means like roads, its got easier to sent goods in every nook and corner of the country and so made easy shipment of procured raw materials for export.Railways in the west augmented industrial revolution because it was constructed with the aim of development while in India it was built and used as per colonial interest.So obviously it acted as ‘the catalyst of complete colonization’.

Amudhan Hey Anjali your answer takes the economic aspects and substantiates them however you failed to consider the military and administrative implications as well.Sudha The point that construction of railways itself benefitted the British is good.your answer explains how Indian railway system increased British revenue.Could have explained about how it exploited Indian wealth as well.Anjali Motghare Anjali Motghare Thanks Amudhan, which book exactly to use for history Sumit Sarkar or Bipin Chandra for history portion.

Keerthi Narayan Compared to the civil rebellions and tribal uprisings of the early 19th century, the peasant rebellions of the second half of the 19th century were different.The peasant rebellions were not aimed at overthrowing the colonial yoke.They were specific economic grievances which threatened the livelihood of the peasantry and the peasant movements only aimed at securing back their livelihood.Once this objective was satisfied the organising leagues withered away.The popular peasant movements of 1850-1900 were Indigo revolution of 1859-60, Pabna peasant uprisings of the 1870s and the Puna and Ahmadnagar riots of 1870s.

The Indigo rebellion was due to the coercion of peasants by the European planters to plant Indigo and sell them at less than market prices.When they refused, the planters used armed men called Lathiyals who used violence.The Pabna uprisings were due to an unfair increase in land revenue by the zamindars.This led to impoverishment of peasantry, eviction from their lands due to non-payment of rent etc.The Deccan riots are a result of a series of issues.

Fall in cotton prices due to end of American civil war, hike in land revenue and poor harvests.This made the peasantry fall prey to the clutches of the external moneylenders.In all these cases, the peasnatry rose against the zamindars, planters, moneylenders to fight back the unbearable oppression they faced.They did not realise the evils of colonialism.In fact, it was the major weakness of the movements of 19th century.

They lacked a political vision or alternative that can organise the masses on a nation wide scale.The political awareness and thesubsequent mingling of peasant protests and anti-imperial protests happened only in the 20th century.The major reason for the same element, The Railways, to be a promoter of Industrialisation and growth in the West and to be a promoter of colonialism and impoverishment of Indian economy lies in the nature of Polity.Both in the USA and western Europe, the countries were already independent and no longer under an imperial power.

Hence, the railways was used for the promotion of industriy, the prime mover of growth.Whereas, in India, the ruling British people started the Railways and used it for advancing their economic interests.In western Europe and the USA, the pioneering centres of industrial revolution, the process of growth of industries was vastly promoted by the railway network.The vast supplies of coal and iron ore across the continent were quickly transported to the production centres and the distribution of finished goods were conveniently done because of the existence and expansion of rail network during the 19th century, However, the same result was not repeated in the Indian subcontinent.

The railway network expansion that started in 1853 during Lord Dalhousie’s reign, did not result in growth of industries.

On the contrary, the railway network was mainly used by the British to secure their interests.It used the railways as a means of transporting the raw materials like cotton, tea, spices from across the country to the ports and exporting them to England for its home industries.The Industries would turn them into finished products like textiles and send them back to India.Again, railways was used to distribute this finished good to the markets across the country.lakshmi prasanna Tejaswi The railways, instead of serving as the catalyst for an Industrial revolution as in Western Europe and the USA, acted in India as – ‘the catalyst of complete colonization’.

The railways had revolutionized the transportation and boosted up the industrial growth in the countries of western europe and the USA by providing better and efficient transport to connect industries and markets and building railways itself led to the spur in demand of iron.But, in contrary, the same railways has led to further colonization and destruction of Indian economy.The railways in India were introduced during the second half of the 19th century.They were located so as to connect Indian markets to the ports to easily bring in the imported goods from british, where as the high customs duty and one-way free trade denied the same benefit for Indian goods.

The inflow of cheap machine-made British manufactured goods has led to the collapse of Indian manufacturing industry, gradually turning it into the exporter of raw-materials and importer of finished goods.This led to the economic subjugation of the Indian economy further strengthening the colonial hold.Railways were also effectively used to transport the military troops quickly to the areas of uprisings and protests emerging in the country, helping the British to maintain its colonial rule in India.Thus railways in both the ways helped the british to further the process of colonization in India.But, railways by providing quicker transport and thus linking the people also led to the transfer of opinions from place to place and played a critical role in spreading the message of national awakening.

Tejaswi lakshmi prasanna The railway projects in India were to serve the economic political and military interests of British imperialism.The railway lines were lined to link Indian raw material producing areas with ports for export.In 1851 earliest suggestions for building rails was made in madras.First steam driven railways constructs was proposed in England Dalhousie undertook development of railways from 1850.All British private enterprises were invited to undertake railway construction all railway investments were given foreign guarantee interest of 5% on the capital outlay which were met from the revenues of India by the government of India.

The foreign companies were given a free land with 99 year lease after which rail line will become the property of colonial government.But investor had a option to return back the line for which government will be fully compensated.Means not only 5% profit from the revenue but also what invested initially.Later day’s Sayasachi Bhattacharya describes this as AN INSTANCE OF PRIVATE ENTERPRISE AT PUBLIC RISK.Equipment needed was imported from England so that ancillary industries will develop there.

Even the higher posts in railways were reserved for British’s.It also helped British goods penetration into India.The Indians were totally excluded from the technology.The needs of Indian industries and their markets were neglected.

Further railway rates were fixed in a manner favoring their imports and exports and to discriminate against internal movement of goods.Having all this discrimination’s it is obvious that British railway project favored colonialism instead India Sudha The peasant movements, uprisings and revolts in the second half of the 19th century were spontaneous uprisings of their social conditions to solve own demands mostly economic grievances.They were fighting against their immediate enemies, rich land lords, Zamindars and money lenders but not against Colonial rule.Indigo revolt in west Bengal was against the planters who forced the peasants to grow indigo and paid them less.The Pabna movement in East Bengal was against Zamindars who forced the peasants to pay excessive rent.

Deccan uprisings were against the money lenders who suppressed the ignorant peasants through fraudulent means.Thus the movements lacked a common objective.The territorial reach of the movements was also very limited.They lacked communication linkages and objective.They also lacked continuity of struggle i.

Hence the colonial government were able to suppress the movements by simple concessions through Bengal Tenancy Act, Deccan Agriculturalists Relief Act and few others.The peasants lacked the understanding of social framework of their movements and also about colonization.They do not possess new ideology, vision and strategy of the struggle.The movements were not anti-imperialistic; rather they fought for the enforcement of the existing legal rights.

Ignorance of colonial suppression and economic plunder, colonial Government neutral attitude towards these peasant movements unlike the civil rebellions and sepoy mutiny limited the extent of these movements.The Intelligentsia and missionaries supported the peasants to a great extent and ultimately spreaded the phenomenon of colonialism.However, these movements of peasant discontent along with political discontent of 20th century led to the long national movement.Amudhan “The peasant movements of the second half of the nineteenth century lacked a positive conception of an alternative society – a conception which would unite the people in a common struggle on a wide regional and all-India plane and help develop a long term political developments” Critically examine.

The peasant movements of the latter half of the 1800’s tend to be reactionary rather than revolutionary in nature.

They are articulated against the British and the zamindars but redressal was largely sought with the governance framework of the British E.Of the movements which were revolutionary in nature a majority focused on returning to the polity before the British adventures in India as they understood them not on the basis of India as a nation.Revolutions were localized and dealt with in a local manner e.

The Idea of the Indian state is a product of the Indian national movement and a nation of ‘One people’ is its crowning achievement.Before the INM the country was united by the sword but never by the people themselves.All movements with the exception of the 1857 revolt were localized in the 1850-1900 period and fought with parochial interest.

The Peasant movements as well as the majority of the Intelligentsia not only failed to unite the people but failed to recognize its importance with exception to the INC.Division were maintained and encouraged by the British state through attributing primary importance to caste and religion as the primary determinant for engagement with the governance structure.It was done to avoid the development of a Pan-India political force, to avoid the development and communication of an alternative society without the British.The lack of vision and unity within the peasant movements is a product of the British political strategy.Amudhan “The railways, instead of serving as the catalyst for an Industrial revolution as in Western Europe and the USA, acted in India as – ‘the catalyst of complete colonization’.

The marriage of the British secondary sector and India’s primary sector was made possible with the advent of the railways in India.Whereas railways was an infrastructural investment that moved people, linked markets and facilitated business transactions within the nation in India it served to transport raw material to British Industry.They allowed for the vast movement of heavy raw materials in a cost effective manner.The railways facilitated the economic colonization of India.

Railways facilitated the movement of troops so that a small highly trained unit could fight and out-maneuver its enemies as well redeploy and reinforce faster than their enemy improving the effective troop count as witnessed in 1857 revolt.The Administrative reach of the British also extended with the railways.It integrated India unlike before eradicating the need for decentralization, which was a necessity.The railways did not have the same effect as it did in the US or Europe since industrialization comes from a positive cycle of capital, markets and technology rationalizing the capital intensive investment which is characteristic of Industrialization.Although railways increased the size of the markets by uniting them India lacked capital and technology thus unable to capitalize on the railways.

Therefore the railway was tool for the complete colonization of India.Sudha “The railways, instead of serving as the catalyst for an Industrial revolution as in Western Europe and the USA, acted in India as – ‘the catalyst of complete colonization’.The railways played a vital role in industrial growth for Western Europe and USA during industrial revolution whereas the same railways played a completely different and opposite rule of economic exploitation in India.This was mainly due to the difference in the nature of governance.

The developed economies of USA and Europe made use of the railways efficiently and increased their growth further.The colonial Government of India laid railways and used it for their own benefits.The colonial regime faced the difficulty of bringing the raw materials from different parts of the country to the factory and finished goods to ports for shipping.Hence they laid down railways during mid 19th century for their own benefits but not for the benefits of India.With the help of increased transportation new regions are annexed under British provinces.

The railways helped in the mobilisation of resources and army to different regions when there is a revolt.The railways completely suppressed the self sufficiency of Indian villages.The already established cities lost their importance and new cities are established with the significance of railways.The railways though have negative impact on Indian economy by commercialising agriculture it helped to overcome the geographical and cultural barriers of the country thereby bringing the people together increasing the spirit of oneness.Vipul 1)“The peasant movements of the second half of the nineteenth century lacked a positive conception of an alternative society – a conception which would unite the people in a common struggle on a wide regional and all-India plane and help develop a long term political developments”.

Answer : The peasant movements in the second half of the nineteenth century were an inevitable consequence of their unbearable exploitation under the British rule .The peasants being downgraded in the society from the very beginning were often satisfied in the period before the advent of Britishers .Under the reigns of various rulers whether it be the early hindu rulers or later mughals , their plight was not such disastrous that would lead to hunger and famines.The point here is that although they did not enjoy liberal values and were drubbed under feudalistic lords , still were much better than the colonial rulers .

Thus this ancient notion of being under the ruler was still very much prevalent in the Indian Society as can be seen by the way revolters of 1857 tried to re-establish Mughal ruler as their emperor rather than setting themselves free .Secondly peasants were uneducated , unaware and far from liberal western ideas and to some extent lacked nationalism .This regionalism that prevailed in their minds did not unite them towards the common enemy and fight a mass struggle towards it .This can also be seen by their different timings of the revolt and unaffected by the struggle of peasants of other areas .

On the contrary if the type of nationalist mass struggle which seen in the early decades of twentieth century , could have touched upon the minds of the peasants earlier that would have been a much broader and huge base , maybe an all india plane .

The political developments which took place later in the twentieth century leading to reforms and succumbing of government , were a result of that type of revolt and mass struggle .These were even easily crushed by the britishers because of their limited scope .Hence we can conclude that nineteenth century peasant revolts lacked a positive conception of an alternate society and rather were waged in regional and haphazard manner without any organisation .Vipul Sudha The first two paragraphs could have been simplified as its not answering the question directly.And in the concluding part I don’t think that the peasant movements lacked organisation.

They are organised well within the scope of their objectives.Just that they lacked a common objective of national struggle.vipul “The peasant movements of the second half of the nineteenth century lacked a positive conception of an alternative society – a conception which would unite the people in a common struggle on a wide regional and all-India plane and help develop a long term political developments”.British rulers’s colonial policies like zamindari, ryotwari system,forced Indigo plantations etc.

had damaged the social framework of Indian agriculture society to a great extent.Most of the farmers were left as land less laborers and tenants at will.They were forced to survive at the mercy of land lords( Zamindars) & money lenders.European planters wanted them to grow Indigo on the best land and used to pay them a very low price.This deprivation & exploitation triggered several peasant movements in second half of 19th century.

Several successful movements (Indigo movement, Deccan revolt,Mapiall rebellion etc) were organized in different territories of the country.Most of the time, such movement were directed against the zamindars & money lenders.British rulers also interfered with legislative reforms like Bengal Tenancy act etc.Indian peasants were law abiding and never refused the rent payment.

They revolted against the undue enhancement of rent.Most of the peasant movement were organized with limited & localized objective.As soon as the immediate grievances were addressed, movement slowed down.Peasant movements lacked the mutual communication.Despite showing the courage & spirit of peasants could not generate a common struggle ground.

Indian peasants could not understand the nature of colonialism at that point of time.lrlevin 1)“The peasant movements of the second half of the nineteenth century lacked a positive conception of an alternative society – a conception which would unite the people in a common struggle on a wide regional and all-India plane and help develop a long term political developments”.The British land revenue collection system which provided for Zamindari system, Ryotwari system and Mahalwari system in different parts of India led to the subjugation of peasants and at the same time gave a fillip for Landlordism and proliferation of money lenders and intermediaries.These rich people along with the British officials demanded exorbitant land revenue payments from the peasants, who over time have become landless labourers and sharecroppers.

Such taxes were unsustainable for the peasant and it pushed them towards poverty.Drought and famine played havoc in their lives now and then.The frustrated peasants suffering from high indebtedness, poverty and starvation rose up, rebelled and revolted against the Bristish, Zamindars, Landlords and moneylenders.These incidents were more prominent after 1858.The indigo revolt in Bengal (1859-60) and Bihar (1866-68) where British compelled the peasants to cultivate indigo instead of food grains, the revolts of peasants in Maharashtra against high land revenue collection through ryotwari system, revolts of Assam and Kerala are few examples of peasant uprising.

However these uprisings were – backward looking – mostly targeted towards local moneylender Based on these facts, it can be said that the peasant movements of the second half of the nineteenth century lacked a positive conception of an alternative society.However, these peasant movements lived in spirit of people and later inspired them to participate in mass agitations during the National freedom struggle.Firefly August 12, 2013 1)“The peasant movements of the second half of the nineteenth century lacked a positive conception of an alternative society – a conception which would unite the people in a common struggle on a wide regional and all-India plane and help develop a long term political developments”.The peasant movement in 19th century emanated from the transformation in agrarian structure due to the colonial rule.

Its purpose was to bring reforms to address immediate grievances.The peasantry revolted not against the colonial rule, but the excesses of zamindars, moneylenders and European planters.In the Indigo Revolt of 1860, the tenants protested when they were violently coerced into growing indigo on their most fertile lands and made to enter into fraudulent contracts enforcing the same.All they seeked to gain through the protest was a relief from this burden of growing Indigo which caused them losses.The Pabna Agrarian League formed in 1870s was founded to bring an end to illegal evictions, heavy rents and arbitrary levies imposed by zamindars on peasants.

The ryots in Deccan, similarly, were not against the colonial rule rather rose up against the moneylenders who charged exponential interests, grabbed their lands, co-opted them to perform begar and hari(unpaid labour).The peasant struggles during the 19th century lacked the vision that it was the colonial rule that was the root cause of their economic and social woes.There goals were limited to seeking superficial reforms to take care of their immediate concerns.They employed the colonial structures (administration and legal system) to press for their demands and even pledged their allegiance to the colonial rulers.

2)“The railways, instead of serving as the catalyst for an Industrial revolution as in Western Europe and the USA, acted in India as – ‘the catalyst of complete colonization’.

The railways, from its inception in early 1800s were majorly used for bulk and fast freight transport in Western Europe and USA.It gave a fillip to industrial revolution by transporting heavy raw materials like coal, iron ore, etc from the mining region to the industrial complexes over long distances and in turn transporting the finished goods to markets.Railways, in these countries played a vital role in rapidly expanding their economies.In India, railway was started in 1853 during the reign of Lord Dalhousie.

This initiative by British, unlike in their own country and USA was not used for improving industries in India.But, they were initiated for the following reasons.British manufacturers were looking for huge amount of raw materials to feed their machines and also were searching for new and untapped markets to sell their products.British Bankers and investors were looking for safe investment of their surplus capital.British Steel manufactures regarded it as an outlet for their products like rails, engines, wagon, etc.British Government in India realized the usefulness of railways for curbing internal rebellion or external aggression by deploying troops quickly.

From the above points, it is clearly evident that the railways were constructed only to serve British interest and not of Indians.This can be further clarified by British’s act of not involving Indians in planning, construction and management of railways, their policies of restricting internal movement of goods to provide for movement of exports and imports.So, it is safe to conclude that Railways were used as a catalyst of complete colonization by the British over India.Firefly August 12, 2013 Q2 “The railways, instead of serving as the catalyst for an Industrial revolution as in Western Europe and the USA, acted in India as – ‘the catalyst of complete colonization’.India had a complex integration with the world economy during colonial rule.It was assigned a subservient position to British economy.The development of railways was not done for bringing industrialization to India rather it was done to further the interests of the British industrialists.Railway routes were developed to reach the heart of forests and exploit the natural resources which were to be used by the British companies to manufacture goods.The first network from Bombay to Thane is a case in point.

Timber and other forest produce were exported in bulk to Britain.However, the income from exports accruing to India was minimal.There were no trade barriers or tariffs to prevent exploitation of domestic producers.These trade barriers were very strong in Western Europe and USA.The raw material was then converted to finished goods in Britain and brought to Indian market for sale.

Here they were staged to compete with domestic produce.The rural artisans and handicraft industry were ruined due to this unfair and unjust competition.This also resulted in increased pressure on land for agriculture.Additionally, the tribes were also denied access to forest produce and restrained from practicing shifting agriculture.Development of railways gave an opportunity to Britain to access the natural resources of India from its remote forests.

It led to the economic subjugation of India in addition to political domineering by the colonizers.Asha Goud “The peasant movements of the second half of the nineteenth century lacked a positive conception of an alternative society – a conception which would unite the people in a common struggle on a wide regional and all-India plane and help develop a long term political developments”.A: The new land revenue system and change in economic structure of society ntroduced by the British led to growing dissatisfaction among the peasants and the artisians.The Zamindari and Ryotwari system of Land Revenue pushed peasants into a debt trap and eventually they were reduced to tenents at will on their own land.

Peasants movements in the 2nd half of 19th century was a manifestation of this dissatisfaction.The Indigo revolt, The Pabna rebellion, The Deccan riots are major examples of peasant unrest developed at that time.These rebellions were mainly focused on redressal of specific grievances raised against exploitation by planters, money lenders and zamindars.These revolts were not anti-colonial in nature.Infact the peasants demanded redresal of grievances through legal methods framed by the government.

The pesants also took to violent means but rarely and violence was not directed against colonial authorities.It should be appreciated that peasants at that time became aware of their rights, organized themselves and adopted legal methods.The colonial authorities too understood the strength of these rebellions and took measures to respond to the grievances.The peasants were illiterate people and they were not able to understand the nature of colonial structure and the extent of colonial exploitation.

Also by that time the political concepts of nationalism and economic theory of drain of wealth was not fully conceptualized.

Therefore the nature of these rebellions was limited to a region and specific to a grievance.Cryosphere is the area covered with solid water like snow and ice in polar region.They are major source of fresh water, serves as a shelter to many animals and for recreational activities.Cryosphre and climate influence each other.

Cryosphere balance energy levels of planet as they can reflect more sunlight.Changing in global temperature causes melting of glaciers as in Arctic can influence climate by affecting air temperature, sea level rise, ocean currents and storms of different areas in the world.As the melting increases the river flow in summer will increase but later decreases as the glacier feeding river disappears, leading to drinking water crises.Cryosphere helps scientist in analyzing climatic conditions in the past and present days on examining drilled ice.tushar 2)Bring out your perspectives on the plausible aims of the NAM in the post-cold war period.

Non Aligned movement (NAM) which started in opposition to the division of world in two groups led by USA and USSR respectively was an effort by the member countries to resist the unjustified dominance of big and powerful blocs and stay independent.It gained considerable success in its efforts and was able to attract a number of nations who were not willing to join any military group but wanted to stay neutral.Post Cold war and disintegration of Soviet Union, many critics have raised doubts on the relevance of Non Aligned movement.They argue, that since the world is no longer divided into two groups, NAM should dissolve as the conditions which facilitated its emergence themselves cease to exist.However, it would be hasty step to dismiss the NAM.

The conditions which were responsible for its birth still exist albeit in completely different forms.The international politics in not completely democratized.Very often we see a strong and powerful nation intimidating neighboring countries through its policies.The US policies towards Latin American countries, or the US naval blockade of Cuba, or Chinese territorial disputes with Vietnam or Phillipines provide ample evidence in this regard.NAM stands for democratizing the world order where every nation can maintain its strategic autonomy.

Secondly, the world is still seeing an increase in arms race.The various arms treaty and nuclear proliferation relation treaties are unjust and favourable for the countries which already have access to lethal weapons.NAM as a group can raise its collective voice against this inequality.Thirdly, though colonialism is not directly evident it has not completely disappeared.It has changed it face and turned into economic colonialism.

The unjust treaties in WTO, various trade barriers imposed by developed countries on the goods and services of developing countries is an example.The NAM countries, which mostly belong to the latter group can collectively counter the hegemony of these powerful nations in various world forums.Lastly, the NAM can strengthen world opinions on tackling issues like climate change, hunger, poverty, gender inequality which affect the third world countries the most.These issues pose serious challenge and require concerted actions by all the countries of the world.NAM can become a platform for mobilizing various nations towards removing these inequalities.

tushar Ans Cryosphere is that part of earth which is frozen either in the form of ice glaciers, sea ice or river ice or in the form of snow on mountains.Crysophere plays an important role in climate change through its feedback mechanism which can be both negative and positive.It consist of Whitish snow which has a high albedo which helps reflect back the warm sun rays thus preventing global warming.However, melting of Cryosphere in the Polar Regions have released vast amount of GHGs which were hitherto confined to frozen prefectures and it also increased the sea level thereby affecting the precipitation pattern and hydrological cycle and marine life which have its bearing on ecological balance and climate change.RV Impact of cryosphere on global climate.

Cryosphere includes the regions of the earth under frozen conditions including the polar caps , glaciers and ice sheets and all of them have a bearing on the global climate.Polar ice caps are one of the main reasons for albedo of the earth there by restricting the amount of insolation absorbed by the earth making it habitable.These regions are also source for the polar air masses which on meeting warm tropical air masses are responsible for frontogenesis and consequent precipitation in the polar and temperate bitterly cold airmasses create very cold conditions in regions of Canada, U., Russia and China, The cold conditions developed by them also facilitate the generation of planetary winds called polar easterlies and the upper atmospheric polar night jet streams which contribute to dry stable weather conditions.

RV RV Cryosphere includes the regions of the earth under frozen conditions including the polar caps , glaciers and ice sheets .Polar ice caps are one of the main reasons for albedo of the earth there by restricting the amount of insolation absorbed by the earth making it habitable.These regions are also source for the polar air masses result in precipitation in the polar and temperate create very cold conditions in regions of Canada, U.The bitterly cold conditions in Antartica produce the polar stratospheric clouds providing the conditions for ozone depletion.However due to global warming the melting polar caps have realeased large amounts of methane from the permafrost exacerbating the global warming situation.Evika I found the earlier answer more informative.In the revised version, you omitted the point on Polar Easterlies(which I missed in my answer to the question).

They are important as they cause storms and rains in the mid-latitude region(parts of Russia, Canada, Australia, Argentina).

RV Hello ! Thanx for pointing that out .Just that in 100 words it became difficult to include it all for instance the squall line and increases frequency of tornadoes in the region ! Anjali Motghare lakshmi prasanna 2.After centuries of British rule we got independence with powers to guide ourselves further.WW2 divided world into two parts one is US and the other is USSR.

Now India needs to decide the one with whom it needs to join.Under leadership of Nehru it refused to join both sides and decided to remain as a peace loving country with sovereign foreign policy.This ideology led to the formation of NAM.In the post cold war scenario people questioned about the importance of NAM.With slight modification in its aims after Belgrade conference it remained to show good impact.

In the present globalization era importance of NAM is seen as follows: It still means the same, maintaining independence in foreign policy, and maintaining the same for other countries also.Respect the other countries for their sovereignty in the internal affairs.Don’t dictate policies and impose ideas.So NAM stays as a philosophy for a while to come.India didn’t preach a philosophy of arming of the Libyan rebels when there was a UN resolution.

But abstained maintaining the stance believing a military offensive is not a solution for a political problem.We maintain our ideology and say we are not to be pulled down by the pressures.May it be the Iran issue where we are being pressurized to react to the sanction policy on Iran, we refrain from doing so.And so to tell in the affairs to come whether it is ethnic conflicts, religious intolerance or mere misunderstandings I think u explained NAM completely through India’s Perspective, It would be better if u cut India and Put NAM there.on one hand you are talking about NAM’s relevance and its impact and also saying that NAM will remain a philosophy for a while.Thank You lakshmi prasanna ya slightly deviated i need to replace india with NAM, thank u philosophy in the sense of it rules (ahimsa) not intervening into others issues and pertaining to its own national boundaries in this globalised world.which is often criticized as selfish philosophy.

After reading your answer, my comments are- (1) The starting 7 lines could have been condensed into 2 lines.I feel that this much elabortation was not required.(2) In the last 9 lines you have shifted the focus entirely on Indian foreign policy.lakshmi prasanna regarding 7 lines starting i mentioned about India due to its role in originating and further spreading.(reasons) 9 lines; no sagar only in one place i have wrongly mentioned india ( ex;Libyan) rest all are purely related to NAM.(rules + examples related to every NAM member) thanks for detailed review i’ll develop it further Sudha you have deviated in the last part by explaining on what NAM exactly does but the question is your perspective on what could be the possible objectives of NAM in post cold war era.lakshmi prasanna Anjali Motghare Perestroika denotes a certain reforms applied in Soviet Union under Gorbachev rule to regenerate lost confidence in human being and to bring democratic reforms.After 1917 revolution soviet Union came into existence.

Socialism established in the country and it brought message of liberty, equality, health and wealth for the oppressed nationalities.But as Lenin passed away Soviet Union turned into chaos and Stalin assuming dictatorship democratic principles completely lost.After Stalin’s death several reforms initiated by Khrushchev.Intellectual freedom and civil liberties were restored though true democracy was a distant dream.Soviet Communism failed to become powerful instrument of public welfare hence perestroika used by Gorbachev.

Through perestroika he wanted to end rigidity and pave the way for economic, social,political, cultural and spiritual development of was aimed at evolving a society whose essence would be glory and dignity of man.Gorbachev pleaded for open discussion over regional,economic,racial, social and environmental problems to ascertain peoples true this necessitated glasnost means openness.It promoted open discussion to strengthen democratic forces.Glasnost and perestroika symbolized all round change.Political prisoners released, multy-party elections held, people allowed to make foreign trips and to migrate, bans on religios sects were lifted.

Through perestroika welfare democratic principles introduced in Soviet Union which brought a lot of relief and change in peoples lives who had long been oppressed under government.You completely put his perestroika concept upside down.The concept does not talk about environmental concerns and racial discrimination rather educational reform, creating gender sensitization and ofcourse political, economic and social reforms.

You writing explains layman’s understanding(generalist ).

You put some common ingredients of a revolution or reform movemment.:p Courtesy Source Thanks a lot Insights, I was just knowing basic things about the topic.Once again I want to say, you are doing very very great thing to help people like me.Evika 1)“The essence of Perestroika is for people to feel they are the country’s masters”.Perestroika, meaning Restructuring, was a famous political and economic system introduced in the Soviet Union by the Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev.It had a huge impact not only in the political, economic and social spheres, but it also proved lucky for the underground rock band musicians of the time who received an opportunity to perform live, a feat they couldn’t have dreamt of a few years ago.In order to draw out the essence of Perestroika, we look at the events that followed Gorbachev’s assumption of office.The first thing that General Secretary Gorbachev announced at the plenary assembly in April 1985 was providing a much delayed scientific and technical boost.It provided every Soviet family with a separate apartment.

The following year, Gorbachev, in an attempt to give the society a human face rather than build on communism, called up Andrei Sakharov(Soviet’s version of Chen Guangcheng), a human rights activist under house arrest, to resume his patriotic activity.Ban over publication of the books like George Orwell’s Animal Farm and 1984, was lifted.Sensational movies like ‘Repentance’ were shown to people and magazines with sensational materials and advocacy pieces were distributed.The whole country reiterated the tune ‘Winds of Change’ by Kino’s band(you tube link: /watch?v=BbHsxrYzdIg.

The period was marked with the appearance of aerobics, a leisure activity famous among Soviet ladies.However, amidst all the rejoicing and merry making, Perestroika completely changed the meaning of freedom for the people of USSR.So, even though it though it was introduced in both the communist countries of the USSR and China, under different names, it had disparate effects on the respective economies.Therefore, I do not completely agree with the given topic ‘The essence of Perestroika is for people to feel they are the country’s masters ‘.

In the USSR, perestroika was implemented along with glasnost policies, which provided freedom and fooled the populace into believing that they were the masters of the country by bringing in sudden and drastic changes in their lifestyles, as mentioned above.It eventually led to the dissolution of the Soviet Union.In contrast, the economic reform in China, which was similar in essence to that in the Soviet Union, was confined under authoritarian rule and suppression of political dissidents, did not make its citizens masters of the country.3) Impact of cryosphere on global climate.Cryosphere refers to the areas of snow and ice, where water is available in form of frozen solid for at least a major part of the year.

It may occur either on land( continental ice sheets of Greenland) or in water(frozen parts of ocean in polar regions).The components of cryosphere play an important role in the Earth’s climate.Snow and ice reflect heat from the sun, helping in regulating Earth’s temperature.Secondly, they house a bio-diversity which is largely undiscovered yet.Although they are concentrated in the polar region, elements of the cryosphere exist at nearly all latitudes, which make them useful indicators of global climate change.

Due to the uninhabited environment, these regions are sensitive to climate changes, and serve as research labs for scientists.The importance of cryosphere can be better judged by various cryospheric science missions undertaken by the US government like ‘Operation Ice Bridge'(for air borne survey of polar regions) and launch of ICESAT series of satellites.The Ministry of Earth Sciences, in India, has expressed its vision of extending scientific and technical support in the polar regions in the draft 12th Five Year Plan.Cut short the elaboration part of reforms introduced and give a brief about them Second Question(190 words), Last paragraph was not required at all.How they are useful indicator(explained only about albedo and biodiversity)- Sink house of GHGs and melting effect missing Evika Second answer: Hey Sahil.I checked, you have included the Arctic methane release concept in your answer.

But only recently I had read a news article which says the concept is misleading.Sure, methane is released from the prefectures but its a local effect with a small release leading to warming spread over the globe.Also, the claim that the methane may suddenly escape(like farting 50 billion tons of the Arctic seafloor) has been declared impossible.For indicators I used albedo, biodiversity and research concepts and missed out on Polar Easterlies and saline concentration of oceans.

2)Bring out your perspectives on the plausible aims of the NAM in the post-cold war period.Ans- NAM was started during cold war period by the nations who wanted to remain apart from the bipolarity of the world created by US & USSR.In post-cold war period when USSR has already disintegrated, there have been apprehensions regarding purpose of existence of NAM.

The plausible aims of NAM can be given as- (a) Now the world order has changed from bipolar to unipolar having US as the only pole.Non alignment still keeps a meaning in this scenario.(b) With the rise of other powers like China & European nations, the chances of creation of a multi-polar world in near future can’t be negated.So, the circumstances under whice NAM was created may return back.(c) Paralysis of UN was also one purpose of creation of NAM due to presence of US & USSR in its permanent members.

This situation is more or less the same today.(d) NAM is more about the principles on which the nations stand.The principles are non-aligned foriegn policy, no participation in military alliances etc These principles do not change with time.(e) Apart from sharing common principles, it has become the source of economic, social & political cooperation for the developing nations.So, we can see that even in post-cold war era, NAM has not lost its plausibility & still keeps a value which it had during the period of bipolarity.

Leaving aside this question,Though it is relevant.don’t you thing that it is unable to achieve most of its objective.Like it opposes any country specific sanctions but still most of its members severely cut short their oil demand from Iran.It has been strong on words but Weak on Action.

? Even India is collaborating with Japan and Australia in a tripple alliance(2+2 dialogue) so as to contain china.Though China is also aggressive but India have no right to confront China in South China Sea.Would that not amount to alignment with South Asian Nation.In my view the main cause behind its failure is the lack of enforcement powers.It is an informal structure of cooperation without any permanent secretariat so there is no obligations in strictly legal terms to adhere to any policies or allegiances but only that member states should support each other under the principles of non-alignment.lakshmi prasanna according to me it serves has a cause to abstain voting irrespective of how critical the situation is.lakshmi prasanna sahil don’t u think that china is trying to dominate in south china sea to become supreme power for which it is to intervening in the territories of Vietnam and Philippines.more over in Vietnam we have direct business deals for oil and also it requested for support.

but not like china we are constructing ports randomly in pak, srilanka, Maldives.continent ally it is superior but not through maritime so it is strengthening muscles.strategy needed no ahimsa hahaha Lakshmi, an eye for an eye will make the whole world blind.You are talking about the economic integration which is a necessaity of globalised world.But it would be wrong to say that India, which is one of the founder member of MAN is undermining the same principles it enacted 50 years back.Secondly string of pearls in not officially recognized by Chinese government.There are ways to solve problems through diplomatic cables.

Today India will help america to contain China.tomorrow America will fund Pakistan to destabilize India.further with the global warming China will not depend much on Indian Ocean.lakshmi prasanna sahil ur right but even if we bind to the rules, all these happened and happens this is what credited our nation as a soft nation to be frank inability to tackle the situation.

our good nature should not turn as a weak example of ashoka though he turned towards dhamma religion he didn’t stop retaliating against his opponents he himself participated in many wars.even Buddha restricted entry of kings into Buddhism as many of their subjects are depending on him.pls this is not an argument try to think in this lines and construct ur own ideas.thank u first of all, if India is not a soft power, it should confront China on the outstanding border issue and retaliate to the continuous violations of ceasefire of pakistan.

Getting into groups to bark the Dragon which no change its image as a soft power.Ashoka and contemporary India should not be compared.He was an astute, brave and assertive ruler, not a petty political entity that will undermine national interest for self gratification.He fought at individual level and without support most of the times.

there is a difference between alliance and individual defense Siddhesh Singh 2)Bring out your perspectives on the plausible aims of the NAM in the post-cold war period.

Firstly to say NAM was made specifically for Cold war will severely limit its scope.And hence calling for its relevance post cold was shows people take NAM in narrow sense it was formed for newly decolonized country to raise their voice when they dont wanted to join any bloc.PM I K Gujaral had already in 1990 told the importance of NAM.The first thing it can do is to expand and stengthen the south-south cooperation.

With no major west country dominates NAM it can easily become the voice of South and poor countries.Secondly it can encourage the settlement of peace process out of West dominated UN.With major social troubles are in South nations it can provide an outstanding platform for settlement.Thirdly even if in near future China becomes one super power and world politics moves towards bipolarity, it will be an excellent platform for making world multi polar and its relevance which was (in narrow sense) was in cold war era can again be revived.Lastly it can act as opposite to UN since it is not confined to any region it can effectively criticise the policies of UN and can further increase the democratisation of UN security council.

To conclude there are a lot of problems in front of NAM to focus on instead of dwelling into debate about its relevance.It would be nice if NAM sticks to the principle to which it was formed i.RV Non-Alignment Movement , a brainchild of Nehru along with 4 other world leaders was established by the Belgrade Charter.

It’s objective was to maintain sovereignty and independence of decision-making when the world was bifurcated between the Warsaw and NATO blocks.However in recent times developed nations consider it to have been buried under the rubble of the Berlin Wall and a relict of the cold war period.These views however are myopic viewed through the lenses of hegemony of the North Block.NAM was principally formed to promote universal peace and development and not just the ending of the cold war something that still largely evades the the advent of neo-colonialism and neo-imperialism with unilateral intervention in countries like Yugoslavia,Afghanistan , Iraq , Libya and now maybe Syria , NAM stands as the only major opposition to these actions.Tehran and Venezuela the current and next chair of NAM are seen as U.

detractors mainly due to their resistance to U.Ban Ki-moon India’s stand to attend the Tehran meet despite U.pressure along with so many other countries undermines the legitimacy of the sanctions on Tehran.On the economic front the G-77 is essentially a complement of NAM and its stand on Domestic industry protection by tariffs and others raised at International Forums essentially protects the south block countries from the hegemony of North.Unified NAM provides the only voice against the continuous tussle over intellectual property rights , domination of world institutions like World Bank and IMF by the West and their increasingly discriminatory nuclear policies.The achievements of NAM to push for a New International Economic Order (NIEO)and New World Information and Communication Order (NWICO) and their active cooperation on host of environmental , energy, terrorism and other global issues showcase their relevance in times to come .Sudha 2) Bring out your perspectives on the plausible aims of the NAM in the post-cold war period.

The end of Second World War led to the rise of two super powers, USA and USSR resulting in a Cold War.This was the period of Bipolar regime when all the countries were expected to take a side.But few of the developing countries of Asia, Africa & Latin America took a third stand of Non-Alignment by not joining either of the super powers thereby leading to the formation of Non-Aligned Movement.Enhancing world peace and following an autonomic foreign policy were the key objectives of NAM.Though NAM faced criticism from the beginning, the end of cold war with the dissolution of Soviet Union raised an ambiguity of the mere motto of existence of NAM.

But does the end of Cold War led to the dissolution of NATO? A mere NO.Similarly NAM continued by shifting its focus on new areas which required concentration and which UN couldn’t ensure.The key objective of NAM in the post cold war period would be on ending the Unipolar nature of USA with a multipolar regime with NAM as a major contributor.The other possible objectives would be on global disarmament, reducing global terrorism, environmental protection, economic growth of developing and under developed countries of NAM, North-South Cooperation.Globalisation and Liberalisation led to the increased rich-poor divide which WTO failed to address.

The emergence of new issues on the international agenda required the leadership of middle power and NAM satisfies the purpose.Hence, the post cold war era instead of driving out the NAM gained its overall position and objectives with a new dimension.3) Impact of cryosphere on global climate.(100 words) Cryosphere refers to the portion of Earth’s surface where water exists in solid state.Cryosphere influences the surface temperature, moisture flux, clouds, circulation of oceans and atmosphere, sea level, storm direction and precipitation with which it influences the global climate.

The high albedo of snow keeps the temperature low and prevents the Earth’s surface from overheating balancing the climate.In turn cryosphere expands during winter with increased snow fall.Global warming results in snow melt and melting of snow emits green house gases and decreased reflective capacity of the earth results in further warming.Hence, cryosphere directly influences the present and future global climate.

Sudha Sudha, When opinion based questions are asked, it is better to begin your answer immediately with a crisp introduction that too when there is a word limit.

First two paragraphs are spent on explaining about NAM and its principles.Instead, in the introduction itself you should give an indication of your perspective about the question.You have done that in the third paragraph.Question asks your perspective about the plausible aims of NAM in the post cold war era, so better to start answer directly from here – post cold war.(In essay we can afford to give a detailed introduction, not here) Have a look at this article: /article/opinion/shyam-saran-an-india-allying-with-none-112032100104 1.

html (it is about Indian perspective, but it applies to other member countries too) Example of last year’s NAM conference in Iran and how NAM supported Iran’s efforts to develop ‘peaceful’ nuclear ability in spite of US opposition should have been good.(some current events should be linked to this kind of answers).For other question please see my comment above (to Anjali Motghare’s answer).Keep it up 🙂 Sudha Thank you Insights.

ya I will make a note of giving short introductions to opinion based questions assuming those things are already known and will give more importance to personal views and current events.Yes I should try answering an essay 🙂 Have read your previous comment.neeraj “The essence of Perestroika is for people to feel they are the country’s masters”.Perestroika was a policy of Gorbachev for restructuring of the political, social and economic system.The restructuring involved a greater democratisation of the soviet union’s political system, a system where multiple persons could stand for a political post and the people will have a right to choose among the contestants but under one party system.The policy’s aim was to introduce the concept of the people and not the state being the masters of themselves.But the policy instead of giving a mandate for a union helped fuel the ideas of nationalism among the member states which was seething for quite a long time.These states which inspite of a state controlled economy, were in a much poor state as compared to the western world of democracy.

Gorbachev’s liberal policy helped these seething aspirations to take shape.The Baltic countries like latvia, lithuania and estonia raised call for independence.People were taking control of their own countries.The glasnost policy also played a vital role.

The voices of the people were not muzzled like they were done before.People were able to raise their demands.Miners went on strike and their demands were met.The oppression of the previous regimes were brought to light due to glasnost policy.The people felt that their future was not safe with the state.

The policy of perestroika got out of control and soviet union was divided.Inspite of this, it brought a radical change in the restructuring of social, economic and political structure.It helped people realise that they were the masters and state was there to promote their well being.This brought end to Stanalist way of the State.neeraj Bring out your perspectives on the plausible aims of the NAM in the post-cold war period.

NAM was started by developing countries in the backdrop of cold war era in 1950s.NAMs criteria for admitting a new member has not changed after the end of cold war.This has made the developed western world to deride NAM as a “relic of cold war”.But NAM was founded on sound principle of sovereignity of nation, non interference, independence, no interference , fairness, and peaceful settlement of disputes.These principles are still relevant today.

In a world dominated by the western world lead by the USA, it is very important for a developing nation like ours to not be an agent of these countries and be able to make independent decision in international matters, which would serve our purpose to the full extent.We have shown some spine by taking independent decision in case of admission of Palestine in UN, Iran nuclear crisis and human right violation in Sri Lanka.Also, India has been a leader for the developing world.It has time and again proved that it supports the issues related to underdeveloped world, be it the issue of IPR in case of generic medicine or the case of protectionist attitude of the developed world towards its agriculture, or cases related to environment.India also has to look after its strategic sphere.

It has to look after its security issues keeping in view its rogue neighbours like China and Pakistan.A recent example is buying the Rafale fighter planes and not bowing to US and UK pressures.Also movement of labour in international market is another issue to be tackled.The Non Agricultural Market Access is another issue to be discussed.

Thus NAM policy is very important not only for India but any other developing nation.

Bring out your perspectives on the plausible aims of the NAM in the post-cold war period.Non-alignment Movement, was started by countries who wants to assert their freedom to choose their foreign policy, by not joining either clubs of the then bi-polar world.With the disintegration of soviet block, many questioned its relevance.But with changed times comes the new challenges, and NAM still has a role to play in world politics.

The plausible aims of NAM in post-cold war could be: 1.To work for better representation and democracy in the working of international financial institutions like IMF and world bank, to protect the economic and developmental interests of third world countries 2.To provide a leadership to the developing countries and Least developed countries and work for better bargain in the climate change negotiations 3.With the Veto nations often de-railing the peace process of UN in their vested interests (as happening in Syria), NAM should work dynamically to set in the reform process of UNSC composition for a better and balanced representation.With the ever-going arm race in the world, NAM collectively could serve as a platform to work for the peaceful negotiations of the many standing conflicts between different countries of the world.NAM countries with mutual cooperation can aim at curbing the menace of terrorism, especially state sponsored by putting pressure on the irresponsible countries through international diplomacy.Bi-polarity might have ended, but the urge of dominance and discrimination by the supposedly superpowers still remains, which requires NAM to work more dynamically and pragmatically to espouse the cause of third world countries on the global stage.My comments to your answer- (1) The aims that you have enumerated present a view as if NAM = UN of developing countries.Moreover, all developing nations are not part of NAM.(2) NAM is first an ideology & then a group of nations following that ideology.

So, the aims of the group focuses more or less around this ideology only.Tejaswi Thanks for the review, I agree with what you said about NAM.But i just wrote that NAM can serve as a platform not an institution.Tejaswi Hey tejaswi, it is not an institution as sagar pointed out in one of my replies.

It is an informal organisation and is a platform Asha Goud “The essence of Perestroika is for people to feel they are the country’s masters”.A: Michael Gorbachev appointed as general secretary of communist party in Soviet Union in 1985.At that time the Soviet economy was undergoing a very bad phase and Gorbachev initiated reform process.The Perestroika and Glasnost are the two major policies adopted by Gorbachev intending to introduce reform in the social, economic and political front.

The reforms also included democratization of the political structure.It is important to study the background of the reform process.The vastness of Soviet empire had always made it very difficult to be administered.

There were more than 100 ethnic groups living in USSR, divided into 15 republics and forced to live together.This resulted emergence of ethnic conflicts.Also the Baltic region remained in a state of perpetual unrest and demands of independence grew during the 1980s.The control these ethnic unrest and demand for independence military was used.Such brutal use of force on its own people and complete neglect of their demands diminished the trust of the people in the authorities.

The economy under Communist control was not performing well.People were increasingly dissatisfied with low living standards.Therefore when Gorbachev came to power he found the economy in shambles and a government that had lost all moral support from the people.Therefore he adopted a liberalized approach and initiated the reforms.Political reform provided basic rights to the people like right to vote, right to speech, right to strike.

However due to presence of conservatives the structure essentially remained centralized.The Communist Politburo and General Secretary remained most powerful and appointed not elected.The reform process was directed from the top rather than driven by the bottom as a result reforms failed miserably.Bring out your perspectives on the plausible aims of the NAM in the post-cold war period.

A: NAM was conceptualized during the cold war era to ensure that the newly independent nations do not get trapped in the cold war power struggle.

The NAM countries did not align themselves with any power bloc and were against imperialism, colonialism and all forms foreign aggression on sovereignty of a nation.NAM aimed at establishing a democratic framework at global level.It was based on the principles of cooperation and mutual development all nations.NAM has always been linked to Cold war era and its relevance is therefore questioned in the post cold war scenario.The present global environment is characterized by spread of capitalism and related process of neo-colonialism.

The capitalist countries are spreading their influence on the under developed countries leading to their exploitation.Therefore the founding principles of NAM are still relevant such as maintaining sovereignty of nations and establishing equitable world order.NAM should realign its policy not against any power but in favor of development of underdeveloped countries.NAM is focusing on attaining South-South cooperation on the issues concerning developing countries like globalization, trade, climate change, development.At present the membership of NAM stands at 120 and these countries also are UN members.

The goal of NAM of establishing world peace and security and a democratic global structure is in consonance with goal of UN.Therefore the NAM countries should work together at UN and build up consensus on issues pertaining to the developing countries.neeraj Impact of cryosphere on global climate.Cryosphere is frozen ice on surface of the earth as in antartica, arctic, glaciers in ocean and permafrost.Melting of cryonosphere has a damaging effect on the global climate.

Melting of crynosphere increases global temperature by firstly, reflecting less sunlight due to exposed earth/rock in the arctics and antarctics and its subsequent feedback effect and secondly by releasing greenhouse gases due to thawing of frozen permafrost.Also,melting of ice increases the sea level of the oceans therby engulfing the coastal areas.Keerthi Narayan Perestroika is one of the key principles of Mikhail Gorbachev, the former Soviet President who aimed to reform the USSR’s Stalinist communism and make a more humane, people responsive socialism as state policy.Soviet Russia after the World War saw the leadership of Joseph Stalin, Nikita Khrushev and Brezhnev.All these leaders were advocates of a communist state characterised by nationalisation of all public assets and high centralisation.

There was very little room for private initiatives.The state’s major expenditure was for defence and people welfare oriented schemes were not given enough resources.There was heavy state control of the press and freedom of speech was not guaranteed.Goods for day to day consumption of people were not easily available.In sum, for about half a century, the Soviet people saw no significant improvement in the standard of living.

In addition to that free expression and culture were not available as reqired in a free society.Mikhail Gorbachev was more of a humanist.His aim was not to overthrow communism, but to reform the Stalinist way of communism.Hence, he proposed principles like Glasnost and Perestroika meaning openness and socio-economic reform respectively.The primary aim of these principles is to give the people of Russia the feel of free living, which has been denied all these years due to a heavily centralised state control.

During his reign, theatre and music were allowed to flourish, critics of the former govts, who had been jailed were set free, the press was given a free hand to criticise the state’s actions.Gorbachev had planned to restucture the economy and society in a more people responsive way.However, Gorbachev himself could not control the reforms he triggered.Criticism against communism became uncontrolled and people ultimately staged demonstration, strikes and agitations leading to the collapse of communism.Perestroika never achieved its aim of giving power to the Soviet people’s hands.

Asha Goud katniss Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) was a baby of Bandung conference of 1955 which was held in the context of the cold war between the two super powers, the US and the USSR.The founding fathers included then Indian Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru, Indonesian president Sukarno, Egyptian president Nasser, Ghana president Nkrumah, erstwhile Yugoslavian president Tito.The principles of NAM were independent policy based on peaceful coexistence and non alignment and solidarity with the former colonies in the context of cold war politics.The West considers NAM irrelevant in the post cold war era and calls it a “relic of the cold war”.However, NAM meant much more than not being aligned to any of the super powers.

Even from its beginning, it was considered as the voice for former colonies and poor nations against the domination of the rich countries.The presence of almost all of its 120 members and UN secretary general in its Tehran summit in 2012 speaks of its continuing relevance.NAM should re-orient its objectives so as to meet the aspirations of the members in the new era of uni-polarity or the domination of the West.The solidarity within NAM provides strength to its members.It should stand up for the independence of its member countries in the eve of western domination.

It should address other concerns of the poor and developing countries including global terrorism, energy, technology transfer, climate change, health facilities, poverty eradication and intellectual property rights.Thus NAM, being the largest international organization of the developing countries, continues to see its role as a voice of member countries in the current era of neo-colonialism or uni-polar world.ashu1989 hi everybody, i am just a beginner and hoping for some constructive critcism to keep me focussed in a long journey of civil services is my first article ever in my english rip.“the essence of perestroika is for people to feel they are the country’s masters’.

Russia in 1970s was suffering from stagnation, deteriorating economic conditions with increasing shortage of food, goods – inspite of liberal imports, inflation, federal deficits, unemployment, foreign debt etc.It was then (1985) Mikhail Gorbachev took over Russian administration.His rule saw another revolution, for which change was necessary and achieved through programs of Glasnost (openness), Perestroika (revive) & Democratizatisiya (democracy).Peristroika literally means to restructure, revive and reform; aims to make socialism efficient in meeting its citizen’s basic needs.

It is restructuring political and economic systems.It allowed rejection of totalitarianism; freedom of speech, assembly, religion and movement; and political and economic pluralism Gorbachev changed the meaning of freedom from following Lenin / Stalin views to escaping all constraints.He even ceased persecution of religion and also allowed publishing of previously banned books like Animal Farm, Doctor Zhivago etc.Political reforms established Demokratizatisiya i.introduction of multi candidate (not multi party) elections – to rejuvenate politcs with progressive personnel who would carry out his institutional and policy reforms.Economic reforms aimed mainly to end Stalinist centrally planned economy and establish ‘Privatizing and marketing Socialism’ – reducing the role of planners in decision making and replacing state owned enterprises with private and cooperative decision making.Gorbachev encouraged social (private) ownership of enterprises and means of production and cooperative management of economy.Better socialist system of production and distribution organized to directly satisfy the economic demands and human needs.Despite its criticism for leading to breakup of USSR in 1991, its true essence was for the people to feel they were country’s masters – owning the means of production and economy.

Meeta Vinay Myskar Q3 – Impact of Cryosphere on global climate Cryosphere (Greek – Cryos = cold, frost, ice and Sphaira = globe, ball) collectively describes portions of earth’s surface where water is in solid form – example – glaciers, ice caps, snow cover etc.Cryosphere is an integral part of global climate system with important linkages and feedbacks generated through its influence on surface energy (heat) and moisture fluxes, clouds, precipitation, hydrology, atmosphere, oceanic circulation etc.It is strongly influenced by temperature, solar radiation, precipitation and in turn influences each of these.Its physical properties like crystal structure, density etc affect heat and water transfer.It acts as an insulator, preventing large energy loss in winters.

Its high latent heat of fusion retards warming in summer.kalyani The term perestroika means restructuring and the term is associated with Michael Gorbachev and Soviet Union.Following the world war the condition of Soviet Union was critical like other countries.Unemployment and poverty prevailed everywhere.

They did not have any freedom of speech and expression.Rulers were completely aloof from the masses.As soon as Michael Gorbachev assumed power he seems like completely out of box.He get along directly with the people, he talked with them about their problems, a phenomenon, which is the first in the history of Soviet Union.He demolished the invisible wall that kept aloof the rulers from the masses.

Since Gorbachev came from a peasantry background and young, people expected a lot.He also succeeded in easing the tension of cold war by developing a friendship with America, Britain and other countries.People felt like they got promotion from their slave life to master life.But he could not tackle the root problems of the people.Slowly people began to realize the fact that they are the masters of a country where country not even exist.

From that realization many protests broke out in many parts of Soviet Union to materialize their dream of creating a country of their own.Then it spread to other spheres of life.Finally it led to the collapse of Soviet Union into 15 countries.Perestroika found a place in the history like Utopianism.

Shweta 2)Bring out your perspectives on the plausible aims of the NAM in the post-cold war period.The end of the cold war era and the collapse of the Socialist block was touted by some as the end of the Non aligned movement whose primary objective at conception was to save the newly emerging nations from succumbing to the pressures of the Bipolar cold world order.However, NAM has retained and regained its significance in the post cold war world and has multifarious roles to play in the present context due to emerging global challenges.The fall of Soviet block and consequent emergence of US hegemony in world politics still poses a challenge to the NAM’s founding principle of democratization in International relations and establishment of a multipolar world.NAM has an important role to play in assuring the sovereignity and strategic autonomy of underdeveloped nations in world politics and against use of unilateral military actions by hegemonic powers.

Secondly, NAM can provide a forum for leveraging on global issues of sustainable development, climate change, global warming etc while protecting the interests of developing nations and promoting the principle of CBDR.Thirdly, NAM has an important role to play in encouraging Universal Disarmament while ensuring access of nuclear technologies for peaceful purposes to the poor provides an important platform to deal with the threats to global security arising on account of Terrorism by promoting dialogue between peoples, culture and religions and encouraging mutual respect between them.Lastly, it can work towards promotion of a just and fair economic order which works to the benefit of rich and poor nations alike and tends to reduce disparities between them.3) Sea Floor Spreading Ans- Sea floor spreading is the phenomena of creation of Oceanic crust when the magma inside it wells up to fill the gap created by the separation of earth’s crust.

Firstly, it leads to creation of mid-oceanic ridges.Mid-Atlantic ridge & East pacific ridge are examples.Along the crest of volcanoes of the mid-oceanic ridge, water gets superheated & gushes out dissolving minerals of crust in itself.Moreover, this energy acts as a source for the deep sea creatures & hence their food chain due to unavailability of sunlight.

Secondly, due to this, tectonic plates keep moving in opposite direction.According to an estimate the speed of movement is as high as 5cm/year.This acts as a factor of reshaping of continents too.Thirdly, It is responsible for mid-ocean earthquakes which result in devastating tsunamis.It calls for the need of monitoring of sea floor spreading.

Hey Sagar , Sea floor spreading doesnot result in earthquakes.rather plate movement along a divergent boundary interaction lead to earthquake.Secondly if it is is mid ocean, how will it reshape continents.Rather you should say that it creates islands or continents like that of Hawai(Just change the word reshape) Hello Sahil, Sea floor spreading is all about oceanic plate movements due to upwelling of magma, aren’t they? Such oceanic plate movements may be responsible for earthquakes.Moreover, sea plates don’t move independently.

They have effect on continental plates too.In fact, now it is believed that formation of today’s continents was a result of sea floor spreading.I you have further doubts, have a look at these- sapana 3) Sea Floor Spreading (100 words) As opposed to the prevailing concept of permanency of ocean floor, Harry Hess (1960), proposed that sea floor was mobile and hot magma rises up from the earth’s mantle by convection currents along the crest of the mid-oceanic ridges and moves away on either side in conveyor belt fashion and is finally lost in the oceanic trenches.The theory was based on the observation that nowhere the oceanic crust was older than 200 million years but landmasses were as old as the earth itself.Also rocks equidistant on either sides of the mid-oceanic ridges showed remarkable similarity.

The support for the concept of sea floor spreading comes from the sequence of magnetic anomalies found on the ocean bottom.The spreading theory in turn is a major evidence and explanation for theory of plate tectonics.Anand Kumar Vipul 1)“During the Indian national movement, the Left succeeded in making an impact on Indian society and politics”.Answer : The National Movement imbibed a significant imprint on the minds of people about the conditions of the masses in India and generated political consciousness along with anger against the exploitative colonial rule .

The Gandhian ideology made the beginning of the acceptance of masses instead of classes .Even many prominent sections of the society advocated the principles of socialism , humanism , equal rights , universal adult franchise etc , whether it may be the HSRA of revolutionaries or the resolutions of the Congress or the leftist wing like Forward Bloc .The Great depressions in capitalist countries added fuel to the fire , there were huge drop in production and rise of unemployment leading to conviction that the socialistic pattern as adopted by Soviet Union is the only way to universal welfare .Thus the leftist ideologies of Socialism and Economic Planning came into picture .Congress adopted the resolution on Fundamental Rights and Economic Policy .

New socialist parties like Communist Party of India and Forward Bloc came into picture and everyone started to breath in the air with ideas of Marxism and welfarism mixed into it .The common points which everyone raised were about equal rights to all on the basis of natural law; improving the conditions of peasants, tenants & workers ; land reforms ;allowing formation of trade unions; nationalisation of key industries ; adopting universal adult franchise etc .Many platforms like student unions were formed and preached leftist ideologies as their main aims by defeating the notions of colonialism , imperialism , capitalism etc .These imprints continued after the independence and India became a socialist country with basic objective of welfare state .Fundamental Rights were enshrined in the constitution along with giving directive principles to stated which they have to keep in mind while making their policies .

Equality became talk of the hour and many humanistic steps were taken in the direction of achieving the aims .These aims still continue to rule the politics and affect the society .Still the mantra of Aam Aadmi continues to swirl around the political thought .Hence we can say that the deep pillars of welfarism and socialism stuck during the nationalist movement still stand firm and made a huge impact on Indian society and politics .2) Do you think that the Quit India movement was a Spontaneous Revolution? Answer: Quit India movement came in the aftermath of many important events and concerns .

Firstly the British Government still denied Indian ruled government and rights , even the Cripps Mission which came to advance the ongoing talks of transfer of power , was a failure .This created huge disappointment and frustration among the Indians.Secondly, the forces of Japanese aggression were marching towards India as they already had captured Malaya peninsula and reached Rangoon.So the apprehension mounted in the minds of the Indian leaders for the safety from that aggression.They feared that if steps are not taken right away then present exploitation may be taken over by nasty inhuman overexploitation of Nazism and fascism aggression.

Thirdly , the already mounting of anger and voices of nationalism had reached its zenith , the capacity to sacrifice and take repression had taken place in masses and was growing by the day .So we can say that although Quit India Movement was inevitable and had long term causes , but still we can say that failure of Cripps mission and advent of aggression at the doors of India , triggered the Indian leaders and masses to launch Quit India .The famous slogan which was on everyone’s voice was “Do or Die “ 3) Sea Floor Spreading (100 words) Answer : The phenomenon of divergence of plate boundaries in the ocean is commonly referred as Sea Floor Spreading.This process takes place only in the oceanic plate as there is thin lithosphere beneath ocean and high convection currents in the asthenosphere lead to divergence.

The divergence leads to formation of ‘ridge’ and ‘rise’.

The prominent and largest of ridge of the earth is Mid Atlantic Ridge, named Dolphin ridge in the north and Challenger Ridge in the south .The longest and largest rise is the East Pacific Rise.These formations are a result of rising crust material when the plates diverge.They also lead to formation of archipelagos .Vipul Thank you You crossed the world limit upto 400 words I think Gandhian Mention and explanation of national movement(explanation of left movement was required) is not required in the first line.

The left ideology had its genesis way back in 1920 and it was working well during its first 10 years.As your answer implied, left ideology was the product of great depression of 1930 and got substantiated only after that.But remember Lahore, meerut, Kanur conspiracy cases, Worker strikes of 1925 etc No mention Of CPI the main party.Further last two paragraphs only talk about left ideology after independence not during national movement.You could have mentioned them in one line.

Vipul Thank you sahil for your valuable views .The points which i want to make is conspiracy cases were not a direct result of left ideology.They were just a result of frustration and anger in the youth , which we also call as revolutionaries .The point of workers strike is accepted.And there is a mention of CPI but not elaborated it .

And would request the views on other two questions as well .Thank you In the first question, you have used 386 words (limit is 250 words – please read the new instruction below the questions).Middle two paragraphs give the whole answer.Also, there is no proper structure and flow – effect of left on politics and society is mixed.

You would have mentioned effect on society first and then on politics.In the second question, your opinion is not clear.Vipul Thank you Insight ! And please give your views on the third question Shweta Hi there! Please rate my responses as well.New to this forum and my first attempt this December.Shweta, You started your answer brilliantly by giving an excellent introduction.But, in third paragraph, you are not answering the question.The question is about ‘During the National Movement’ -so latter half of your answer is not relevant (your focus is on post-independence India).

After writing every paragraph, please read the question again and proceed.Hri I think you need to cover all the angles….Regarding communist revolution… Youth taking communism….Failure of gandhi methodology in first phase.

pavaniiit Language : excellent Conclusion: breath taking Flow of Answer : Very Lucid Structure of Answer : Impact of Russian Revolution could have been added because it surprised nationalist movements across colonies Length : If can concise these ideas in less words, it would be excellent Vipul RV 2)Do you think that the Quit India movement was a Spontaneous Revolution? The August Revolution most famously known as the Quit India movement was formalised at Gowalia Tank , Bombay in 1942 in lieu of the failed talks with the Cripps Mission, the rising discontent among the people , rising prices , continued aggression of Japan and high handedness of the Government in dealing with this situation in Bengal and Orrisa.The movement was spontaneous when we consider the earlier movements where Gandhi had specified time and location of initiation of civil disobedience , his Dandi March, his ttack to be on Dharsana Salt works and had served an ultimatum to the viceroy in this regard.Although the Congress had been preparing for a mass struggle for long time since 1937 (the Congress 28 month rule was effectively used to mobilize support , Patel toured the country warning people of impending struggle) but in the Quit India there was no defined time line action plan as such .Mahatma Gandhi gave the mantra of do or die at his famous speech at Gowalia Tank and provided guidelines for students , army , lawyers , public servants and farmer and zamindar communities to be adhered to in the course of the leaders had openly declared that the movement would be spontaneous and the millions participating should work within the confines of these guidelines.The swooping of Congress leaders further added to the spontaneity of the movement as the masses undertook actions without guidance of their leaders and were brutally repressed in a short time.

I think when one talk about analysing the impact of anything, it’s basic framework of action must be given.But You can also choose the other side, like it created a kind of social and political limbo in the country.But then how? RV I was also thinking on the lines that the promise shown by them in early 1930’s was gradually lost due to their constant challenge to the Congress on various grounds , their iron stand on issues .Basically their failures like in the beginning CPI , HSRA reated quite a flur amongst the youth but that impact was lost later ! RV 3) Sea Floor Spreading (100 words) Sea Floor Spreading is related to the Plate Tectonic theory which firmly establishes the divergence of the oceanic plates at plate boundaries leading to the formation of new crust on the ocean floor .The theory was firmly established by Harry Hess in his convective magma theory along with Fred Vine and Matthews’s observing magnetic anomaly on the ocean floor of the mid-Atlantic Ridge.

It is the primary causes for the formation of the mid oceanic ridges with mid-Atlantic Ridge being the most uous expansion of oceanic floor also substantiates the movement of the continental results in compression , folding and faulting leading to volcanism , earthquake and mountain building at the plate boundaries.RV tushar 1)“During the Indian national movement, the Left succeeded in making an impact on Indian society and politics”.Indian National Movement was affected by a lot of ideologies and it continued to evolve with time.

The Left movement had a considerable impact on the Indian National movement and it succeeded to a great extent in imparting a pro-poor and pro-working class orientation to the movement.

the Left movement was not a single cosolidated movement, but it manifested itself in the form of rise of many Workers and Peasant Party (WPPs) in various provinces.It led to the mobilization of workers and peasants and brought their problems in the national agenda.The emergence of various Kisan Sabhas throughout the country provides evidence in this regard.The Left movement also succeeded in influencing the Indian national Cognress (INC) leadership and its agenda.

The adoption of Fundamental and Economic Rights in Karachi session, Faizpur session were reflection of growing relevance of socialistic ideas in INC.jawaharlal Nehru and Subhash Bose were greatly influenced by these ideas.Rise of Congress Socialist Party to work for on socialist principles and influence INC was a step in this direction.However, there were various points of divergence especialy on the methods adopted for the revolution.Due to these disagreements the Left could not succeed in generating a mass following.

The Left movement introduced the element of welfare of people and this belief got further reinforced when our Constitution makers included provisions like Directive Principles of State Policy to make India a welfare state.2)Do you think that the Quit India movement was a Spontaneous Revolution? Its true that the Quit India Movement was started as a reaction to the sudden arrest of top leadership of Indian National Movement including Gandhiji, and the masses themselves took initiative to start the movement, it won’t be correct to state that the movement was entirely spontaneous.The stage for the movement had been prepared by the top leadership.Gandhiji was building the tempo for the movement for quite some time and preparing the masses to be ready for a movement.His mantra of ‘Do or Die’ given in Gowolia tank on the eve of the movement was to make the people ready for a coming movement.

Additionally, Gandhiji’s launching of Individual Satyagraha movement was an effort to mobilize the masses who were otherwise disillusioned by the failure of Civil Disobedience movement.These movements were gradually preparing them for the big day.Also, even during the movement, the leadership was provided by various leaders like JayPrakash narayan, Aruna Asaf Ali, who were out of prison and who operated underground to prevent arrest.The Quit India movement had definitely a degree of spontaneity which was greater than the previous movements.However, the movement was not entirely spontaneous and the groundwork for it had been done by the national leadership in the days preceding the movement.

tushar Amudhan Do you think that the Quit India movement was a Spontaneous Revolution? The quit India movement in comparison to the other 2 major movements lacked central leadership and the issuance of instruction was absent.However, even in CDM the most structured of Gandhian movements, there was considerable scope for decentralization and spontaneity by the local leaders.They had great leeway in implementation regarding the form of opposition provided to the British.It was not a spontaneous movement however it, in consideration of British suppression of political activity, was adapted to suit their temporal needs.As such the QIM received broad objectives of complete independence for the people to achieve and had been in preparation since 1937, slowly building momentum but controlled by the central leadership.

It operated within the ‘do or Die’ Mantra stated by Gandhi.The rise of Parallel governments was a unique feature of the movement and was inline with the objectives.The Circumstance dictated such spontaneity from the people and was not peculiar to the QIM.It was present to lesser extent in national level movements however due to circumstance the QIM had the greatest measure of decentralization.With regards to the ‘revolution’, QIM was instrumental in the independence of the nation but a more accurate statement would refer to the crystallization of Swaraj with in the leadership and the people of India.

Amudhan “During the Indian national movement, the Left succeeded in making an impact on Indian society and politics”.The left wing broadly divided into Marxists and socialists has an impact in Indian society and politics but never achieved primacy over the centrist tendencies of the congress.The impact of the left is greater upon politics giving the congress a strong left orientation and succeeded in integrating itself to influence a majority of decisions made.Nehru and Bose were elected leader in 1936-39 and the plan to constitute a planning commission and the economic policy adopted in Faizapur has significant leftist elements.

Within the political realm the socialist has far greater acceptance and the Marxists tended to isolate themselves unable to influence policy due to their uncompromising ideology.Furthermore there were many factions unable to coordinate effectively CSP and CPI, the Nehru-Bose divide and post-1939 divergence between Bose and the CSP.However the Left led to the realization that even though imperialist exploited India, its poverty and misery has contribution from own socio-economic structures and cultural heritage.It had greater success in organizing trade unions and established the All India Trade Union Congress.During the Meerut conspiracy case the Marxist ideologies were propagated extensively allowing for greater penetration within society.

Marxist ideologies also influenced extremists such as Bhagat singh and Chandra Sekhar Azad.Upon independence India operated a mixed economic model and had significant leftist influences however it was neither completely communist not without its elements.Therefore the influence of the Left is partial.Ans After the failure of Cripps Mission, there was a sense of resentment among all sections of society.Congress felt betrayed due to British apathy towards its demand for a constituent assembly and the coming attack of Japanese on the east coast.

Congress was left to nothing but to pass a resolution for demanding complete independence from British yoke and leave India in god’s hand.Though congress opted for a planned movement, the sudden arrest of its leaders including Gandhi Ji the very next day of resolution changed the character of the mobilization from a movement to a revolution.The violence was the result of continuous apathy of the British during world war which led to eruption and public outcry after the arrest of Congress leaders.This completely led to a standstill and people come out in support without any centralized leadership of congress.

There was a sudden surge in the violence and destruction leading to damage of the public buildings.

There was complete breakdown of administration machinery at various regional centers.There was a disruption in the communication lines of government.Various secret radio stations were started to disseminate the idea of movement which has gained a revolutionary zeal leading to arrest of thousands of people.The continuous repression of the people after NCM and CDM without any heed to their demand against the war issues coupled with the arrest of their leaders is the main reason for the movement turning out to be a revolution.Sudha 2) Do you think that the Quit India movement was a Spontaneous Revolution? The debate that Quit India Movement was a spontaneous revolution or not has been in history for long and I agree that it is a spontaneous revolution of huge distressed masses for freedom but the spontaneity itself is sanctioned by the INC.

Resolution to start Quit India Movement has been among the congress leaders from the outset of Second World War and became widely recognised during August 1942 due to the discontent of leaders from the British attitude.The demoralised masses, rising prices, British withdrawal from colonized countries leaving behind suppressed home people were all reasons for the outcry.Even before the movement was launched by INC, all important congress leaders were arrested by the British Government leading to the outburst of violence in many parts of the country by masses.Gandhi himself dint condemn the violence as he believed that the violence was a result of poor British attitude.Gandhiji went for a fast in Jail which kindled the spirits of huge masses against British rule and led many people to fight against British Government with Gandhiji’s words of “Do or Die” as the and became leaders for themselves with the true spirit of complete independence.

Many Parallel Government were formed, underground operations launched against British Government, communication linkages were broken, peasants, workers, youths from colleges and schools, women from both rural and urban areas protested against imperialist colonial rule and even Zamindars rendered their support.All these uprisings were spontaneous as preached by Gandhi to fight for freedom until last breathe even when no leaders were allowed to lead the masses.The movement was a huge success in bringing all the people together for complete freedom.3) Sea Floor Spreading (100 words) Sea floor spreading is the process of creation of new rocks in the mid oceanic ridges through the divergence of tectonic plates.The difference in the age of rocks is due to this process as old rocks move outwards to give room for new rocks formed through the cooling of molten magma emerged from the mantle through tectonic process.

The formation of new water bodies, continental land and rift valleys are all reasoned through sea floor spreading.Thus, disproving the old concept of continental drift theory, sea floor spreading formed the foundation of plate tectonics which explains the reason for earthquakes, volcanoes and many naturally occurring events including continent formation.Sudha @Others: Please give in your feedback to improve Sudha, Very good introduction ans answer.But, there should have been more emphasis on how Congress and Gandhiji prepared the ground for this ‘short and swift’ movement to substantiate your view in the introduction that Congress ‘sanctioned’ this spontaneity.I think fourth paragraph was not needed.

🙂 Sudha Evika 1)“During the Indian national movement, the Left succeeded in making an impact on Indian society and politics”.The story of India’s struggle for independence would be incomplete without acknowledging the contribution of the Left in it and the impact it had on Indian society and politics.Started by leaders like and Aurobindo Ghosh, in Bengal, Lala Lajpat, in Punjab and Bal Gangadhar in Maharashtra, it was carried forward by SV Deshpande and MNRoy until we gained independence from the 200 years long British rule.

The leftists introduced radical thoughts into the Indian society which helped transform their orthodox thinking.It was their diligence that helped abolish evil practices like Sati and child marriage and promote women education.Radical socialists were amongst the first to call for outright Indian independence from Britain.They reached wider sections of people in India and abroad.Rabindranath Tagore wrote patriotic songs and short stories in local language.

MNRoy helped organize workers and peasant revolutions from within the congress which led to Meerut Conspiracy Case in 1929 which ultimately led to consolidation of different sections of society.It helped transform a political movement into a national struggle.AKDutt set strong base for Swadeshi Movement and confirmed that the final battle for freedom had began even while the moderates kept faith in British.They tried to get in greater military help from abroad.

Ghadar movement by SSBhakra in SanFrancisco, Yugantra Party led by JNMukherjee tried to build international relations and Rashbehari Bose fled to Japan to send arms back to India.These were our first steps towards globalizing after colonialisation.Lastly, through their belief in self governance and swadeshi industries and underground movements they helped keep the fire among India’s youth burning even while the national leaders were in jails after every major mass movement.Anjali Motghare Evika how Aurbindo Tilak were communist or socialist ?.That time this ideology was not in use in India.

Leftism means seeking equality of outcome and this is what he was fighting for.In fact when he was in Alipore Jail, he found Aurovile there whose sole purpose was to create a place on Earth where no nation could claim its sole property, a place where every human being could live freely as citizens of the world(basically no stratification).(Recently there was a news item related to ‘citizens of the world’ about Garry Davis as well which was what Aurobindo had thought of then.

) Likewise, Tilak was also a far leftist.Evika I checked the answers given for the question.My interpretation of the question was wrong.I took Left to mean Leftist ideology and I guess Insights means the Leftist movement in the sense of Marxism which was started with the formation of CPI towards the end of 1920s.

Hope that I wont repeat the same in exam.

😐 Evika, You misunderstood the question.Please refer Chapter 24 – The Rise of the Left Wing – of India’s Struggle for Independence by Bipan Chandra (last 3 paragraphs) Evika pavaniiit During the Indian national movement, the Left succeeded in making an impact on Indian society and politics”.Success of Russian revolution inspired Indian Leaders for similar Revolution as well as to develop a socialistic and egalitarian society based on equality.These ideals later incorporated in national movement both inside congress as well outside congress.

Karachi Declaration of right in 1931 congress’ Karachi session is such an example.Left movement succeeded in gradual tilting nationalist movement toward socialistic notion and which was clearly visible in Indian constitution as well as Pattern of economic development post independence.Left movement in India can be classified into two categories one is within congress and other is outside congress.Faction outside congress lead of Revolutionary thinker M.But they were successful in providing alternative forum of Peasants and Congress but their Role in World war 2, in which they supported Britisers against Congress, made them highly unpopular and thus unable to leave much impact on Indian society.But the movement within congress which lead by Non other than Future Prime minister Jawahar lal Nehru and Subhash Chandra bosh leave highest impact on Indian nationalist movement as well as post independence society.Karachi declaration was one the major success of leftist within congress, which declared socialism is aim of nationalist movement.Leftist tried to reform congress from within, in constitutional assembly also equality declared fundamental right along with freedom.

Economic planning based on Five year plan which was borrowed from socialistic pattern of Economy.But growing influence of Leftist in Congress alarmed rightist and lead to struggle and culminated into resignation of Subash chandra Bosh from Congress.On the other hand leftist provided leadership in Quit India movement, when all prominent leaders were arrested.Thus left movement not only provided ideological understanding of Future state during nationalist movement but also prepared them for a equal and egalitarian society.But even if the typos are ignored, the sentence structures are incomprehensible.Like ‘leftist tried to reform congress from within, in constitutional assembly also equality declared fundamental right along with freedom.The leftist movement in India evolved from the disenchantment of the people with the congress owing to the abrupt ending of Non co-operation movement.Inspired by the Bolshevik ideas of Russian revolution, they sought to emulate in India a radical movement that knit socio-economic emancipation of the oppressed with the goals of political freedom.

The communist party of india, formed in 1925 worked with the Congress and other radical organizations to build a mass based organization.The early communists thereby focused on organizing peasants and workers into parties like Worker’s Peasants party.By 1927 the trade union movement had begun to gain traction.The revolutionary terrorist movement drawing inspiration from communism envisioned a society based on equality of man along with political freedom.The left ideology however really gained prominence after the Great Depression when Congress stalwarts like Nehru and Bose vehemently campaigned to tilt the congress from its centrist stance to the left.

They brought the idea of social and economic transformation of masses to political mainstream by advocating measures like reduction of rent, abolition of landlordism, fixing tenures and wages for labourers, women’s liberation, and opposition to caste inequality.The Karachi resolution of 1931 on fundamental rights, establishment of national planning committee, the pro peasant and worker legislations by provincial governments were all steps in this direction.Thus the left movement with its emphasis on socio-economic equality helped in building a radical mass movement for political freedom and influenced policies to be largely oriented towards socialism.abilash pavaniiit Hi Abilash, I am also new to this blog, I found your answer very interesting, and it is excellent first attempt.I will try to figure out few thing, i hope you will work upon them Few suggestions : 1.

keep your paragraph length small to enhance readability.Do not deviate from demand of question, question was asked about impact of Left movement but more of answer was focus on evolution of leftist movement.Please review my answer as well , looking forward for your reply Thanks Left movement was not evolved due to failure of NCM(1922).Rather it was evolved in Tashkent in 1920.

Though in India it is contested as 1925.In initial period , it did not work with the congress rather had a very fractured evolution due to conspiracy cases and banning by British.After that they joined the ranks of Congress and worked within.Abilash, Very good answer for a first timer! 🙂 Just structure it well.abilash pavaniiit Sea floor spreading is a tactonical phenomenon which causes creation and destruction of continental plate.This phenomenon explains age of sea floor vis a vis age of continents.

According to this concept from mid oceanic ridges sea floor spread toward continents and extra portion submerge into continental plate thus form Subduction boundary.

Same age of both the sides of mid oceanic ridges support this theory.Moreover when we move toward mid oceanic ridges we find younger rooks compared to previous location.This clearly indicates that near mid oceanic ridges there is creation of floor and near continental boundary there is destruction of plate.Left movement grown out of political and economical conditions prevailing in India towards end of fist Worl’d War and extricably got entwined with national developed in India and in two streams socialist and communist.Three conspiracy trials Kanpur, Meerut, Peshwar made communists martyr’s and gained sympathy of nationalist and peoples for their anti-British stand.

Congress members successfully opposed Public Safety Bill which was directed against communists Following communist movement four Workers’ and Peasants’ parties organised in Bengal, UP, Bombay and Punjab.All India Workers’ and Peasants’ Party came into existence to put their grievances in front of govt.All India Trade Union aligned itself on socialist principle to champion workers’ cause.Nehru was himself influenced by Socialist thought and constituted a Planning Committee in 1928 with himself as a chairman.In 1934 Congress Socialist Party formed within Congress and started influencing Congress and national movement.

In 1936 Congress held its session in Faizpur a rural area where large number of peasants participated and first time it included economic rights in its declaration.It was because of CSP’s pressure Congress Election Manifesto of 1936 contained a programme for the removal of socio-economic grievances of the people.In 1938 founded Forward Block whose aim was to establish swaraj not for the classes but for the masses.During INA trials rallies were held in all parts of the countries in support of convicts.Left movement succeeded in India influnecing society and politics as peasants and worker got united on national level to demand their rights and participated in national movement.

National Congress supported workers union and peasants movement and included their grievances in national programme.Good introduction but bad choice of words.The word ‘extricably’ is not in usage, it is a wrong form of ‘extricable’.Though, grammar is immaterial here, we should remember that examiners are learned persons and use of wrong words that too in the introduction might not go well with them.

Anjali Motghare sapana 1)“During the Indian national movement, the Left succeeded in making an impact on Indian society and politics”.The second decade of twentieth century saw the arrival and diffusion of left ideology in Indian political scene.

The influences were both within and outside the the congress the socialistic thinking was represented by the works of Bose and Nehru.A new orientation which can easily be discerned is the change in outlook towards the freedom struggle.The socialists pitched not just for a struggle against imperialism but also against internal class oppression by capitalists and landowners.The growing clout of communist like on international horizon further helped socialism spread its wings far and wide.Student associations started preaching left ideologies.

Youth congress were organised all over India.The search for radical solutions for political, economic and social problems started taking root.One major impact of the socialistic orientation was the rising struggle of the working class.The communists provided an able leadership for the rapid growth of trade unionism.All India Trade Union Congress led from the front.

Strikes of Kharagpur railway workshop and Bombay textile mill were unprecedented in the workers participation.The left was at its pinnacle in late 20s and early 30s and it didn’t spare the revolutionary movement which started to take a socialistic turn.From now onward all the policies of congress and significant others definitely had a socialistic undertone.Even after independence the socialistic principles were incorporated in the Constitution of India.Socialistic ideals finds mention along with the Gandhian principles in the DPSP.However one thing is pretty clear the the left ideology always played a second fiddle to the centrist tendencies of congress during the Indian national movement on both social and political fronts.Sea Floor Spreading The concept of Sea floor spreading explains the dynamic nature of the Earth’s crust.It is a form of tectonic activity in which the slabs of rock, that form a part of crust, move away from each other beneath the ocean floor.

This results in hot magma oozing out of the surface.This rock forms a new part of crust, which overtime pushes the older ones further away creating new bodies of water and continents.The Red Sea was created in this manner as the African plate and the Arabian plate tear away from each other.

RV Hi Evika ! U explained the concept but I think ridges are the best example for this + harry hess should be mentioned ! neeraj “During the Indian national movement, the Left succeeded in making an impact on Indian society and politics”.

Jawahar lal Nehru and Subhas Chandra Bose were among the notable leaders of congress party who were highly influenced by the leftist thoughts.Also, they became president of Indian National Congress and had considerable influence on working of the party.Nehru nominated three leftist leaders to his working committee.Also, the left commanded one-third of the votes in All-India Congress commitees.

The twin aim of the left parties to transforming congress on ideological sense and organisational change(replacement of top congress leaders by left leaders) gave a leftist pull to the congress party.The leftist impact was seen on resolutions of the Fundamental rights and Economic policy passed at Karachi Session.Social impacts on Indian society are reflected in the organization of the workers and formation of Communist Party of India at Kanpur in 1925 was also communist orgainsed peasants and workers parties and worked through them.Labour Kisan Party of India, and workers’ and Peasants’ party were some of them.The press coverage of Merrut conspiracy case popularised the leftist view to the common man.

The revolutionary terrorists like Chandra Shekhar Ajad and Bhagat singh was also turned to socialism.neeraj Insights, as u can see with the less stars, pls tell me whats wrong with my answer.neeraj Thanks for pointing out missing conclusion and introduction.I now see mixing of political impact in second line.

athi Sea floor spreading is a process of plate happens when slabs of earth crust diverged apart and magma fills the portion magma is cooled by the sea crusts are formed as a result of sea floor valleys are the product of this process.East pacific rise is the active site of sea floor disapproves the theory of continental shift.Asha Goud “During the Indian national movement, the Left succeeded in making an impact on Indian society and politics”.A: The ideology of socialism reached India after the success of Russian revolution in 1917.

It was fully developed only after the formation of Communist Party of India in 1925 and the Congress Socialist Party in 1934.The socialist and communist together gave a social and economic perspective to Indian National Movement that was hitherto focused on achieving political independence.The important leaders supporting socialist ideology within congress were Jawaharlal Nehru and Subash Chandra Bose.Congress was reluctant to include issues related to industrial workers and peasants fearing development of a class struggle that might weaken freedom struggle.The demands put forward by Congress were related to more political representation and participation in governance.

Trade union and Peasant movements grew rapidly due to spread of socialist ideology.Demands were raised for establishing an Egalitarian and just society.Workers and Peasants Party was organized by the communist working within Congress and organized major workers and peasant movements.The 1937 election manifesto of Congress was mostly designed by the socialists was focused on ending exploitation of the labour class and establishing an equitable society.In the provinces where Congress came to power in 1937 elections it focused on land reforms and adopted a pro labor stand.

In addition Congress government paid attention to certain social reforms like upliftment of untouchable and welfare measures like providing access to basic necessities to all like water, sanitation, roads, hospitals etc to all.Other major impacts were the adoption of resolution of Fundamental Rights and Economic Policy at Karachi Session and the formation of National Planning Committee in 1938.Therefore the development of left wing brought a radical shift in the in the Indian National Movement.Sea Floor spreading (100 words) A: A Theory developed by Hess based on detailed analysis of the Mid Oceanic Ridges (MOR) and Marginal Trenches.Hess observed there are constant volcanic eruptions at the MOR and the rocks near the MOR are of very recent origin as compared to the one located at the trenches on the margin of oceans.

Based on these observations Hess put forward his hypothesis that the ocean surface is constantly being generated at the MOR due to volcanic eruptions and destroyed at the trenches.Therefore even though the ocean floor is spreading it does not cause to shrinking else where.The Sea floor spreading process is very instrumental in explaining the theory on plate tectonics that explains the distribution of volcanoes and seismic zones on the earth surface.Good answers Asha 🙂 In the second one, you need to focus on ‘what is it?’ and ‘What is its significance?’ aspects(you have given significance).Also, to technical questions, try to answer from lay reader’s perspective.

:-) Good going! Asha Goud Thank you Sir for the review.I was waiting for one since long 🙂 I read the answers given by other aspirants here and i am able to learn a lot and find what is missing in my answers.Nikku 2)Do you think that the Quit India movement was a Spontaneous Revolution? Of all the National movement launched during the independence struggle, the Quit India movement was probably the most dynamic, disjointed and decentralized in terms of leadership.While it was spontaneous to a great degree, classifying it as a revolution would be a slight exaggeration as despite all the enthusiasm and patriotism it did not culminate into a fundamental change in terms of the power or constitutional institution, although it did provide a solid ground for the same.Another aspect to note is the sustained groundwork that had been done by the Indian National Congress under the leadership of Gandhi that helped provide the localized leadership and invigorated the patriotic and nationalistic sentiments.

Gandhi’s strategy of individual satyagraha and his slogan of ‘do or die’ had prepared the masses for one final struggle where freedom was valued more than life.It was this homework that crystallized into the huge outpouring of masses despite lack of a central leadership during the Quit India movement.Thus the movement was not “completely spontaneous”, although the degree of spontaneity was unprecedented.It is also argued that the spontaneous nature of the movement proved to be one of it’s weakness, as the incoherent local efforts were brutally crushed by the British police and military.

The revolution that could not be achieved by the spontaneity of the Quit India was later negotiated in-camera under the hood of a trilateral arrangement between the Congress, British govt and the Muslim league.

Nikku Do you think that the Quit India movement was a Spontaneous Revolution? Quit India movement, also known as August revolution was a mass movement launched in August 1942 without any formal announcement by AICC in protest against arrest of their leaders.It prima facie looks as a spontaneous revolution, but on closer examination one finds that the ground work for the revolution was prepared since 1937.Gandhiji has been postponing the revolution for an opportune moment.Congress has been ideologically, politically and organisationally preparing for the movement since long time.

Congress Socialists in poona were providing training to volunteers.National leaders have been travelling and preparing people for struggle.The ministers in the govt were also doing good work and had added to the prestige of the congress party.Individual civil disobedience movement had been organised.Mobilisation of masses in UP and Bihar has been going on for quite some time.

These helped the people to be organised for a mass movement.Also on 8th August, just before the start of the movement, Gandhiji has addressed a mass rally and has asked the people to participate in the upcoming movement.He had given them a slogan of “Do or Die” in this speech.The AICC has in its resolution passed on 8th August told people that under present scenario, a time may come when to give instruction for the movement may not be possible and when such time comes every one should participate in the movement and be their own leaders.Every Indian who desires freedom and strives for it must be his own guide.

Thus even though the movement after the arrest of top leaders seems spontaneous was a result of constant efforts and former groundwork laid by the congress party.Anand Kumar Sea floor spreading is a phenomena that occurs along the divergent is also a constructive process with respect to the earth’s ence of earthquakes and volcanoes is an accompanied gives rise to eruption of basaltic lava which in turn results into ridges and island Mid Atlantic Ridge is a standing islands however get eroded with time and submerge under the ocean water is an obstruction to the ship evidence is found for the sea floor divergence by checking the age of the rocks formed ,it is a natural process and is a part of ongoing evolution of the earth.Anand Kumar Thank you Anand, Good answer.🙂 Nikku 1)“During the Indian national movement, the Left succeeded in making an impact on Indian society and politics”.The period after 1920s was one marked by proliferation of the left ideology throughout the world, and India was no exception.

The left had a marked impact on Indian politics and society and the movement had taken institutional form as early as 1920 under the leadership of MN Roy.On the political front, the Left operated both within and outside congress.Within congress, it was able to influence the ideological thought framework of the party and this was echoed in the incorporation of fundamental rights, economic rights, a planning commission etc.Two of the more popular congress leaders during this era, Nehru and Bose both had a left bias.Outside the congress, the left impact can be seen in the mushrooming of various Kisan sabhas, worker movements, strikes etc.

The meerut conspiracy being a major watershed.Even the revolutionaries were impacted, and we can see a major influence of left goals in the changed goals of the HRSA under the leadership of Bhagat Singh and Azad.These political impacts also translated into social impacts.On the social front, the leftists helped in identifying the huge social cleavages that existed in the society and secured that the nationalist movement, besides targeting imperialism, also had social equity as one of its agenda.The areas where leftist were active saw an improvement in the conditions of the peasant and workers ( tebhaga movement in Bengal, telangana movement in Hyderabad etc) as they helped these classes bargain better terms.

However, the various schisms in the parties and lack of consensus in the leadership ensured that the movement remained fragmented and could not evolve a unitary leadership.There was also local variation in the depth of impact with some regions being more impacted than others.Thus the Indian movement remained largely center oriented under the leadership of congress although with a significant left undertone.neeraj Sea floor spreading is a process of increase in sea floor.This phenomena takes place near mid oceanic ridges.

These mid oceanic ridges are area of tectonic activity.The diverging plates causes a fissure to be opened.The hot lava comes out of these ridges and is spread on the sea floor.Thus, older rocks are found away from the ridges and younger rocks are formed near the mouth of the ridges.Anjali Motghare planning for nation wide movement which reflected in Gandhiji’s speeches at various occasions but before it chalk out a strategy all important leaders locked up in jail and people reacted spontaneously on their own way to throw away British Govt.

Though Quit India resolution called for a ‘mass struggle on non-violent lines on the widest possible scale’, it was remarkable vague about the details of coming movement.As there were no national leader and no strategy, over a period of time the movement witnessed different trend in different regions .Its urban phase included hartals strikes and clashes with the police and army in most the countryside militant student destroyed a communications on a massive scale and led a veritable peasants movement.Number of local ‘National Governments’ installed in Karnataka, Maharashtra,UP, Bihar, Orissa.

The movement was carried by different groups in different way demonstrations and strikes in urban areas, peasant movement in villages and sabotage activities by student groups, educated youth turned into a terrorist activities directed against communications and police and army installations, occasionally they rose to the guerrilla war also.

Movement also witnessed regional variations in the form of extent and nature.Main storm centers were Bihar, UP, Midnapur, Orissa and Maharashtra Karnataka.Most formidable was peasants upsurge but once the faith has been shattered by repression by govt it tended to melt away in the absence of concrete programmes.Quit India Movement surpassed all previous movement led by Congress but in absence of common strategy, proper planning, and spontaneous reaction of people it was brutally suppresses by British Govt.In spite of that it was able to make realise British that they have few days left to hold on India.Shweta 1)“During the Indian national movement, the Left succeeded in making an impact on Indian society and politics”.

The Indian national movement from the very beginning of its course adopted a pro-poor orientation, however, it was only during 1920s and 1930s with the emergence of a Left wing in the Congress inspired by the worldwide events (ie Russian Revolution(1917), the Great Depression in capitalist economies counterposing the growth of USSR (1930s), the anti-fascist movement the world over and success of Soviet five year plans) that a socialist paradigm for India’s freedom and its development began to be articulated.During 1920s-30s Congress increasingly came under the influence of Socialist ideas propounded by Pt Nehru and SC Bose and more so with the birth of CSP and CPI.The Congress resolutions at Karachi, lucknow and Faizpur sessions (1931 and 1936), election manifestoes (1936-7 and 1945-46), formation of National planning Commitee (1938) and radical socio-economic programmes of Congress ministries (1937-39) were its clear manifestations.Moreover, Gandhiji’s shift towards socialist ideas was also visible during 1930s as evident from his stand on radical agrarian concept of “land to the tiller”.

The impact of left ideology post-independence was reflected by the inclusion of the Fundamental rights and Directive Principles in the Constitution.The socialist welfare agenda was carried forth under the prime-ministership of JL Nehru and Indira Gandhi by aggressively pursuing pro-peasant land reforms, nationalization of key industries and banks and licensing controls over private sector.Also the trade union and peasant movements that emerged before independence continue to be a major influence on indian society and politics till day.Even after adoption of economic reforms of 1990s the governmant policies and programmes continue to be geared towards welfare of poor and vulnerable sections of society.Shweta, You started your answer brilliantly by giving an excellent introduction.

But, in third paragraph, you are not answering the question.The question is about ‘During the National Movement’ -so latter half of your answer is not relevant (your focus is on post-independence India).After writing every paragraph, please read the question again and proceed.Shweta Insights Thanks for your valuable feedback.Perhaps i misinterpreted the question as follows ” The impact of left ideology on indian society and politics from the begining till day”.Will surely take care to avoid so next time.neeraj Why is ‘affirmative action’ important in provision of equal opportunity? Equality of opportunity is enshrined in Article 16 of the Indian Constitution.

It prohibits all kind of discrimination and provides equal opportunity in matter of employment etc.But there are many backward castes and tribes, who have been oppressed for a long time.They have not been provided proper education.Low living standard, low social status, poor economic condiions are common among them.Even if they are allowed to compete on an equal basis, they might not be able to increase their social and economic status.

So we need laws to bring them to a platform where they become socially, politically and economically equal.Also we have minorities, whose rights can be dominated by the majority group.A country with 80% hindus can easily form a govt, which can suck the life out of them.Examples are Jews in Germany during World War 2, Muslims in Palestine etc.Also women form a socially disadvantaged group.

They have been dominated by men since time immemorial.They have been relegated to a position of homemakers and have been confined to the purdah of the home.They have no economic stability and no say in the decisions of the household matters.Also they have been physically abused and mentally tortured.The society has shunned them and they are totally dependent on the mercy of their relatives.

Disability is looked down upon as sins of the past life.

So to provide these disadvantaged group a respectable life, the government must intervene and take affirmative actions to provide them with equal opportunity.🙂 abhish Agarwal In the whole answer, I fail to understand what is “affirmative action”? Unless we explain what is an affirmative action how can we say why is it important? looking at the question which talks about inequality,affirmative actions in this area could be reservation in public employment, educational institutions, tools for empowerment like various PIL, RTI, various policies for weaker sections including disabled.In this line the latest one is National street vendor policy.One could also mention MDG, human rights organisations.

Evika 2)Examine the Gandhian idea of village community as an ideal unit of self governance.Gandhi dreamt of Enlightened Anarchy that he wished to realize through a Gram Swaraj.It meant a village self sufficient in food and clothing and inter-dependent for other needs.Gandhian idea of a village community was that of a non-violent, non-exploitative and non-competitive social order on the ideals on RamRaj.He propagated the idea of a democratic stateless society with plain living and high thinking.

This required continuous effort to be independent of both foreign control and a centralized national.Gandhi sought for a direct, participatory democracy, operating in a tier structure from the base village level tier upward through the district and state levels to the national level.He wanted political and economic decentralization.Men should work in communities small enough to permit of genuine self-government and the assumption of personal responsibilities.According to Gandhi, the larger a democracy grows, the less becomes the rule of the people and the smaller is the say of individuals and localized groups in dealing with their own destinies.

This development model, according to Gandhiji’s Hind Swaraj, required educating the masses in the sense of empowering and mobilizing the people and making them capable enough to resist authority when abused.These ideas may have sounded utopian at the time of Indian independence, but today they need to be implemented in their true spirit because of the growing rural distress and migration to cities.There is a need for devolution of both financial and economic power to the local bodies or PRIs.Happy Independence Day! Hey, i think (not sure) your “scrutiny” of Gandhian ideals is only limited to last 2 paragraphs or 2 lines.All other data is factual about what Gandhi ji said or contemplated.After every paragraph, you could mention about the progress on those fronts.Though answer is very u answered what is Gandhian idea.Evika 2)Examine the Gandhian idea of village community as an ideal unit of self governance.

Gandhi dreamt of Enlightened Anarchy that he wished to realize through a Gram Swaraj.It meant a village self sufficient in food and clothing and inter-dependent for other needs.He sought for a direct, participatory democracy, operating in a tier structure from the base village level tier upward through the district and state levels to the national level.He wanted political and economic decentralization.By providing the citizens a greater voice in determination of policies, local government encourages further involvement of the people.

It is less time consuming in passing legislations and hence can devote more attention to problems.It enables people to have access to resources and ensures that the benefits reach to the legitimate clients.While decentralised government has many benefits, there is a need to reconsider whether we merely have exaggerated expectations towards it.In Indian villages there is an absence of legal awareness.They are full of traditional prejudices due to the long historical background of non-participation.

Under these circumstances, the vested interests might influence the proceedings against the real interest of the community.The first step towards self-governance was taken in 1992, by providing Panchayati Raj Institutions and Urban Local Bodies a constitutional status.Next we need institutions like schools and cooperative societies to take part in its meetings to safeguard interests of the community and spread awareness about it among people.Social auditing of these bodies could ensure transparency in administration.Gandhiji’s ideas may have sounded utopian at the time of Indian independence, but today they need to be implemented in their true spirit.

We can help build his Ramraj by a change in attitude of the people.Only then can we judge whether Gandhian idea of village community was indeed ideal or not.pavaniiit Hi Evika, Your answer is good in content but it failed to satisfy demand of Question.Answer should be addressed that why village community is ideal unity of self governance.For that you have have to substantiate two type of arguments first is why villages are ideal unit and second is why larger units such as state and countries are not ideal for self governance.

Sudha 3) Role of NCW in India (100 words) India being a traditionally male dominated society, certain steps were needed to eliminate social deprivation to improve the condition of women.Hence National Commission of Women was set up on January 1992 with a chair person and 5 other members to reduce the crimes against women, safeguard them and improve their living conditions.The commission amended many existing acts and proposed new bills to empower and educate women, free women from the social clutches and litigate funds to raise their socio-economic status.NCW regularly reports to Union Government on the improvement trends and effectiveness of their measures.

It was consulted before enacting any laws related to women.

Though NCW does many commendable works its powers are limited and needs improvement.Sudha sapana You need not to include introduction in a 100 word question.Sudha Amudhan Examine the Gandhian idea of village community as an ideal unit of self-governance? The basis of good governance is a responsive, accountable and participative government based on the principles of maximizing liberty and social equality.

The village community possesses all of the above factors and subscribes to the central tenants of Non-violence and decentralization of Gandhian democracy.In a democratic system village level institutions are vehicles of good governance and in Gandhiji’s view were that individual freedom could only be maintained in autonomous, self-reliant units that require and promote participation of everyone.It avoids any centralizing tendency which is a product of violence.It is important to note that Gandhi did not value modernization in the industrial sense but rather focused on quality of life and spiritual pursuits therefore an environment conducive was found in the villages.Gandhiji argued that in a democracy power flowed from the people and therefore they must hold significant decision making power in the economic and political front themselves.

The village community as a unit of Self-governance allows for non-violence and decentralization allowing for ‘true democracy’ with high levels of participation and accountability to emerge and entrench itself in a nation.you have assumed in your answer that village level governance is the best way of governance but did not provide any substantial explaination why you are support it.Amudhan Why is ‘affirmative action’ important in provision of equal opportunity? Equality opportunity is only Just in an equal society.It has been observed that equality of opportunity will perpetuate social inequalities if chosen to be the sole determinants of achieving public office.

India, with its constitutional goals such as equality, justice (social, political and economic) requires affirmative action as a means of progress towards the achievement of our constitutional goals and gives advantages to individuals who are deemed to be socially and educationally backward to achieve equality within society.Justice is the most persuasive of arguments towards affirmative action.It can be in the form of distributive or restorative justice.Distributive justice is based on the notion that public offices are public goods and must be distributed to different sections while not allowing any particular section to corner them.Restorative justice focuses on affirmative action as a compensatory means for past injustices and concomitant current disadvantages.

Equality of Opportunity is an instrumentality towards the achievement broader constitutional goals and not an absolute value as highlighted in article 16 of the constitution however either is affirmative action.Once it is reasonably known that a certain section of the population no longer faces disadvantages then affirmative action will no longer be enjoyed by them.Affirmative action is a response to the implementation of values in a pragmatic and prudent manner to achieve principles such as social justice.Therefore it is a vital part of Equality of Opportunity.Sudha Nikku 1)Why is ‘affirmative action’ important in provision of equal opportunity? “Affirmative action” aka “positive discrimination” implies giving certain priviliges to the marginalised to enable them to garner equal opportunities and help them integrate deeply with the mainstream.

With a long history of discrimination, oppression and exploitation it was felt that in order for a more just society, the state needs to intervene and provide opportunities to the down trodden to enable them to improve their status and standard of living.In India, affirmative action is practiced w.t to women, children, socially backward classes, senior citizens.The doctrine of positive discrimination follows from the philosphy that “unequals can not be treated equally”.

Since the marginalized do not start from the same level as the the higher ups, it falls on the society and the state to help them in their quest for a better life.Another rationale is that economic status soon uplifts social status, and it was felt that once the SC/STs/OBC are educated and are able to make a decent living it would get reflected in their equalt treatment in the society as well.Although, there have been legislation banning the practice of social discrimination, but ground realities do not completely reflect these.Thus it is only via an increase in awareness and better sensitisation that we could aim at coming up with a more equal society.In a society like ours that has been rigidly divided for centruies, those at the bottom of the social pyramid have been devoid of equal opportunities because of the difference in their education, health, nutrition standards and culture.

With their daily battle for earning sufficient to feed themselves, they are left with little time to plan for their future and therefore it falls on us to provide for relaxation in certain norms to allow them entry into the main lane.In the absence of affirmative action, those at the top would continue remain at the top and those at the bottom would be perpetuated into a life of misery as had been the case till independence.Affirmative action has helped socially backward classes gain the much needed self respect and provided impetus in their journey towards equality.To what extent NCW achieved its mandate 3.The question does not demand, in any way, your opinion about the topic or future aspect of the NCW tushar ‘Affirmative action’ refers to additional benefits/advantages given to a weaker section of society vis-a-vis the more powerful ones.It does not go against the principle of equality.

In fact it is an essential ingredient for it.Equal opportunity means that every one gets the same treatment and nobody is denied certain rights one is entitled for.However, the precondition for this is that all the people should be on the same level and no inequalities of any sort exist between them.

Its the reality of life that historically certain people/communities are better placed in comparison to other sections of society.Thus they have a clear advantage over other people and in absence of any ‘affirmative action’ available for the disadvantaged group, they would most likely emerge as beneficiaries.This kills the very principle of equality itself.Secondly, presence of ‘affirmative action’ instils confidence in the disadvantaged groups that they have a fair chance in the competition.This ensures that they have faith in the system and feel to be a part of it.

Absence of such actions would breed feeling of alienation among the left out groups.Lastly, this ensures that there is no monopoly of a single dominant group on the resources of the society or nation.Such a state is essential for the growth of a society and more importantly the development of a democracy.The importance of ‘affirmative actions’ was well realized by the makers of constitution when they provided for provisions for reservations for educationally and socially backward sections of the society.Also, the principles of revenue sharing by Finance Commission are guided by this philosophy in order to ensure that certain backward states get more revenue for their development.

2)Examine the Gandhian idea of village community as an ideal unit of self governance.Gandhiji favored a bottom up model of self governance.In his model, each village was to act as a self-reliant unit capable of fulfilling all its needs without depending on anyone else.This was regarded by him as a way to bring prosperity to the nation.This model makes the people the makers of their own destiny.

It plays a great role in empowering the masses, making them capable of taking decisions which affect their life.This model, Gandhiji argued, would be the real ‘Swaraj’ for the masses.If we minutely examine this model, we find that it is very effective for solving a lot of problems which face the nation.Around two-third of the country resides in the villages.Most of the problems like poverty, high maternal mortality rate, malnourishment, illiteracy, etc affect the people of villages the most.

A model which empowers the villages will definitely solve a lot of these problems.In addition the problems of migration of rural male due to lack of opportunities in villages and the challenges of unplanned urbanization will also be solved with this approach.However, this idea attaches lesser importance to the need of interdependence among different units.In the era of globalization when we are faced with the challenges of economic competition, terrorism, threat to security, we must look for greater interdependence.Also, the holistic approach is missing in this model which is essential for sustainable growth.

Thus, what we require is the mix of both – self governance in the villages as well as growing interdependence between different units.The importance of this approach is evident from the shift in strategy of Planning commision which is giving more importance to decentralization now.3) Role of NCW in India (100 words) National commission of women was established with the aim of promoting the interests of the women.Its goal is to establish better environment for the women in the society and suggest recommendations for strong legal framework conducive for the women folks.However, the past experience tells a lot of shortcomings present in NCW.

It has failed to be an effective platform for providing justice to the women.The commission requires more teeth to efectively deal with cases of is a need for the selection procedure to be more efficient so that the members are sensitized to the problems of women.Nikku 2)Examine the Gandhian idea of village community as an ideal unit of self governance.Gandhian idea of small, more or less self sufficient village republics interlinked with one another had several merits, but was a bit romantic.Given the huge geographical diversity, the problems of each region differed and thus merit regional and local solution rather than a central solution.

Thus decentralization was critical for better governance.Gandhian philosophy was against heavy industries and adoption of technology as they were seen to be anti-thetical to the Indian conditions and were believed to be job killers.Rather small cottage industries were advocated as it was felt that they would provide employment and are a better solution to Indian problems.There was deep resentment against the cities which were seen to be symbols of Imperialism and thus there was a greater affinity towards developing villages, rather than cities.Despite several decades of independence, the proportion of population living in Villages is still more than 50% and Agriculture still sustains more than half of our population, thus the importance of Village in India’s development story needs no underlining.

However, a unilateral strategy of focusing only on villages also has its own disadvantages.No country wanting to develop itself can choose to stay away from technology.The subtly inward looking approach of despising technology can not yield dividend in the era of globalization when the entire world is being knit into one global economic village.The need thus is to adopt the forward looking, creative ideas from Gandhian ideology and integrate them with the general macro policy.Nikku 1)Why is ‘affirmative action’ important in provision of equal opportunity? Affirmative Action pertains Article 16(1) and 16 (4) enables the State to discriminate(positively) between sections of the society in order to provide them with an equality of opportunity in exercising their political , social and economic rights as envisaged by the Preamble .

The constitution makers were of the view that the marginalized , oppressed sections of the society who were treated as untouchables , reduced to living corpses deprived of education , skills and economic benefits due to casteism and colonialism deserved equal opportunities.They provided the scope of Affirmative action for such backward , depressed classes of the ‘Adivasis’ and ‘Dalits’ for a period of 10 years to regains their honour and rightful position in a free India.Later the ruling party added Backward and other Backward categories and the period has been extended many times ever since.Reservation became one of the methods employed by the political class to not create a level playing field for all but also to address the inequality that had crept into the system .

They also hoped for better services for the marginalized sections of the society since they would be ruled by their own knowing their background and ground conditions.

Hence a system of redistributing economic and political power came into being which was very important for the true realization of the Fundamental Rights of every individual.With the advent of PRI’s now women who are one of the worst suffers of deprivation of rights too have been empowered and provided with equality of opportunity .RV 3) Role of NCW in India (100 words) The National Commision for Women is a statutory body established in 1992.

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It is include in its mandate to review constitutional and legal safeguards for women and also recommend policies to Government .It has improved the socio-economic position of women by conducting rights awareness programmes , establishing Parivarik Mahila Lok Adalats , Complaints and Counselling Cell and the pro-women amendments to the Hindu Marriage Act, Domestic Violence Act and others.

There is a need to provide financial and legal autonomy to the institute as it has been reduced to a recommendatory instituteThe Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET) accredits college engineering programs nationwide using criteria and standards developed and   Dynamics of Complex Fluids; Energy Conversion; Functional Genomics; Hydrodynamic Stability; Kinetics and Catalysis; Microrheology; Molecular Assemblies  .There is a need to provide financial and legal autonomy to the institute as it has been reduced to a recommendatory institute .

Moreover it has become the ballpark of retired civil servants and people with political affluence and hence a selection committee on lines of NHRC must be incorporated to improve the efficiency and effectivity.Evika RV Examine the Gandhian idea of village community as an ideal unit of self governance great opportunity he gave me to write this thesis, and also for his advices, support and leadership, that makes   flight achieved lasted more than 27 hours within a circuit length of more than. 874 kilometers and proved the   Key words: Solar powered UAV, Solar Energy, Solar Airplane, Sustainable. Flight, Sky-Sailor, MPPT,  .Evika RV Examine the Gandhian idea of village community as an ideal unit of self governance.Without the development and proper use of such huge population, the idea of prosperous India cannot be realised great opportunity he gave me to write this thesis, and also for his advices, support and leadership, that makes   flight achieved lasted more than 27 hours within a circuit length of more than. 874 kilometers and proved the   Key words: Solar powered UAV, Solar Energy, Solar Airplane, Sustainable. Flight, Sky-Sailor, MPPT,  .

Without the development and proper use of such huge population, the idea of prosperous India cannot be realised.

Gandhi understood this concept and wanted villages as a self governing independent units.Gandhi’s belief of village swaraj was that of a complete republic independent in its own for food and clothing.He believed in decentralisation of power to the felt that every village is either better or worse off other villages.Also social construct of each village was different.So, a decentralised village would be able to better look after its needs and aspirations.

He was opposed to the idea of industrialisation.He felt that industrialisation would help a few get rich at the expense of the rest.So, he suggested cottage industry which is labor intensive and would provide job to the craftsmen of handicraft industry.He also felt that each village should be self sufficient in food and clothing.For this he proposed that firstly the land should go for production of food and clothing.

After that the land should go for recreation activities and if any left would go to produce cash crops.In this way every village will be economically self sufficient.To realise these dreams, 73rd Constitutional amendment was passed.It provided for decentralisation of power to the villages and strives for creation of self sufficient village units.Prosperity of each man leads to prosperity of the nation but not vice versa.

This can be achieved through the idea of self governing village units.RV To decrease the inequalities that had crept in and provide for socio-economic development for all Gandhi envisaged the vision of “ Gram Swaraj”.By this thought every village is a self sufficient , independent unit barely depending on external influences for anything.He believed in the idea tha individual is the architect of his own government and hence established Panchayat system for each of the villages .The Panchayats directly elected by the people were endowed with all the powers of Legislature , Executive and the Judiciary.

The villages were to a strict policy of compulsory rotation of village guards among all the members .He also believed in the idea of Trusteeship where the most capable person oversaw the resources for the benefit of all.Gandhi was deeply influenced by the principles of Tolstoy , Henry Thoreau and the economic principles of John Ruskin .Gandhi believed that no amount of socialism can take away the evils of capitalism .He was abhorrent of the heavy industries that believed in “mass production” rather than “production by the masses” .

He believed they would plunder the village economy , social fabric and the pristine environment and push the villages into the vicious cycle of poverty and unemployment.Instead he suggested spinning wheel which he preferred over the handloom, growing of crops , cattle rearing to make village self sufficient economies.He preached Sarvodaya and Antyodaya by which minimum basic necessities must be available to all the members of the village which could only be achieved in a self sufficient economy not one based on believed only when people depended on products from outside do the politicians and middlemen step in and deprive people of essential items for personal benefits.vipul Sea floor spreading Concept of sea floor spreading was propounded by Hary Hess.Hess suggested that mid oceanic ridges were situated on the top of rising convection current coming from Mantle.

At mid oceanic ridges, oceanic crusts moves in opposite direction and molten lava comes out through the openings.When the molten lava rises along the mid ocean ridges, it divides the lava in two equal halves and lava layers slides horizontally along the mid oceanic ridges.Lava layers gets cooled, solidified & magnetized as well at the same time.This continuous creation of new crust along the mid ocean ridges is called sea floor spreading.Sea floor spreading in Indian & Atlantic Ocean happens at 1-2 cm per year while pacific is spreading at the rate of 6 cm per year.

Role of NCW in India (100 words) NCW is an autonomous statutory body under the Ministry of WCD.It advises the government on all policies affecting women and exercises the powers of civil court to investigate any matter or inquiring into any complaint.The NCW has played a significant role in empowering women through the establishment of Parivarik Mahila Lok Adalats in different parts of the country and making provisions for the PNDT Act 1994.

The Commission arranges several workshops and meetings regarding the gender awareness among the Indian citizens as well as against increasing cases of female foeticide.

However, a Parliamentary Committee has recently slammed NCW for not playing a proactive role in safeguarding the rights of women.It needs to widen its scope beyond the present set of activities from merely providing reliefs to the victim to focusing on prohibiting crime through active policing and other women oriented initiatives.vipul Role of NCW in India (100 words) Women in Indian society have been deprived of their basic rights for Independence,successive governments have implemented laws to empower the women socially,politically& economically and to remove the traditional bias.National commission for Women was setup as a statutory body in 1992 to further improve the status of women in our society.NCW reviews the existing safeguard mechanism provided under the law & constitution & recommends amendments if any there is any shortcoming .

It also advises government on policy matters related to women.NCW conducts the seminar,workshops to spread the awareness among women about their legal right & awareness among public about the evils against women in our society.NCW assists women in their redressal of grievances and also facilitates speedy justice by organizing Parivarik Mahila lok adalats.NCW also undertakes research programs to study the impediments in women advancement and suggests way to improve the representation of women in all spheres .Ideals of democracy like decentralised institutions through village self governance were one of the main idea which nurtured by them ,even we accepted it to our make realise public the idea of Community responsibility ,Was one of the reason behind this ancient till britishers came ,self governance was one of the prominent feature of indian society which in turn strengthened its ideals,cultural values,governance at grassroot level.Gandhi,villagers are the one who determines the faith of a nation’s economy,socirty So they have to be given right to rule themselves for best outcome.But,equally they said that transparency and accountability should be held by upper institutions ,otherwise mischiefs like over authorianism may brush its essence.Anjali Motghare National Women Commission set up by an Act of Parliament, reviews Constitutional and legal Safeguards for women, recommends remedial legislative measures, facilitates redressal of grievances and advise govt on policies affecting women.It took up cause of child marriage, sponsored legal awareness programme and reviewed laws such ac Dowry Prohibition Act, 1961, PNDT Act 1994, Indian Penal Code 1860 and organised various gender awareness campaigns.

But as we see Women have been always at recieving end,in matters of violence,expected that NCW should play more pro-active role in womens struggle.Apart from providing relief to the victim, NCW need to focus on to prevent crime itself at possible level by creating band of active volunteers and helplines at various levels of society.Gandhi’s idea of self governance through village communities is a well visioned thought.After years of his death still his thoughts are alive in the form of chipko movement against forest destruction by villages and Balawantrai Mehta committee’s recommendation for transfer of powers to panchayat for community development.

In addition to this village schools, sustainable farming and forestry, traditional healing etc reveals Gandhi’s impact in present globalized conditions.Gandhi’s thoughts most of the time concentrated on village communities has he believed that every Panchayat addresses the needs education of boys and girls in its village, its sanitation, its medical needs, the upkeep and cleanliness of village wells or ponds, the uplift of and the daily wants of the so-called untouchables.He said it also should resolve local disputes.He fought against replacement of village jobs by industries and goods coming out of it.As this is replacing traditional ways of cooking and making the people prey to poverty.

Instead he encouraged village industries connected to local markets which can empower poor as well as women.He tried to remove disparities between rich and poor.He started sarvodaya movement saying welfare for all.He is also responsible to incorporate article 40 in DPSP.Government made 73rd amendment to Constitution providing panchyats on condition of regular term elections without fail.

Lack of complete decentralization present days people are still illiterate, lacking self control , unemployment, migration towards cities are observed.To curb this again government took schemes like MGNREGA, indra awas yojana, pradanamantri gram sadak yojana, national social assistance etc in the lines of Gandhi ideology.Therefore Gandhi’s idea of village communities is ideal for self governance pavaniiit Why is ‘affirmative action’ important in provision of equal opportunity?(250) Inequality in a society can be classified in terms of access to three type of capitals.First is economic capital, second is cultural capital and third is Sociological capital.Access to opportunities is based on access to these three type of capitals.

There is inherent maladjustment in distribution of these capitals in society.In rich and poor there is maladjustment of economic capital, in Cast hierarchy there is uneven distribution of sociological capital.So there is difference of access to opportunity based on how one already have contacts, social status, economic status and access to education and health.Affirmative actions are set of measures which bring unequal’s on equal level, Which try to bridge gap in access to education, health, economic resources.Inequality is a natural phenomenon but by affirmative action’s we can bring equality in the society.

Historically we can see that most of privileged section of society try to maintain status quo, either in 18th Century European society (classes) or 20th Century Indian society (Cast Hierarchy), It is Affirmative action which try to break those status quo to bring new social order.India and Pakistan Started from same point and both had Secularism in their respective constitutions but due to Affirmative action’s of state, Minority in India feel far safer than in Pakistan.Thus inequality is natural tendency, it is upon us weather we aggravate it or bring equality through Affirmative actions vipul Why is ‘affirmative action’ important in provision of equal opportunity? Affirmative actions (positive discrimination) refers to policies and provisions which are needed to improve the representation of the underrepresented section of society in various spheres like education,employment and governance.In any society,a section of population has better access to resources as compare to rest of the population.When such an in-equal society arrange itself as a democratic privileged section is favorable to dominate the society in all spheres of ty in opportunity will not work in a society that has been unequal for such circumstances,affirmative actions takes the utmost importance for the longevity & maintaining the internal security of the nations.Now,the section of society who has been deprived of resources & dignity for centuries look at such a democratic arrangement as an opportunity to overcome their past & rewrite the future in their own deprivation of centuries can not overcome in span of bring this depressed section of society in the mainstream at faster rate,requires certain provisions in terms of reservations in jobs & governance,financial aids & minimum guaranteed allocation of resources out of government expenditures .In context of India several affirmative action have been taken to improve the representation of scheduled caste ,scheduled tribes ,Women and other minorities in spheres of governance,education,jobs still have miles to cover in this arena.Affirmative action are the temporary measures which are needed to bring different section of society on a common runway from where they can take off in flight of equality of opportunity.

pavaniiit Answer Gandhian Idea Of Gram Swaraj is deeply rooted in Ancient Indian gram Panchayat system, in which all local decisions are taken locally.

Gandhian philosophy of self governance is not anarchism or absence of order but it is presence of highest order from within the individual.Gram Swaraj principle found place in directive principles of state policy as well as Later in 73rd constitutional amendment which contributed significant step toward grassroots democracy and decentralisation of power.Rural self governance is system of self rule which is based on the philosophy that locals understand their problems better then people sitting somewhere else.More over its decisions are based on consensus of the people who are going to follow it, so there is always greater tendency to follow them.Apart from that it involves efforts of all the people which bring social cohesion and unity to tackle some problems.

Gandhiji was not proponent of this Idea but they popularised this idea, and according them real democracy can only be achieved when we can bring people in decision making.this philosophy at best can be applicable at village level as a unit only.For lager community like state or country this form of direct democracy is not possible so for these larger units representative form of democracy is prescribed but at village level we can rope in each individual in self governance without much constraints.Based on this principle 73rd amendment in constitution was passed and now gram panchayats are one of most important unit of implementation of decision making.Hivre bajar Village of Maharstra is one of example that how self governance can transform a impowershed village into self sufficient and developed village.

Similarly success story Ralegaon Siddhi and many other villages proves that self governance at village level can transform villages significantly.However, there are few problems which need to tackle while implementing rural governance, Illiteracy and ignorance can lead to perpetuation of feudal and outdated mentality.more over traditionally dominating groups within rural society can monopolise decision making.Despite these short comings we can Autonomy and Decentralisation as envisioned by Mahatma Gandhi if implemented properly.With spread of new values along with autonomy we can achieve twin objectives of self governance as well modernization in society.

pavaniiit Date-15/08/2013 (1) Equality of opportunity is one of the bases of democratic society.With addition of affirmative action, it is added a socialistic flavor.Affirmative action is to be given in comprehensive manner i.e from employment opportunity to access to social affairs.Affirmative action in case of equal opportunity is most relevant in the unequal society on the basis of financial capability and caste.

It becomes more relevant in developing even in underdeveloped countries.In Indian Constitution, it has been given a significant importance as mentioned in art 14 for ‘equal protection of law’, in art 15 with special provision for women, children, SC, ST and other weaker sections for the access of public property and in art 16 for SC, ST and other weaker section for public employment.Equal protection of law is a concept taken from US constitution.It refers ‘equal to be treated equally and unequal, unequally’ and this phrase interprets significantly the importance of affirmative action.Comparison can be done when all are in equal level.

In our society, few are getting access of every modern technology when few are struggling for food.So in this unequal society, it becomes imperative to take affirmative action through ‘reservation’ policy.In India, there are so many places in rural areas where elite section deprive the poor in access of water, temple, social gathering on the basis of caste.So abolish this inequality, special provision becomes mandatory for minor and weaker sections.Through affirmative action an egalitarian society can be made.

Without this, it is not possible to improve the social and financial condition of downtrodden people who are neglected in every step of life.From Vivekananda to Gandhi, every one told of an equal society.One of the bases of Gandhiji’s freedom struggle was upliftment of untouchables which has been given expression by Ambedkar in our Constitution.So, state’s intervention through affirmative action in equality of opportunity makes it more people centric and more democratic.Vipul 1) Why is ‘affirmative action’ important in provision of equal opportunity? Ans : The provision of equal opportunity is the backbone of democracy .

The uniform distribution of resources , freedom of life and liberty , and no discrimination in imparting justice and opportunity is the fundamental aspect on which our ideals stand, thus making our democracy vibrant .Affirmative action in this field is important because of various reasons.The primary reason is that if everyone in our country is not provided with same attention then the huge burden of population will become a burden for us , rather than an asset .Then giving equal representation and voice to everyone empowers the people at large and helps in keeping a check on malpractices in the country.Then as the wider the gap between rich and poor will become , it will lead to social tensions , economic burdens , large migrations and will not lead us in removing mass scale poverty and underemployment .

We need to ensure that the development which aspire is Inclusive.The practices of nepotism , elitism , red tapism etc will have to be checked to cater equal opportunity .Our functioning needs to be transparent and open thus promoting equity Thus the implementation and monitoring of efficient dispersal of equal opportunity is an imperative affirmative action.2)Examine the Gandhian idea of village community as an ideal unit of self governance.Ans : Gandhian ideology of village community emphasises on self sufficiency .

It believes that industrialisation should be in direction of making village community self reliant and sustainable.It promotes the expansion and revival of traditional cottage and handicrafts industry.Hence we can say that it leads a way in self government by lowest unit of the country .It says that power should evolve from bottom level and the development needs to be bottom-up rather than other way round.

Gandhiji was in favour of giving the real authority of taking decisions about their area and problems to the villagers rather than to bureaucracy to states.

Gandhian philosophy is beneficial for the economy because it will lead to uniform and overall development of all regions of the country .It aims at providing employment to each and every person of the village in the community participation and local works .Village community will lead to social , economic and political empowerment as the real demands will be heard and actual results at the lowest point will be ensured .It will help in making development sustainable as this idea promotes the concept of eco-manures and thus reducing the pollution and soil degradation being caused now .All these are the basis of a socialistic society which aims at equal resource mobilisation and inclusive development .

These can be very well served by the gandhian idea of village community and can be an ideal unit of self governance .3) Role of NCW in India (100 words) Ans : The national commission of women was setup in 1992 as a statutory body for women .Its main mandate is to empower women and give them voice .It deals with various atrocities which are being met on the women and helping them by ensuring justice .As we have seen from the past so many centuries that women have been suppressed and exploited by various means such as dowry , home violence , unequal opportunity and unjust means .

The NCW is legislated to action against such incidents and giving the women their deserved status and value in the society.Vipul lakshmi prasanna Dr B R Ambedhkar the chief architect of constitution of India ensured affirmative action was constitutionally mandatory to compensate historical wrongs like discriminating people based on caste through unaccountability.The AA in India is primarily based on caste system although in certain cases for women.To achieve equality in opportunities government is implementing quotas in government jobs, higher education, political reservations.The importance of AA can be rationalized based on the contemporary India’s latest comprehensive studies: social discrimination in the form of advanced unaccountability on mixing with present socio economic conditions is evident in Gujarat says Navsarjan in2010.

Economic discrimination like difference in wages, access to education, discrimination by teachers in schools, personalized recruitment etc by Nambisan s for failures are absence of monitoring systems, no penalties for evading AA, no supplementary measures to improve skills etc So to avoid this discrimination government should address the loopholes persisting in provisions, monitoring and penalty on failing is mandatory.In addition to this government should come up with land reforms, expansion of non farm employment to empower backward families.In addition to the present AA program me supplementary program-mes like counseling students and other measures to lower dropouts before completion of course is needed.All these measures are cost oriented but growing talented human resource will take part in growing Indian economy sapthagiri 1.The state of Indian society: Indian society is characterized by high degree of structural inequality characterized by the caste system, ascribed by birth.

The downtrodden section of the society has been ostracized and there arises a need for the state to take affirmative action to correct this structural anomaly.Failure of growth to trickle down: Only the educated upper class could reap the benefits of the top down growth imbibed by the Nehru mahalanobis strategy.Reservation for SC/STs did not spread entirely over them but by and large created a creamy layer and elite among them.So still state needs to play an affirmative role in that way.

To prevent further discrimination: 60 years post constitution, India can boast of achieving political democracy but social and economic democracy is still out of reach.Socially caste system is still maintained by endogamy and indirect discrimination.To break these traditional rules an affirmative action to enhance the stature of downtrodden is much needed.Powerless nature of downtrodden people: Unlike the educated elite, the downtrodden people are predominantly uneducated with no internal guidance.So only a proper legal framework via affirmative action can ensure they reap benefits.Without affirmative action it would be unjust to ask the downtrodden people to compete with already settled elite.So there is a pressing need for the state to affirmatively act on this issue to treat “like people like and unlike people unlike”.Examine the Gandhian idea of village community as an ideal unit of self governance.Gandhian view on village republic: Gandhi envisaged an idea of village republic with full powers independent of others in their vital needs and inter dependent in case there is a necessity.Gandhi proposed his village based model, a bottom up approach as an alternative to Westminster model in which villages elect their representative and these representatives elect a national leader.A smaller administrative unit promotes fast decision making.The value of democracy felt by the people is inversely proportional to the distance between the people and the power centre.Village as a unit of self governance bring decision making near to the people itself.

It can demand more acceptance from the people rather than a centralized decision.

People will have more say in their affairs.Interdependence only for necessary needs and independence in case of basic needs may promote village to prioritise their localized interests first instead of national interests.Many villages may not have the sufficient resources to satisfy their basic needs.Other villages may deny their resources to these villages.Villages predominantly are guided by traditional values.“villages are den of localism, communalism” – ar.

So villages may tend to maintain their social status quo.A centralized decision making is necessary in case of emergency situations which village self governance cannot afford to.Gandhian idea of village republics per se is not suitable to the current set up.But gandhian values of cooperative growth and participatory grass root democracy is very much relevant and has been incorporated in the current local government set up of 73rd amendment act.

RV National Commission for Women a statutory body under the National Commission for Women Act, 1990.Commission’s mandatory includes safeguard of rights of women granted by the constitution and laws, study problems faced by women in the current day and make recommendations to eradicate these problems, evaluating the status of Indian women from time to time and funding and fighting cases related to women’s rights violations Functions of the Commission are Counseling- investigating, monitoring and helping in filing FIR Legal- recommendations on legal amendments proposed, new laws and bills proposed, and court interventions Research- monitoring the atrocities against women and educating them through seminars and workshops Asha Goud Examine the Gandhian idea of village community as an ideal unit of self governance.A: Gandhiji’s idea of developing village as a unit of self governance is based on his idea of Swaraj, Swadeshi, Trusteeship, Democracy, Non violence.He had developed these ideas to put forward his belief in village level governance and its sustainability.He had all his life worked among the village people and he was dismayed by the plight the villages were demoted to by the exploitation by British colonial rule.

Gandhiji was also aware of the impact of industrialization on Indian society.According to Gandhi ji real democracy initiates from below, where the weakest should have same opportunity as the strongest.Therefore Democracy should be achieved by non violent means, as use of force implies authoritarianism.Gandhi ji was against industrialization, and capitalism as it would create pockets of development and result in widespread inequality and exclusion in society.He believed Swaraj can be achieved only when each individual has the freedom from exploitation, access to basic necessities, economic and political equality.

Governance power should be devolved at village level to enable villages to act as mini republic.At village level it is easier to ensure cooperation, accountability, participation in governance effectively.He believed each village unit is capable of achieving self sufficiency.Instead of developing industries Gandhi ji emphasized on developing village level co operatives, thus ensuring economic equality.To emphasize village level decentralization he said ‘ if village perishes, India will perish.

’ Anjali Motghare Asha Goud Yes Anjali.I simply described village level governance as conceptualized by Gandhi ji .I read your answer and i now know whats missing in mine.🙂 Asha Goud Role of NCW in India (100 words) A: National Commission for Women is a statutory body under the Government of India to provide women a forum for representation on issues related to exploitation, discrimination, abuse and also make recommendation on women empowerment.NCW helps women in their grievance redressal by providing them counseling and legal assistance on receiving a complain or NCW can take a case suo moto as well.The cases can be related to physical abuse, dowry, rape, work place exploitation, discrimination etc.NCW also works in co operation with NGO and organization that work for women empowerment.It conducts seminars and workshops to create awareness among people on issues relating to women.

NCW reports and recommendations are instrumental in government policy making vipul “During the Indian national movement, the Left succeeded in making an impact on Indian society and politics”.Left wing ideology entered the India national movement in late 1920s & 1930s.Subash & Nehru traveled across the country during that period, attacking the capitalism & land lord ism & successfully spreading the socialist ideologies among the youths.Nehru emphasized that political freedom would be in wane if the exploitation of class by class did not proposed that socialism is the only way forward to reduce the social & economic inequality.

who worked along side Lenin in forming communist’s International policies .setup the communist party of India (CPI) in 1920s.Revolutionaries like Chandra Shekhar Azad and Bhagat Singh also turned to socialist ideologies Several trade unions and peasant parties likes labour kisan party,labour swaraj party established their root in many provinces in late 1920s.Later all these parties were combined to form the Workers & peasants party.

WPPs objective was to work within Congress & give it left orientation.

In 1934,group of young congressmen who were not satisfied with Gandhian strategy formed Congress socialist national objective was to give congress & national movement a socialist direction but they were clear that national freedom was the first priority and centralist congress was the main driver of e the ideological difference the CPI,the CSP,Nehru, Subhas and other left groups came together to put socialism in main stream of Indian politics.Left supported candidates Nehru,Subhas won the congress president ship from wing could make the right wing realize that poverty & exploitation in India was not only a colonial phenomenon but the socio-economic framework of Indian society had an equal role in wing did succeed in mobilizing the worker & peasants to wage a struggle for their ental rights & economic policy resolution in Karachi session,formation of national planning committee in 1938 clearly reflects the influence,left wing had on Indian national movement.Shweta 2)Examine the Gandhian idea of village community as an ideal unit of self governance.Gandhi’s utopia for “Gram Swaraj” or “Village republics” envisaged villages as self-reliant, self-sustaining units of governance working independently while remaining networked with each other in a larger framework.It was in Gandhi’s words the form of “truly participative democracy” wherein “the individual acts as the architect of his own government”.

For a democracy to be truly representative of the needs of its society it has to work in a “bottom up” approach, wherein policies and programmes are formulated at the village level by a council of five or Panchayat.The Panchayat is to converge within itself the legislative, judicial as well as executive responsibilities.He emphasized on carrying out of various economic activities by co-operativization, stressing on the importance of traditional, indigenous activities based on utilisation of the local resources.According to Gandhi each village has its own peculiar problems which can only be addressed efficiently by a decentralised polity working at the grassroots level and not in a centralised system.The Panchayat system working from the village level upto the district, state and national levels are the most appropriate instruments of ushering social and economic change by including all stakeholders in the process of decision making and policy-formulation.

The significance of the concept was well realised in post independence years, when the government through 93rd constitutional amendment institutionalised the 3-tier Panchayati Raj system of a decentralised democracy.However, to enable these institutions to work effectively, as envisaged by Gandhi, sufficient economic and political powers must be devolved to them.Asha Goud Anjali Motghare Gandhiji’s idea of village community was a part of his Sarvodaya where mass of people manage their affairs without depending on state.In Gandhiji’s scheme, village panchayat consisted of all the able youths from all caste and society.It was to be granted a crucial role in policy making.

Village Panchayat was to look after the economy of the vallage and its natural pment subject like education, health and sanitation were to be under its governance.Gandhiji wanted to build self sufficient village economy without much dependence on the urban economy.In my opinion his idea of youth participation will result in more active role of youth in development and will help to eliminate caste discrimination.If most of the functions are performed by village panchayats then it will lead to timely delivery of services.If village economy is self sufficient then people will not migrate to urban center in search of better means of life.

Along with these advantages it has many shortcomings such as, Standards of living wouldn’t have improved much.With changing time people’s needs are growing and its not possible to manufacture all those things within villages technically and economically.Fulfilling varied needs is also challenging.enhanced connectivity and communication channels and skill development opportunities.In modern world cities also act as knowldege creation and dissemination centres.

Gandhiji himself realised that some of his ideas were not adoptable with changing time so he modified them at later stage of his life.Ideas which were relevant were incorporated as Panchayati Raj in governance after independence.Asha Goud Anjali Motghare lrlevin 3) Role of NCW in India (100 words) Established as a statutory body in 1992, National Commission for Women has been playing a vital role in improving the status of women in Indian Society.In keeping with its mandate, NCW has reviewed and helped amending laws like Dowry prohibition Act,1961, India Penal Code, 1860, PNDT Act,1994,etc.It has helped in empowerment of women in economic and social spheres by its campaigns against child marriage, female foeticide, violence and atrocities against women, getting speedy justice (litigation funding) and redressal for grieved women (national and international), inducing awareness of women’s rights, etc.

In a nut shell, NCW acts a facilitator for Women development.sapana 3) Role of NCW in India (100 words) The National Commission for women was setup as a statutory body under the NCW Act, 1990 with the mandate to review constitutional and legal safeguards for women, recommend remedial legislative measures, facilitate redressal of grievances and advise government on all policy matters affecting women.The commission is empowered to look into complaints and take suo moto notice of matters relating to women.It organizes countrywide campaigns, workshops and consultations for protection of women’s right and for promoting their welfare and development.Parivarik Mahila Lok Adalats are conducted for speedy delivery of justice.

The commission also provides pre-litigation services and family dispute counselling.Recent NCW has been criticized for not being pro-active enough.sapana vipul Examine the Gandhian idea of village community as an ideal unit of self governance.Gandhi Ji believed that India would attain the complete freedom when all of its people could control their destiny with their own ji stressed that democracy could not be run by few men sitting at the center but it had to worked by people working at the lowest village level .Gandhi ji had his reservations against the centralized emphasized that problems faced by each villages community were problems demanded different such circumstances ,centralized planning was expected to be a fruitless Ji said that India lived in its villages and country could not boast of development If villages were not part of it.

Gandhi Ji ‘s idea of village Swaraj was that villages would be self reliant,self governed & self es would be able to fulfill their vital needs (food,cloth,education,water resources ,legal rights,governance etc) themselves and would be dependent on other neighbors for their wider ment of the would be elected by villagers on the basis of universal adult India of Gandhi Ji’s dream was a federation of villages.Gandhi Ji emphasized that development of lowest in society,quality of life should be the parameters of actual development.73rd & 74th constitution amendments have paved the way for realization of Gandhi’dream of India.Why is affirmative action important in provision of equal opportunity? Affirmative action is the positive discrimination done by the state in favour of weaker sections of the society.

In this hetrogenous world, each society is dominated by certain groups of people.Due to various historical reasons, there are certain portions of a society that are economically weak, politically under-represented, sociologically dominated by the majority groups.For example, it is a world-wide known phenomenon of patriarchal society present in almost all countries, due to which women are less empowered and thus face numerous problems.In case of India, being a secular country and a tolerant society, there are a number of religions that constitute minority groups.

Safeguarding the interests of all is very important for its own integrity.

To provide the deprived groups a level playing field, a society needs catalysts or accelerators.Leaving them on their own would make the situation worse.It may threaten the integrity of the nation in the long run.However, affirmative actions policies have generated political debates.

some people consider it as reverse discrimination.But leaving a substantial section of society backward, it would be a wastage of human resource.So it is important to provide the least advantaged section of society equal opportunities and chances to develop and empower themselves economically, sociologically as well as politicaly.ekta hello everyone, I am a new comer here and I found this exercise of answer writing very useful.This is the first time I am writing answer on insights.Kindly give your valuable remarks so that I can improve my answers.You have explained in a simple way and with a good structure.Looking forward to read more answers from you.🙂 vipul Que: Do you think that the Quit India movement was a Spontaneous Revolution? Quit India movement in 1942 was more spontaneous in comparison to earlier example,Gandhi Ji himself launched the Civil disobedience movement by Dandi march & breaking the salt lly, congress used to draft the program guide lines for the movement and left the implementation of program to lower level congress committees.In 1942,failure of Cripps Mission had convinced the Indian leaders Nehru & Gandhi Ji that British were unwilling to come to any honorable settlement tent among the people was & Gandhi believed the need for an struggle.But they did not want to put a threat to British Anti-fascist struggle.

Though the reaction of public was spontaneous but congress had been working among the people for movement since s of Eastern Up & Bihar where congress had been working at grass root level since 1937,were the most active regions in the movement.In Bardouli, Sardar Patel had been telling people that a movement was impending & they should be prepared for it.Participation of Women groups led by Sucheta Kriplani,Usha Mehta,Arun Asaf Ali etc.& youths had been people of country had demonstrated the un-parallel heroism despite facing the most brutal repression of British ss had been successful to work at ground level to bring confidence in people to sustain the movement on their own.

1) Examine the relevance of Directive Principles in the era of liberalization and globalization.Ans- Directive principles are the directions from the constitution to the government.It makes the foundation of the laws which should be formulated by it.Since, at the time of independence, India was lacking in the required resources to establish an ideal socialist, secular & democratic state, it was left on future governments, to fulfill this dream.Liberalization & globalization has changed the picture to a large extent.

It has impact on many aspects of the society.Practice of neo-capitalism , increasing privatisation, the culture of consumerism , lack of respect for environment, changing rural infrastructure & its development,increasing life expectancy- medical science developments, Changing life-style of people- rising sedentary component, exploitation of workers in private factories etc are some of the gifts of LPG policy.So, government is even more responsible now for working in the directions indicated by DPSP.The importance of right to education, universal health policy, decentralised governance- local self government, worker’s welfare policy, environmental protection laws, child protection laws, women welfare laws has increased manifold after the advent of LPG in India.India is a socialist state & opening up of market to the world may prove disastrous for its socialism so it becomes government’s responsibility to make laws which can regulate this liberalised indian market on the direction of socialism.

So, we can say that principles of DPSP has gained even more importance in today’s scenario.These principles guide the government about the level of pragmatism that is expected on its part which will lead to it to be a welfare state along with a leading global market player.In the introduction you have to state your thesis especially in those questions where you are directed to ‘examine’, ‘comment’ or ‘analyze’.In the first paragraph you only talk about DPSP, and in the next paragraph,to a large extent positive aspects of Liberalization and Globalization are mentioned.There is no connection between the introduction and the next paragraph.

It doesn’t give a smooth flow to your answer.Negative effects of LPG must be stressed if possible with data and the related provisions in DPSP which have not been enacted or which have been enacted but not implemented well, should be stressed.Earlier you have written some excellent answers.

🙂 Nirmal Singh ‘Affirmative action’ refers to policies that take into account factors like religion, sex or caste.India is home to a diverse number of religions and castes among intra-religions along with gender disparities.Such asymmetries at social level create distortions denying these groups of equal opportunities.Indian constitution aptly recognizing these concerns provided for special provisions for a number of reasons.

there are special provisions for reservations in public employment and legislatures.First, the idea of social justice and inclusive development can only be realized by providing equal grounds.The historic injustice to these sections can only be undone by more inclusive policies with special provisions.Second, the moral grounds further supports the same .

It is obligation on nation part and a natural human right inalienable to people.Failure to recognize these will put legitimacy of state under doubt.Third, the true democracy requires condition of equal representation which means giving voice to the marginalised ones and those in minorities.It must be mentioned here that constitution forbids any discrimination on grounds of sex, religion and caste only.The state has to prove ‘lack of representation’ and adequate ‘backwardness’.Fourth, there is need to protect culture and languages to maintain the hallmark of India-‘its diversity’.To realize the ideals of secular, socialist and democratic state it is imperative to give force to these provisions.These are ends in themselves and vision of our forefathers.Nirmal Singh Mahatma Gandhi favoured village as an ideal unit of self governance recognizing its historical success and latent potential during freedom struggle.

It seems to be a suitable alternative tool for empowerment of people.The advantage of its closeness to people and its awareness of local needs further strengthen its case.It is easy to administer and has customized solutions specific to community.The decentralized decision making, more accountability and direct democracy can be realized easily.It is more close to the concept of natural state.

The even distribution of resources and lack of any centralized system to address the same should not be overlooked.Such uneven distribution will further fuel disputes between independent units and cause asymmetric development.The social and economic development will be constrained owing to lack of institutional homogeneity and expertise which otherwise can be complimentary in unitary system.It must be recognized that one important cause for subjection of India to British rule was lack of unity.

Such threat is more imminent in today’s world where nations are impinging on other’s sovereignty.Further it is highly impracticable owing to large number of villages and their vague delineation of boundaries.The most pragmatic path would be a unitary system with provisions of devolution of power to villages as already been done although not satisfactory Such system will provide much needed resilience, integrity and balanced prospects for social and economic development.Nirmal Singh Sir you have mentioned ‘examine’ in question.I have tried to get its and other’s meaning from one of your post but didn’t get it .

Can you explain its meaning in this question context.I have tried to infer its meaning and answered accordingly You have tried to ‘examine’ but not completely.Gandhian idea of Gram swaraj is not enunciated by you.The idea of establishing such a self-reliant, self-suffiieint, decentralized, democratic units of village republics was to establish peace and non-violence everywhere.If in a village where every one worked and earned their bread by means of trusteeship and cooperativization and lived in peace, there won’t be any threat to diversity, instead peace would permeate to other places.

Though Utopian it may seem, if all villages lived in harmony why would anyone attack each other? Why I am saying this is, in your answer, you said British occupied India because of lack of unity – but between whom? it is not because of lack of unity between villages, but because of lack of unity between rulers that India became a colony of the British.It is just a thought – giving you the essence of Gandhian idea behind Gram Swaraj.Well, when you are asked to ‘examine’, you have to probe deeper into the question and come up with a balanced view.Nirmal Singh Ans SHG is a cohesive group of 10 or more members coming together to implement development scheme at grass root level by combining self management with access to low cost finances.It helps the group of women to solve their problems through a participatory and democratic approach.

It helps them develop entrepreneurship and leadership qualities and create awareness among other women folks.SHG are provided with easy and low indexed finances from banks for small business or economic activity in order to empower them economically and increase their status socially.These SHG’s are tied to industries in cities over a period of time.Recently government approved a special 7% interest indexed loans for women SHGs.Thus SHG is an engine of women empowerment lakshmi prasanna SHG are small volunteers association of poor people who are also from the same socio economic back drop.

The micro-credit provided makes them enterprising.It works as a catalyst to empower women economically and eradicate poverty.The strategy followed by them to empower women include improving literacy rates in rural areas, social custom, educating health and sanitation, environment protection by growing trees, family planning encouraging small families, and providing self employment.To support them government planned many schemes involving women SHG’s like Rashtriya Mahila Kosh, Indira Mahila Yojana, SHGs with banks was launched by NABARD in 1992, Indira Mahila Gramabhivirdhi ,Samatha, Swarna Jayanti, Gram Swarozgar Yojana, Comprehensive Wasteland Programme, Swa-Shakti scheme, Kudumbashree Programme, etc Vicky ….

Well done 2)“NAFTA has curbed the illegal immigration of Mexicans to USA and Canada”.

Ans- NAFTA stands for the North American Free Trade Agreement between the United States, Mexico, and Canada.This is a PTA, which is an agreement between a group of countries to levy low or zero tariffs against imports from members.The repercussions of this agreement can be given as- Firstly, with the reduction in import tariffs, in order to protect its farmers, america has increased farm subsidies.This has reduced the price at which american farmers export the grains flooding mexican market with american foodgrains.

According to an estimate, between 1994 and 2001, the flood of cheap, subsidized American corn caused the price of the crop to fall 70 percent in Mexico.Feeling devastated, mexican farmers started fleeing illegally to USA.Secondly, with the removal of restrictions, american retail giants like wal-mart entered mexican market further reducing the opportunities of employment because of the low price offered by them.Many smaller traders were forced to migrate illegally to USA in search of jobs.Lastly, it has lead to the displacement of US workers from manufacturing industry & displacement of mexican workers from agricultural industry.

NAFTA was proposed as a solution to illegal migration, since it was thought to be creating a lots of jobs in mexico which it has failed to accomplish completely.So, it is clear that removal of tariffs due to introduction of NAFTA has only increased the inflow of illegal migrants into USA from mexico.This can be attributed to the improper implementation steps taken by US government itself.RV The Directive Principles envisaged in Part IV of the constitution sought to provide the Preambury rights to all the citizens in order to establish a social and economic democracy in the country.As per Article 37 these directives were fundamental to the governance of the country and were to serve as “Instruments of Instructions” to the legislature and the executive.

The era of liberalization and globalization has brought about burgeoning growth of the Indian economy however it seems to have created islands of prosperity in an ocean of poverty.The Gini coefficient ascribing inequality is on the rise , land under the auspice of “public good” is still being looted and colonisalism has just given way to neo-colonialism .Worst fears of Gandhi that no amount of socialism can counter the evils of Capitalism is being increasingly realized.They have acted as beacon lights for the Supreme Court and are increasingly being implemented by the Government as well to offset the aggravation of imbalances .The passing of RTI , making education a fundamental right and the recent prerogatives of food entitlement and improving the deplorable conditions of women and disabled exhibit relevance of these directives even today .

The pragmatic and humane steps of Government to bring in Manual Scavenging Bill , incorporate Corporate Social Responsibility in the Companies Bill shows the increasing realization that these directives act as bedrocks for Good Governance and economic , political and social restructuring of the society .They no longer are the “veritable dustbins of emotions” as remarked by T.Infact they are increasingly serving the purpose of steering India away from both the extremes of Capitalist Oligarchy and Proletarian Dictatorship.

(100 words) A Self Help Group is a small group of individuals commonly from the same socio-economic background who acts are given micro credit to act as enterprises.It has been commonly observed that women SHG are far more efficient than all men or mixed SHG.Today SHG route is being increasingly taken to empower the women and build confidence to break from the shackles of non-recognition and abusive dawn to dusk tasks .

It provides them with economic security , awareness and challenge the patriarchal evils of society.Increasing recommendations like mid-day meal responsibility to women SHG and drawing of women panchayat members from amongst them shows the renewed confidence in their capabilities and such steps wil go a long way in establishing participatory democracy.Answer : Directive Principles are the nature of directions according to which the various wings of the government need to work and keep in mind while formulating policies or allowing functioning .Liberalization stands for allowing other players of the society to play important part in management and operations of various sectors of the economy.

On the other hand Globalization means connecting to various segments across the globe and allowing close to free trade for various goods and services among nations.So basically we can say the liberalization and globalisation have broken the shackles of Isolation of a country from other world, i.from a closed economy to an open economy.Everywhere, the basic role of a government is to ensure the welfare of its people, rather than profit motives.

Thus irrespective of globalisation or liberalization, the basic directions in which a state should progress are an inevitable feature.These principles may differ according to society, country, prosperity, economic conditions, political environment etc.The coming of new ideas in modern era have brought a change in the role of directive principles but not eliminated their relevance.The planning may become indicative but it has to be on the lines of directive principles.Still in India, welfare aspirations make the breath of governance.

Still the government has ensured labour laws, reservations, enforced Corporate Social Responsibility, setup various regulatory agencies, etc to cater the directive principles in this era.Therefore we can say that although the waters and winds have changed, the ship is being transformed structurally , it is stopping at various places across the globe , but still the essence, the values and the principles of the captain of that ship has not changed.(100 words) Answer: SHG are the voluntary organisation with coming together of 10-12 people with similar problems and helping themselves individually and as a team for generating resources and providing solutions to their problems.

Among the SHG’s major chunk are formed by women.They help in empowering them at all levels i.economically, socially, culturally, politically etc.SHG help in making women self reliant, independent, also they can help their family and community.

We have seen many successful examples in India like Lijjat paapad , Kudumbhshree etc .It not makes them come out of their hardships but also promotes them to stand along with expansion in all walks of life.Though it is commendable that you have taken slightly different stand, I found that your answer doesn’t answer the question.You say that, ‘irrespective of globalisation or liberalization, the basic directions in which a state should progress are an inevitable feature’ and ‘ The coming of new ideas in modern era have brought a change in the role of directive principles but not eliminated their relevance.

‘ Here, you have to ‘examine’ the relevance of DPSPs not the role of state in facilitating the implementation of them.pavan Answer Framer of constitution envisioned directive principles as torch bearer for state in policy making.These principles are yardstick to maintain welfare state, which focuses more on governance rather than government.Post Liberalisation and globalisation era arrived with new set of challenges and demands.Amid these emerging challenges directive principles are as relevant as they were 6 decade ago.

Post liberalisation brought market as front runner to solve various problems; it provided capitalistic economy in which inequalities are bound to come.Moreover with liberalisation corrupt practices started to dominate.Post globalisation and after joining WTO govermnet is bound to abide its commitment to free market economy.This left million small enterprises vulnerable to face opne competition.Liberalisation on one hand speed up economic growth but on the other exploitation of environment became rampant.

With liberal policy skewed development takes place which leads to inequality in terms of geographical and social.Areas which left behind are now becoming breeding ground for left wing extremism.Land acquisition, rehabilitations are other challenges after LPG era.These challenges can be addressed effectively if we implement directive principles in true spirit.One of directive principle laid responsibility on state to prevent concentration of wealth, In era of indicative planning it is Mantra for government to prevent inequality in population by approporiate tax structure and welfare measure.

Present Tax slab structures and other welfare measure to prevent spread of discontent and to stop spread of violent left wing ideology are reflection of such policy.Secondly according to DP state should organize village panchayats which are now becoming important unit of self governance.This is one of most practical tool for decentralisation and grass root democracy.Thirdly DP directed state to preserve environment which is more relevant in current era and one of rapidly emerging global challenge.Similarly most other challenges like Land acquisition , Women issues, Child issue, Corruption and even foreign policy can be tackled if policy makers keep reminding them self about Directive principles.

(100) Answer From 7th Five year plan onward poverty eradication programs started (IRDP), in subsequent plans more emphasis were laid on women empowerment through these programs, Later on With Swarn jayanti Gramin swarojgar yojna more strategy was changed from wage employment to self employment through Self help groups.Recently these SGSY converged into NRLM which provides centre role for SHG for women empowerment.These SHGs now became synonyms of women empowerment.This empowerment not only providing economic empowerment but also Political empowerment, Social empowerment , Decision making empowerment and Psychological empowerment in sense of boosting their self identity.

There are hundreds of success stories which clearly reflect how women empowerment can be achieve through self help groups.In vishwa village in MP, one decade ago status of women was very poor, then women decided to organize Village haat through help of SHG which later became group of many villages .Now thousands of women participate in these village haat, They are now economically empowered, their status in family increased significantly , they are now more aware of their rights.Recently theirt achievements are recognised and they are awarded In UNITED NATIONS.These achievements reflect immense potential of SHG in women empowerment pavaniiit Pavan, 329 words.

There is a tendency to use long sentences and also repetitions are there.If you can avoid them, answer will be effective.haren tushar 1) Examine the relevance of Directive Principles in the era of liberalization and globalization.

Directive Principles of State Policy, contained in Part IV of the constitution are aimed at providing social and economic justice to the people.

They direct the government to work for the welfare of the people.In the changed circumstances of liberalization and globalization their importance has increased further.Globalization and liberalization have integrated the economies of the the markets play a dominating role as state is trying to play a role of ‘facilitator’ rather than a ‘controller’.In these circumstances, it is possible that the private economic interests taking precedence over social interests.Unregulated markets can jeopardize the interests of common people.

The recent Sarda Chit Fund Scam is an indication in this direction.Additionally, globalization has resulted in opening of vast new opportunities.India has largely benefitted from this by registering an impressive growth for last few years.However, as the experience tells this has resulted in growing inequalites in the distribution of wealth and a large population is still struggling for better living conditions.Also, it has brought the problems of land acquisition and displacement of tribal people living in forests where new mining licences are being given.

It is essential that the due rights of the poor are given to them.Land Acquisition, Rehabilitation and Resettlement Bill, and Mining and Minerals development bills are steps in this regard Lastly, liberalization and globalization have also brought the challenges of maintaining sustainable growth.Unchecked growth of industries can lead to depletion of forests, pollution of rivers, damage to fragile mountain ecosystem.The recent devastating floods in Uttarakhand are an example of what a thoughtless and unplanned growth can do.Thus we see that globalization and liberalization have brought many challenges with them.

These demand an even more proactive response from the government to establish a welfare society.(100 words) SHG movement started as a group for bringing together people especially women and work for collective benefit of the group.SHG and the bank linkage programme has resulted in economic empowerment of women in India.The collective guarantee provided by the SHG makes it possible for the individual members to access credit which they otherwise would not be able to get.

The success stories of Kudumbashree programme in Kerala, SEWA in Ahemdabad are few examples.Also, it has helped in improving the social status of women.Working in a group gives the women confidence and enables them to take wise decisions for themselves and their families.The SHG programme is concentrated in Southern States and has little or no prseence in poor states of Bihar or Orissa.

Also, SHG are often constrained due to lack of skills.tushar lakshmi prasanna NAFTA was sold to the public as a magic formula that would improve 2.Mexican economy and create enough employment incentives to people at home.But in reality this turned as a disastrous policy.

The Mexican people consider NAFTA as their death warrant.NAFTA enacted in 1994 allowed free trade between Mexico and US and established a system to settle trade disputes.But free trade effected their agriculture, industries and wages made them to attempt immigration despite of life threat.NAFTA permitted US subsidized corn and agriculture commodities to Mexican markets as a result Mexican commodities failed to compete with low price of US.Industries like walmart produced cheap goods at low price paving Mexican small scale industries closed.

Wages along borders were decreased by 25%.So rather improving its economy it still deteriorated the condition.For surviving the number of illegal immigration increased after NAFTA.On the other side of border American citizen suffered with loss of jobs due to run away industries and competition with illegal immigrants under which industries increasingly benefited.NAFTA failed to curb immigration because it never designed as a genuine developmental program me to improve their standards of life.

The subsidized formula shows that it is not to improve their economy and create employment.But on the other hand it was helpful to corporate community on both sides of borders which paid by American and Mexican poor people.Examine the relevance of Directive Principles in the era of liberalization and globalization.Directive principles are incorporated in part IV of the constitution.

They resemble the instrument of accession given to states in GoI act 1935.LPG era: Post LPG era, the government has undergone a downsizing where it has shredded of certain less important activities which can be done by private while the most important social activities are still held by the government.DPSPs with a constitutional backing, provide a framework of where the government should intervene.

Welfare state has been the agenda of most post world war II states, but it has gained more relevance now because of the rise of private institutions.Private serve for profit, so they serve only the ‘haves’.So for the ‘have-nots’, the state should assume the role of welfare state.The LPG era has provided for a capitalist mode of production encouraging widespread private participation.

In order the ensure socialism, a goal of our constitution in preamble there is a need for intervention and DPSPs gain regard in this context.Profit earning private companies may not take into account of the condition of labourers necessitating government intervention.Also in lieu of development, environment may be compensated.So environmental protection is important in this era.In the era of globalisation, peace with other countries gain more prominence than before due to increased interdependence.To equitably distribute the fruits of development to both genders.(art39(d)) No introduction and no conclusion! The question is not asking you to enumerate the relevance.🙂 You have excellent points, if you can give a good shape, your answer will be one of the best here.sapthagiri if i write in paragraph i fear missing many points as i may exceed the word limit explaining the issue.

the correction will be based on key, so am stressing on giving as many points as possible.will it be possible to write the same ans in para with all the points mentioned above within word limit? ans pl.Yes it is possible to write in paragraphs.I forgot to tell you, it is not ‘instrument of accession’, it is ‘instruments of instruction’ in your first paragraph above.

Introduction and conclusion not only give your answer good structure, they are necessary to give a flow to your answer.Marks is not given to how many points you put into your answer, instead how well you have written matters.sapthagiri DPSPs are incorporated in part IV of the Indian constitution.

Though framed with the Indian conditions that remained just after independence, they still hold high relevance in the present age of LPG.Welfare state: Liberalization entails free flow of private enterprise in the nation’s economy.Private enterprises serve only the ‘haves’.To serve the ‘have-nots’, the state should intervene and take role of welfare state.

International peace and security: Maintaining international peace gains more credence in this era of globalisation than before due to increased interdependence between nations.Environment: In the sake of development, environment may be compensated.In this era where utmost importance is given to national development, protection of environment is at risk.So their protection is paramount as incorporated in art.Grass root democracy: In the era, local level participation is much necessary to get inputs prior to policy formulation.Citizens in information era too are inclined to have an increased say in administration.So the ideas of local adminstration hold relevance.Equity: Increased private participation may lead to concentration of wealth.So the government intervention is required to nullify the concentration (art 39 (b)(c)).The fruits of development have not the entire section of people.So government intervention is required to correct this anomaly and take care of socially disadvantaged.46) The relevance of DPSPs have increased manifold in LPG era.Since government has downsized their responsibilities, their DPSPs with a constitutional set up remind the government of their foremost important duties.sapthagiri Self help groups are voluntary informal women groups aimed at bringing economic independence of women.Economically, SHGs break the dependence of women on men for their needs.Thereby it increases women decision making and increased say in day to day affairs.Socially SHGs project women as a social group instead of the earlier notion of isolated individual.The social needs of women are satisfied and increased interactions within the group make them more aware of their rights.

Politically SHGs are viewed as potential votebanks and so parties cannot ignore the needs of women.Psychologically SHGs by empowering women, make them realize their own potential.

sachi SHG & Women Empowerment: For centuries, women were treated lesser than men.Many factors were contributing for such situation.Though, today also India is male dominated society, but in current situation, a person who earns & having qualities like leadership, knowledge & awareness is considered empowered irrespective of gender.SHG is a institution composed of local women.They save money, use money to meet emergency needs, self -employment.

Other than financial help, handling of SHG & required social meetings itself helped in developing leadership abilities among poor people, increasing awareness like school enrollments, nutrition etc.This helped in Empowerment of women to large extent.sachi sachi SHG & Women empowerment For centuries, women were treated lesser than men.Many factors were contributing for such situation.Though, today also India is male dominated society, but in current situation, a person who earns & having qualities like leadership, knowledge & awareness is considered empowered irrespective of gender.

SHG is a institution composed of local women.They save money, use money to meet emergency needs, self -employment.Other than financial help, handling of SHG & required social meetings itself helped in developing leadership abilities among poor people, increasing awareness like school enrollments, nutrition etc.This helped in Empowerment of women to large extent.(100 words) Self Help Group (SHG) is a group of 10-20 people, mostly from a homogeneous class (socio-economic background) who come together for addressing their common problems.SHGs have been instrumental in empowering women, who were once restricted to four walls.SHGs, through their self savings and micro-credit facility provided have strived and contributed in poverty alleviation, improving education, nutritional levels, skill development and employment opportunity, imbibing leadership and entrepreneurship qualities, participations in local governance and decision making processes.The GoI, has also promoted SHG’s by providing credit facilities at lower interest rates through NABARD’s SHG-Bank linkage program, NRLM, etc.SHG, today is a recognized Women development tool.

GUDDU Why is ‘affirmative action’ important in provision of equal opportunity? Affirmative action refers to the special provisions made by the state or the authority in favor of deprived or the excluded sections of the society.The concept of equal opportunity is a liberal notion which postulates that everyone should be to pursue there development and state should not act as a hindrance in the realization.The notion however is criticized by socialist who points to the presence of only formal sense of equality as it does not take into account the inequality of resources thus the starting line of the people is not same hence the finishing line should also not be same.Affirmative action thus is not reverse discrimination as sought by many scholars rather when applied rationally is the way to provide substantive equality while remaining in the framework of a liberal society.Affirmative action for the historically disadvantaged sections of the society has been constitutionally guaranteed and gives recognition to the concept of complex equality.

The policy of affirmative action takes the form of reservation in the educational institutions as well as public sector jobs, it is to provide an economic hedge and a social standing thus having an ameliorating effect on the entire society.Affirmative action has its cons also, as it can be used for political gains and normally the intended beneficiary does not get the benefit.Indian supreme court has held that policies should be time-framed for if they go on forever, it itself shows the failure of the policy in uplifting the marginalized section of the society.GUDDU GUDDU Examine the relevance of Directive Principles in the era of liberalization and globalization.

Directive principles of state policy is enshrined in part IV of our constitution .

It is an amalgam of policies from various perspective that state should strive to pursue to achieve an ideal society as envisaged by our forefathers.Thus the directives calls for enhanced state intervention in the various spheres of life , while on the other hand liberalization and globalization are demanding the rise and interlinking of private sectors, opening up of the economies and resorting to market fundamentalism as much as possible.International institutions are calling for ‘rolling back of the state’ and letting the private sector take over the responsibilities.In the Indian scenario the society and economy is still not modern and majority of population by realistic analysis can be construed as having a subsistence living thus state intervention in the economy cannot be completely abolished and as article 39 of the constitution asks the state to make provisions for living wages, to prevent concentration of wealth in few hands etc needs to be carried forward.The Principles have rather assumed greater importance in the era of globalization and liberalization as it has been found that the already marginalized sections of the society are impacted negatively by liberalization and for the benefits to be equitably distributed there is need of good governance which is the fulcrum of the directive principles.

The principles ask the state to make provision to guarantee education, good healthcare facilities and providing economic security at least for subsistence level which are in high demand in the era of free trade and interlinking of economies so that the fruits of development are inclusive in nature.vipul 2)“NAFTA has curbed the illegal immigration of Mexicans to USA and Canada”.NAFTA (North American free trade agreement) was signed between USA, Canada & Mexico in ent was signed under certain assumptions.NAFTA was expected to increase the better paying job opportunities in Mexico which would help to curb illegal migration from Mexico to US & Canada.

It was expected that NAFTA would lead to increase the foreign investment in Mexico.Manufacturing & other productive Units would get the require boost of Investment.Simultaneously, products manufactured in Mexico would also get access to the USA, Canada market.Mexico ,like most of the countries was in-equally developed.Most of economic activities were concentrated in Northern Mexico.

Supporter of NAFTA had expected the Mexican government to spend on Infrastructure ,education, health & sanitation to reap the full benefits of agreement.Mexican economy went in to economic turmoil just after the NAFTA agreement.Economic constraints further reduced the capacity of government to spend on infrastructure & welfare programs.After the NAFTA, foreign investment started flowing in to Mexico but mostly in manufacturing units situated in relatively developed northern region bordering USA.Poor infrastructure facilities in other regions turned out to be biggest impediment in attracting the foreign investments.

During the same period ,Chinese cheaper products started flooding the US market.Mexican products could not substantially improve their share in the USA & Canada market even after the NAFTA.Apart from this, trade agreements destroyed the corn farming sector completely.Corn farmers in Mexico could not sustain the competition of heavily subsidized corn flowing from USA.Mexican government could not increase the tariff barriers as government had lost the policy making cushions after the trade agreement.

Ultimately, NAFTA left some of farmers also out of their regular jobs.Supporters of NAFTA believes that Illegal migration would have been even higher if the foreign investment has not been there in northern region.Current scenario lead us to conclusion that NAFTA have not been much successful in its objective to stop the illegal migration from Mexico to USA &Canada.(100 words) Self Help group (SHG) is voluntarily organization of 10-15 members.

In India, there are lakhs of SHGs working across the country & 90 % of the them have women memberships.SHGs are generally operated by the NGOs, banks & companies.Women empowerment is a multi-dimensional concept which consists of Economic, social & political empowerment.Out of these, Economic development is of utmost significance as it helps to sustain & support the other aspects of development.Women participating in self-help groups save whatever small amount they can save every month and contribute to common fund.

Common fund can be further used to meet the financial need or emergency credit need of group members.Besides focusing on economic development SHGs also undertakes programs to spread awareness about the literacy, health & environment issues.SHGs also play a vital role to bring women from marginalized section of society in to mainstream .Women in SHGs maintain the records of membership detail, cash & loan details .Women in self-help groups meet few times in a week and deliberate on the entrepreneurial activities to be taken in future.

Every members in SHGs gets the opportunity to put forward their view in discussions.Thus SHGs helps to bring women in mainstream of decision making and infuse confidence among them.SHGs have given women an opportunity to showcase their hidden talents.Besides providing microfinance & inter-loaning, women are provided training on food processing, tailoring etc.to develop entrepreneurial temper among them.

neeraj Examine the relevance of Directive Principles in the era of liberalization and globalization.The era of Liberalization and globalisation has brought a view of laissez faire.It has ushered in an era of cut throat competition, global practices and profit maximisation techniques.Such an environment has pushed the ideas of justice-social, economic and political on the back seat.

Economic exploitation of the labour, deteriorating working conditions and explitation of children and women has come to the fore.

Maruti strike has shown that Workers are not involved in the management.Living standards of the protelariat has sunk to a new low.The In a race of economic dominance, the environment and forest dwellers(including humans as well as animals) has to pay the price for the greed of human beings.Forests are depleting and the use of fertilizers and pesticids have decreased the productivity of the farms.Use of oxytocins and other drugs on animal for more productivity is another the demand for beef etc in the world market might boost the slaughter industry.

The tourism industry has put the conservation of the architectural monuments, places and objects of artistic/historic interest to the backburner.The advent of MnCs has adversely affected the cottage industries.Protests against FDI in retail is a burning example.Consumption of liquor and drug abuse are on the rise.Also, with Liberalisation and globalisation, policy making on International Relations has taken the front seat.

The policies of NAM and panchsheel have been brought to the fore.Protection of interests of our agriculture, handicraft and MSMEs should be a top priority.The Dirctive Principles of State policy directs the state to legislate in such matters.Many legislations have been made and many other needs to be made.The recent example consists of amendment of Companies Act for assigning 2% of profit of big companies for CSR activities is a welcome step.

Other legislations include Wildlife(Protection) Act, National Forest Policy etc.Thus DPSP have taken a front seat in an era of Liberalisation and globalisation neeraj 1) Examine the relevance of Directive Principles in the era of liberalization and globalization.Directive Principles of State Policy (DPSP) is a set of Positive and non-justifiable directions enshrined in our constitution, to be followed by state.In the era of liberalization and globalization, markets play a vital role in the economy by providing employment, human development, improving living standards, etc.

However, as market, generally works on the Principle of Profit Maximization, it is not keen about gender equality, public health problems, environmental degradation, etc.This insensitivity of Market based economy has brought in socio-economic inequalities among people (a wide gap between haves and have-nots).It only supports skilled and talented and is not bothered about universal human development.Also, industries and factories are not uniformly spread across the lengths and breadths of the country, but get developed only in specific areas where operational costs are minimal.This has created Red (Poor development) and Blue corridors (High Development) within the country.

In such a scenario, relevance of DPSP is paramount and directs the state to intervene and guide the market for more equitable and just development.It’s based on DPSP that the government asks private entrepreneurs and PSUs to venture into businesses like eco tourism in North east states, setting up mining industries and factories in Naxal affected districts, imparting education and skills to people belonging to backward regions and economically deprived sections, to stick to strict pollution norms to protect the environment, to provide just and humane working conditions, to facilitate employ stock ownership plan, etc.The relevance of DPSP is not about globalization or non-globalization, but it’s about a fair and just society and would continue until such a society results.SHG(a concept adopted from Bangladesh) is a group of 10-20 people of similar social and economic background who have come together for economic benefits.

Giving loans, repayment of loans and saving money has given a sense of economic empowerment to the women.Also, book-keeping activities has imparted in them reading, writing and accounting skills and helped them educate themselves and their families.Regular meeting with the leaders, bankers and customers have provided them social empowerment.Now they can assert their demands over their male counterparts and justify them as well.

Leaders of the village seek their support in elections which has given a sense of political empowerment.Thus, SHGs have helped in social, political and economic empowerment of the women.Anjali Motghare As we adopted welfare state model, directive principles strive for socio-economic equality and holds as much relevance in the era of liberalisation and globalisation.As besides advantages of liberalisation and globalisation, it is leading to widening gap between rich and poor.Directive principles ask state to provide education, food, healthy working conditions, old age security, and environmental protection if possible livelihood means in its capacity.

All these things hold much relevance in the present context.India is home to largest number of impoverished and undernourished people in of Asia, one of every two child is undernourished or malnourished.Still we don’t have hundred per cent literacy to provide skilled labour, traditional industries perished and non-availabilty of alternative livelihood means led to impoverishment.Globalisation led to exploitation of the cheap labour.MNCs are too powerful, they don’t care about interests of workers.

Globalisation and liberalisation gave rise to materialistic aspiration which is impacting environment also.Directive principles if implemented properly will raise literacy and health standards of population and so competitive workforce will be available.Better means of livelihood will raise living standards and will reduce poverty.Protection of environment will help in mitigating natural disasters, which will help in saving lives and property we loose in disasters.

Though globalisation and liberaliisation led to growth but for sustainable development, adherence to directive principles is of paramount importance.

athi SHG is a voluntary organisation of group of people with mostly same socio-economic solves common problems through self and mutual improves economic background of women through small savings among the a result of SHG women became a participator in financial, political and social issues of the get exposed to the democratic system.SHG creates empowerment through microfinancing which strengthens self esteem and self worth of increases the contribution of women in household and improves their social exposed women to many government programmes and make them benefitiaries.I am a new comer TR Ans: The DPSP are the basics of the legal framework as mandated by the constitution.Liberalization is the process of opening up of markets to foreign players as well as removing the domestic regulations as well as sectorwise protection .

According to the experience in India, this has benifitted more the well off sections of the society which had the means to positively materialize this change e.large export houses which had the ability to increase the production and thus harvest the gains of zero export duties; rich industrialists who could import the expensive technology and capital goods from abroad and thus produce more at lower cost and and realise the benifits of lower import duty.While at the same time the small entrepreneurs who did not have enough means to buy expensive technology or increase productions by using cheaper import goods was harmed as he could not produce at cheaper level and thus could not compete with the goods produced by large industries or the goods imported from abroad.The removal of the protection to small industry did another harm to the small industries.

According to A-37 of DPSPs, it is the duty of the State to make laws to distribute the wealth equally among all the citizens of India and to avoid any concentration of wealth.This objective was directly frustrated by liberalization.Again, as liberalization means increased pvt sector participation and lesser govt role in industries.This means that the livelihood security of the country is in the hands of the big corporatist as well as the foreign companies, which are motivated to maximize their benefits rather than the public welfare, this along with the fact that the liberalization indirectly causes damage to small industries making them prone to being closed down, the livelihood security and economic interests of the country as a whole and poor especially is in great danger which again contradicts the DPSP that the state should provide adequate means to livelihood and should strive towards promotion of welfare of the people.Thus in brief it could be said that the liberalization and globalization, which themselves are motivated by maximizing benifits is contrary to DPSPs which strive to make the State a Welfare and Just State.

TR RV Article 37 is wrongly put what you have stated is Article 39 ! maybe minor but i dont think you should put in wrong facts 🙂 TR, Good answer.But you have exceeded the word limit by more than 100 words.Otherwise, all the relevant points are there in your answer.Examine the relevance of Directive Principles in the era of liberalisation and globalisation .

Directive Principles of State Policy(DPSP) denotes the ideals that the State (Centre, state, local) should keep in mind while formulating policies and enacting laws.These are constitutional instructions and recommendations to State in legislative, executive and administrative matters.Today we are witnessing an era of liberalisation and globalisation where more and more countries are having laissez-faire state and are binded and interconnected with each other.These liberal economies give capitalists an unwritten right over making profit by exploiting natural resources, causing environmental degradation, exploiting human resources, by giving them low wages, improper and unsafe working conditions.DPSP guides State to formulate such policies amd laws so as to safeguard interest of the public, promote their welfare, empower them by providing education, nutrition and just and safe environment to work.

In this globalised arena, where world economies are interconnected and interdependent, State (Centre) is bound to take the central stage in governance, thus ignoring the marginal and rural people.DPSP guides State to organise village panchayats and promote economic interests of Scheduled Casres, Scheduled Tribes and other weaker sections.That is why DPSP are also known as Conscience of the Indian Constitutuion.However, these principles are recommendatory in nature and not a binding on the State.But at the same time, it can be seen from the existing policies and laws that DPSP are not overlooked or ignored during their formulation.

from the next time I’ll not repeat it again.ARUN HAZRA 1)Why is ‘affirmative action’ important in provision of equal opportunity? framer of our Constitution put forward the idea of affirmative discrimination to bring the disadvantage section of our society with equal to others.the question is why? in my opinion 1) to bring those in line who started there race a lap behind to others.2)to eliminate handicaps(education/jobs/ social status/ untouchability etc), what was imposed on them(sc/st/obc) by birth.

3)by this affirmative discrimination, send the true sense of independent citizen to a large section of society.4 )provide equal opportunity to all and count every one in the development of our country.It is a fact that this particular section of our society have been kept away from any kind of participation, developmental progress in our country from ancient time till now.This constitutional safe guards thus play an important role for there upliftment.But after 66 years of independence and seeing the actual progress, it(policy)need to be reviewed and put effort to bring them from bottom, rather then maintaining initial policy of Trickle Down.

ARUN HAZRA ARUN HAZRA DPSP is an instrument that offers the economical justice to Indians.why it is important? because legislation instructed to keep it in mind while making law and policy.Suprem Court have given so many land mark judgement in accordance with dpsp.Globalization, Free trade, Open market etc are invincible in today’s world.But we live in a county where 8% of the population hold 93% of the wealth.

dose not intervene in policy making and let open market and free economy to do that, then soon or later the 92% of population come forward and we will face a civil war.In this demanding and challenging situation DPSP is one of the key instrument for our Government to deliver.useful in following way- 2)distribution of benefit to needy.

3)peace and brother-hood in international relation(otherwise globalization will be meaningless.

all this aspect are equally important for a batter society, and free trade, globalization etc are relevant when there is a society that can sustain it.In India as developing economy, its complex culture, various problems and demands, makes dpsp a policy as well as strategy in the hand of legislation to mitigate the evils of rapid growth of market economy in a humanitarian approach.

But don’t make sweeping statements like these: ‘With globalization and liberalization the control of state over them has reduced significantly.Globalisation and liberalization is motivated by profits with little respect to welfare of the people.LPG is not entirely bad and state still has control over the welfare of the state.

Both structure and language is very good.🙂 naveen Thank you insights!!!! appreciate your feedback.I am banking on your feedbacks and comments for my preparation.Anjali Motghare to outside world which in turn helps to develop their personality.It makes women economically independent, literate and brings financial inclusion.

Women have got decision making power in household activities as they add to income in their family.SHG helped women to develop quality of leadership, decision-making and entrepreneurship.SHG playing important role in women empowerment but still lot needs to be done as situation is not same in all places.can grant them work assurance by linking its various schemes like with SHG.Asha Goud Examine the relevance of Directive Principles in the era of liberalization and globalization.A: DPSP are a set of social and economic ideals delineated in Indian Constitution and it is the duty of the State to follows these in governance.The aim of DPSP is to create a Welfare State and establish a socialistic pattern of society where it is the responsibility of the state to provide basic necessities to all.Indian Society is highly heterogeneous where inequality prevails therefore in addition to political rights enshrined in Fundamental Rights, social and economic rights are provided under DPSP.

Post Independence India adopted a socialistic pattern of economy, adopted planning, established PSU and industries were highly regulated.With LPG reforms market was opened it was expected that state take a back seat with only responsibility of regulation.It was assumed that too much state intervention distorts market.Market forces were to be allowed to work freely and it was assumed that such economy will eventually lead to equal distribution of wealth.However even with free market forces poverty and inequality in the society has increased.

The market follows principle of maximization of profit and not welfare of people.Therefore the role of state is important to ensure that the weakest section get equal opportunity and representation.Here DPSP play a very important role, these principles act as guiding light.Principles such as ensuring adequate means of livelihood to all, equitable distribution and avoid concentration of wealth, ensuring living wage and equal pay to all, minimum nutrition level and basic standard of living to all, ensure just and humane condition at work and participation of workers in management are highly instrumental in establishing a equitable society.“NAFTA has curbed the illegal immigration of Mexicans to USA and Canada”.

A: NAFTA is a trade agreement signed between North American states of USA, Canada and Mexico in 1994.The aim was to liberalize trade barriers and allow market access to each participant.The economy of Mexico was highly backward as compared to USA and Canada.It was expected that signing of NAFTA would benefit Mexico with flow of technology and capital in its market as a result would facilitate development of industries and generate employment.

Thus it would curb illegal migration from Mexico to other countries in search of employment opportunities.However NAFTA failed to materialize the expected result.With the opening up of markets the agriculture and manufacturing sectors were adversely affected in Mexico.The highly subsidized agricultural products from USA entered into Mexican markets thus displaced large numbers of farmers.The manufacturing industry was not able to withstand the technological competition from products from the industrialized countries as a result factories closed.

This infact led to large scale unemployment and an increase in illegal immigration to USA and Canada.The local markets in Mexico were opened to imported products but there was no support and protection provided to local producers and manufacturers against this competition.The agreement NAFTA is not flawed in itself rather its implementation remained highly unplanned.Market forces cannot be allowed to act by itself when interaction is between two unequal economies.

The weaker economies deserve protection and support otherwise it would result in getting used up by the developed economy as a market for its products.

(100 words) A: Self Help Group is formed when certain number of people, belonging to disadvantaged section, come together voluntarily to form a group with aim to eliminate the social and economic disabilities faced by them as individuals.SHGs are a homogenous group formed on democratic principles, where each individual has equality and goal of SHGs is mutual benefit and empowerment.The SHG framework is therefore adopted for women empowerment.Many women SHGs are already functioning in rural areas.

SHG – Bank linkages help its members in receiving loans for taking up economic activity.SHG also actively participate in village governance.Government of India is actively supporting SHGs for women empowerment.Anjali Motghare Asha your DPSP answers last part is very good, second NAFTA I learnt from your answer its also very good.SHG instead of long introduction you can add many points which helped in women empowerment.

1) “The recommendations of the second ARC on reforming the civil service are radical yet implementable”.Answer: The mandate of ARC II was to analyze the functioning of the administrative system of the country and give suggestions, by studying various other bodies across the globe , to make the civil services effective, efficient and tune to 21st century.The report suggests that there must be national institutions which provide specialised bridge courses on public administration apart from setting up IIPA’s throughout the country on the pattern of IIT’s which would provide bachelor’s degree in public administration.

And for eligibility to civil services, one would require a degree from such institutes.This reform will give specialised attention to quality education in public administration, for every civil servant aspirant, as a civil servant requires a thorough understanding of public administration.This reform is very much radical because setting up such institute with adequate facilities, expertise, personnel, and courses would require considerable time, finance, infrastructure and planning.But this can be brought about gradually and until then the bridge courses can work as an alternative for eligibility.Similarly other reforms on permissible age and attempts have been suggested as 21-25 yrs and 3 attempts for General category, 21-28 yrs and 5 attempts for OBC category, 21-29 yrs and 6 attempts for SC/ST/PH category.

This reform would assure that the social cost of examination is not too high as it is the case now , because candidates from reserved categories tend to give examinations repeatedly until they are short of attempts.This need to be curtailed and ensured the only sufficient and required chances are given.One implication of this reform would be the disadvantage felt by the existing candidates.Again this feature can be dealt be ensuring that present candidates are given their earlier promised chances and the reform can be brought out gradually for future candidates by informing them prior in advance.Hence we can see that although these reforms are radical but by suitable planning and will, can be implemented.

athi Evika M yet to read 2nd ARC reports.So, as for the structure of the answer, I found it simple and informative.You took two points and explained them well.Don’t you think UPSC is already working on Bachelor in Pub Ad? Of course a degree has not been mandated yet, but 2 GS papers(GS-II and GS-IV) covers a large portion of the subject(excluding the thinkers part)? Vicky ….

but i was referring to the bridge courses which will have to be taken by the candidates to be eligible for sitting in the exam.! Evika Evika Examine the role of the Finance ministry of the Union government in designing and implementing monetary and fiscal policies.A distinction between monetary and fiscal policy needs to be made.Monetary policy is an instrument of the nation’s central bank or RBI to influence the supply of money and interest rate in an economy.

RBI carries it out by setting the Repo rate, SLR and CRR.As the RBI is an independent body, the Finance Ministry can do little to influence monetary policies.For example, inspite of the government officials making public statements for lowering interest rates, RBI is slow to act on it.Fiscal policy deals with taxation and expenditure and is designed and implemented by the Union government.It is an important constituent of the economic framework of a country and influences the monetary policies as well.

For example, if the government spends more than it receives, it runs a deficit.To meet additional expenditures, it needs to borrow from domestic or foreign sources.So it either runs into a debt crisis or results in higher interest rates.And if an equivalent amount of money is printed, it leads to inflation.The Finance Ministry has four departments which collectively deal with preparation of the Union Budget annually, which the Finance Minister presents in the Parliament, implementing recommendations of Finance Commissions, looking into matters related to levy and collection of taxes, pension reforms and policies related to MSMEs.

The role played by the Minister helped India weather out of the 2008 global crisis through effective implementation of fiscal stimulus and in 2009-10 through fiscal consolidation.Presently, it is focusing on expenditure reforms like curbing not-so-useful subsidies and tax reforms like proposing DTC and GST.sapana RV The Second Administrative Reforms Commission constituted by the Government of India under the chairmanship of Mr.

Verappa Moily was designated the task of presenting a plan of action to restructure the public administration system.

The committee has done exemplary work and provided holistic views on its mandate to evolve an efficient, accountable and proactive public services.The Committee ascertained the reasons for the growing brazen attitude of the bureaucracy and their loss of contact with the ground realities of the teeming millions.In this regard it has stressed on the essence of ethics and values that should be enforced by heads of individual departments .Integrity, probity ,impartiality , objectivity ,dedication and empathy if incorporated into the services the elitist , self-opiniated ,reclusive image of the bureaucracy will be reformed to be one of dedicated “servants of society”.Adopting a pragmatic approach Commmittee seeks to establish a middle path between the “contractual obligation” and “ life long permanency” by recommending reviews at 14th and 20th year of service which will determine continuation or removal from service on the basis of performance .

This very fundamental step of performance evaluation will remove the mediocracy and leniency and replace it with meritocracy and efficiency.Taking an honest view on the political-bureacracy nexus and the subjection of honest officers to near mendicancy by the corrupt bosses the establishment of Central Civil Services Authority will provide the necessary environment to work without fear and favour .The collegium system of appointed to higher posts, security of tenure would help remove the rotten system who fawning and flattery has replaced empathy and purposeful work for the masses.These recommendations if implemented will raise the civil services to its rightful stature of being the dedicated servants of the masses instead of caged parrots to their political masters.(100 words) South Asia is one of the most populous regions of the world and accomodates various religions and ethnic communities.From the ancient times, due to the lack of physical barrier and the absence of proper nation states, there was influx as well as outflux of people of different ethnicity.So in the modern times, South asian countries present a picture of hetrogenous societies.Also, all of these are developing countries and are less tolerant in terms of religion, giving frequent rise to ethnic conflicts.

For example, conflicts between muslims and hindus in India, shia-sunni muslim conflict in Pakistan, etc.Unlike European countries and like West Asia , South Asia failed to evolve as a security community.Govind Prakash I feel that you have given general points(Intro) as a answer.You can add some points regarding Mynamar and Bangladesh ethinic conflicts as well.RV Sharing a common cultural bond due to the colonial period the countries of South Asia had always amassed great pride on accounts of their multi-ethnic diversity.

The Rohingyar Muslims – Buddhist conflict in Myanmar , Uighur violence in Xinjiang , Muslim killings in the heart of Colombo and Tamil protests show the transformed boiling pot of ethnic conflicts the region has become.On many accounts it is due to the rising aspirations of the minorities to restructure the social , political and economic division of power in the respective countries.However the arsonists of democratic principles have taken refuge behind majoritarianism and have subjected them to subjugation through violence , flouting of agreements and constitutional norms thereby aggravating the situation.Evika tushar 2)Examine the role of the Finance ministry of the Union government in designing and implementing monetary and fiscal policies.Fiscal policies, which deal with the subjects of expenditure and taxation, are designed and implemented by the Ministry of Finance.

These include tax policy, expenditure policy, disinvestment policy and management of public debt and surplus.One of the important functions of the Finance ministry is to preapre an Annual Financial Statement (Union Budget) and place it before the parliament.The budget contains the estimated revenues and expenditures for the given financial year.It contains a broad blueprint of the welfare and developmemt schemes of the government.It also presents demand for grants for each ministry.

Another important aspect of fisal policy deals with tax management.The finance ministry is responsible for designing and implementing tax policies and also initiating reforms.The propoasal for Direct tax Code and Goods and Service Tax(GST) are recent proposals for tax reforms.Thirdly, finance ministry has to manage public debt and also ensure that the fiscal deficit remains in acceptable limits.The enactment of Fiscal Responsibility and Budget Management Act, 2003 is a step in this regard.

Fourthly, the fisal policy also includes disinvestment policy of the government.The Department of Disinvestment in Finance Ministry plans disinvestment strategy for the various public sector units.The formation of National Investment Fund was a part of the new Disinvestment Policy.Lastly, thought the monetary policies are framed by RBI, Finance ministry has an indirect impact on them.The fiscal policies, may have impact on inflation and foreign reserves of the country.

Hence, the fiscal policies are framed keeping the monetary policy in mind.My friend you are claiming in the last line that they are basic and can be done swiftly… if that is the case then the essence of radical character does not come into question….You should have supported by giving 1 or 2 ideas like they could be implemented gradually or something like [email protected] vicky ok…i will look into it…thank you for pointing out.

there is political inertia on fixed tenure and other measures.politicians donot want to lose their clout over the bureaucracy.They want bureaucracy to be mere a cog in their hands.Anjali Motghare Sahil Radical one meaning is far beyond norm, I think In this question this meaning is used.

Insights please clear it and my other question is what point exactly have to include in examine type question.

tushar 1) “The recommendations of the second ARC on reforming the civil service are radical yet implementable”.The second ARC suggested certain recommendations for the reform of civil services in India and bring efficiency in the personnel.The recommendations deal with various aspects like entrance exams, capacity building, performance management, legal framework defining service conditions etc.Most of these recommendations pose serious challenge to the status quo existing currently and thus have been termed radical by some.

It gives special attention to training both at the time of induction as well as during the time of promotion.It recommends that the completion of training be made compulsory before granting of promotion.Lack of training has been a major reason for sub standard performance by a lot of civil servants in the past.The ARC also recommends changes in performance review and calls for two reviews after 14 and 20 years of service.Those civil servants who are found to be unfit after 20 years will be forced to quit.

This step though quite radical ensures that the civil servants remain productive throughout their service.this approach has been in practice in most of the MNCs and thus is conveniently implementable.The recommendation of Central Civil Services Authority is also a very novel step.It deals with assigning domain to the civil servants based on their potential and aptitude and also take care of the transfer and tenure.This is a step to reduce politicization of bureacracy and provide sucrity of tenure to the civil servants.

The recommendations suggested by the ARC are certainly radical as they try to bring fundamental changes to an already established system.Any reform trying to change the existing framework will be termed as radical.However, the changing global conditions have made various countries like UK, New Zealand, USA to make changes in their bureaucracy to suit the existing needs.India also needs to make required modifications.What is required is a strong political will.

tushar 1) “The recommendations of the second ARC on reforming the civil service are radical yet implementable”.Ans- Second ARC has given several recommendations for improvement in the civil services.These recommendations cover many dimensions ranging from recruitment, training, deputations to performance appraisals.Some of them are radical in nature, application of which will invite big changes in the service.

The viability of some of them have been discussed under- First is the change in eligibility criteria for the CSE.Either the student has to be graduate from proposed NIPA or he/she should have done a ‘bridge course’ after doing graduation in other disciplines.This will augment the competition- first for admission in NIPA & then for CSE.But the clause of scholarship & eligibility for all public & private sector jobs increases its applicability.Second is the change in age-limit & number of attempts.

While such a radical change may invite protests from older aspirants, yet it will bring efficiency in the whole process by reducing the number of repeaters & giving chances to new aspirants.Third is the creation of central civil services authority.It will be responsible for appraisal, deputations of senior civil servants & will also submit annual report to parliament.It will help in reducing the political interference in senior bureaucracy.By clearly specifying the constitution of authority, it will be transparent.

These & many other recommendations are vying for big changes in the system which can be said as radical but as far as their implement-ability is concerned, there seems no reason to reject them.Neither it requires huge investments nor it requires complete overhaul of system.Gradual changes will take a long time to show their effect & civil services being the life line of indian political system can’t afford the luxury of such sluggishness.2)Examine the role of the Finance ministry of the Union government in designing and implementing monetary and fiscal policies.Ans- Under government of India, ministry of finance holds many important responsibilities of budgeting, financial policy making, managing financial institutions etc.The financial policy making can broadly be classified into two heads- fiscal & monetary policy formulation.Fiscal policy making is concerned with the methods government adopts to control & regulate the financial position of the country.This is achieved by the ministry using its departments- Deptt.

Apart from these, a comparatively new deptt.

of disinvestment which regulates the disinvestment of PSUs thereby controlling financial resources of India.DoEF is responsible for budget making & hence it becomes the most important organ of ministry which helps in fiscal policy formulation.Using budget, ministry exercises its control on the financial resources of from that, formulating macroeconomic policies, regulating currency & monitoring of external resources lies under its control too.& the revenues recieved by it are monitored by DoE & DoR.

Monetary policy formulation is connected to the deptt.It looks after banking & other financial services like pension, insurance etc.But moentary policy formulation can’t be attributed to fin.Monetary policy is, in fact, defined as to be done by the central bank.It is done using control of repo rate, reverse repo rate, bank rate etc which remains out of purview of ministry.So, as a conclusion we can say that ministry plays very important role in formulation of fiscal policies, but it has almost no role to play as far as monetary policy is concerned which makes our financial system more robust & efficient.(100 words) South Asia consists of mainly India,Bangladesh,Sri Lanka,Pakistan,Nepal,Afganistan.Almost all these nations are currently facing acute Ethnic of conflicts includes historic factors,political aspirations,development factors,ethnicity conflicts have put enormous challenges in front of almost all the ruling governments in South Asia.In India,Hindu-Muslim ethnics conflicts is the most critical has its roots in historical -Sikh conflicts took origin in 1980s and led to widespread are other ethnic conflicts based on language, castes prevalent in many parts of India .In Sri-Lanka,Tamilian issue is world dominated northern region had seen an armed struggle against the Government which continued for nearly 3 Pakistan,inter tribal,Shia-Sunni &pathan-mujahir conflicts dominates the ethnic last few years,minority Shia population has been the main target of bomb attacks in Bangladesh ,there have been incidents of conflicts between begali speaking population and indigenous communities including Chakma,marma,tripua Nepal the he Madhesi and Pahade communities have often been involved in communal tensions fueled by ethnic-based political groups vipul Examine the role of the Finance ministry of the Union government in designing and implementing monetary and fiscal policies.Fiscal policy covers the taxation & expenditure related decisions while the Monetary policy deals with the supply of money in an economy & the rate of lly in India,Government (Ministry of Finance) deals with the fiscal policy and central bank (RBI) deals with the monetary an economy,Fiscal & monetary policy influences each policy consists of several measures like tax policy,expenditure policy,investment or divestment policies& debt management.

Ministry of finance consists of five of each department in designing & implementing the fiscal policies is as under: Department of Economic affairs DOEA undertakes the responsibility of foreign exchange management,foreign aid and investments,preparation of budget & controls ofinstruments of domestic ment also undertakes the administration of FRBMA to restrict the overall fiscal deficit & government debt to a manageable level.Department of Revenue CBDT (Central Board of Direct Taxes) is a Division of the Ministry which deals with matters relating to levy and collection of direct taxes.CBEC (Central borard of excise and customs)formulates the policies concerning levy and collection of Customs & Central Excise duties and Service Tax etc.Department of expenditure DOE oversees the expenditures in the central government and the other matters connected with the state undertakes the release of central assistance to state annual plans & Other grants approved by Finance also appraises and approves the investment/expenditure proposals of central ministries.Department of divestment DOD deals with all matters related to divestment of central government equity from ment also forms policies in regards to the utilization of Funds which are channelized in to National Investment Fund.

PB @Sahil, I think that enumeration is fine as long as you are sticking to what is asked in the question in each of the enumerated points.PB PB South Asia, which is one of the most heterogeneous region in the world is also is the place of violent Ethnic Conflicts.In India, these violent conflicts are numerous.Starting from the Hindu Muslim conflicts in the Pre-Independence period resulting in Communal riots is perhaps the most bloodies example of the conflicts.Post Independence the Bodoland (Assam) conflict, Gorkhaland Conflict(West Bengal) , Sikkim (to fight against the Chogyal) , the Sikh terrorism to make Punjab a separate autonomous state and the recent example of Telangana movement to create a separate state for Telnagana people are few examples.

Similarly in China, the Muslim dominated Xinxiang province, the protest to fight for the rights often leads to fight against Han Community of China which occupies the important positions in the Govt.Very similar is the case in the Myanmar where Rohingya Muslims are fighting against the Buddhists govt to get the autonomy.In Sri Lanka, where the majority population of Sinhalese dominated over the Tamils, to fight for the rights of the Tamil minority and to get the autonomy, the violent conflicts between Sinhalese dominated govt and LTTE is another example of the numerous ethnic conflicts of South Asia.PB Shweta 2)Examine the role of the Finance ministry of the Union government in designing and implementing monetary and fiscal policies For an economy to sustain a sound and stable growth it is imperative to have clearly articulated macroeconomic policy framework.In India the task is entrusted to the Ministry of Finance which lays down the broad contours of the fiscal policy while the monetary policy is mainly the handiwork of India’s Central bank, RBI.

Fiscal policy, for that matter, deals with the aspects of revenue generation and expenditure and therefore is responsible for the debt/surplus situation of a Economic affairs department in the ministry is the nodal agency for formulation of fiscal policy keeping in view the changing domestic and international scenario.Its primary task is the preparation of Annual Union budget which enunciates the sources of internal revenue (taxation programme, maket borowings, mobilisation of small savings) and heads of expenditure in a given year.It also looks after the functioning of capital markets, stock exchanges and raising of external resources via concessional loans and ODA and debt/surplus departments of revenue and expenditure are responsible for implementation of these policies while department of disinvestment deals with the investment/disinvestment strategies.Monetary policy on the other hand deals with the supply of money and credit formulation in an economy.RBI while laying down monetary policy works hand-in-hand with the ministry of finance, but is more or less independent in its functioning.

It focusses on achievement of growth with stability while ensuring stable supply of credit, control on inflation and check on currency volatility.It is the insulation of monetary policy from the political influence/ government which ensures functioning of a stable n strong banking system in the country.Shweta Besides having a long and shared history of colonial domination, ethnically diverse societies and under-developed economies, most of the South Asian counties have also had instances of inter-ethnic conflicts plaguing their social conflicts have often taken the form of genocidal wars, mass killings, rapes, tortures, violent clashes, communal riots etc.The causes of conflict are varied and include alleged encroachment over rights and resources of a minority community by the majority, religious intolerance, differences in economic status of the two groups.Often the differences have been perpetuated exploited by the political classes for electoral gains.

The Eelam war (Tamils vs Sinhalese) in Sri Lanka, Sunni-Shia clashes in Pakistan, Buddhist-Muslims clashes in India, Bangladesh, Hindu-Muslim conflicts in India taken huge toll of lives in these countries over decades.Besides loss of human resources, the clashes also act as a drain on economic resources of the counties and pose a hindrance to the sound development of their economies.Shweta 3) Ethnic conflicts in South Asia.Besides having a long and shared history of colonial domination, ethnically diverse societies and under-developed economies, most of the South Asian counties have also had instances of inter-ethnic conflicts plaguing their social conflicts have often taken the form of genocidal wars, mass killings, rapes, tortures, violent clashes, communal riots etc.

The causes of conflict are varied and include alleged encroachment over rights and resources of a minority community by the majority, religious intolerance, differences in economic status of the two groups.

Often the differences have been perpetuated exploited by the political classes for electoral gains.The Eelam war (Tamils vs Sinhalese) in Sri Lanka, Sunni-Shia clashes in Pakistan, Buddhist-Muslims clashes in India, Bangladesh, Hindu-Muslim conflicts in India taken huge toll of lives in these countries over decades.Besides loss of human resources, the clashes also act as a drain on economic resources of the counties and pose a hindrance to the sound development of their economies.lrlevin 3) Ethnic conflicts in South Asia.(100 words) Ethnic conflicts, today have become an intrinsic phenomenon in multi-ethnic regions.

South Asia, being one among them is not devoid of it.The major reasons for such conflicts are declining mutual tolerance among people, increasing socio-economic and political aspirations, politicization of ethnicity, sharpening ethnic consciousness, etc.Recently such conflicts popped out as Rohingya Muslim-Buddhist conflict in Bangladesh and Myanmar, Bodos-Muslims conflict in Assam, Tamil-Sinhala conflict and Muslim-Buddhist conflict in Srilanka, Shia-Sunni conflict in Pakistan, etc.Ethnic conflicts inherently are detrimental to social fabric of a state.Therefore, there is an urgent need to avoid such conflicts through policy interventions, inducing cooperation and tolerance, providing distributive justice and bring awareness among people.

phani 2)Examine the role of the Finance ministry of the Union government in designing and implementing monetary and fiscal policie The finance ministry at the center is entrusted with the task of supervising the overall financial health of the country as a whole.In doing so, it draws its powers from the FRBM act.There are two very important policies which govern the financial soundness of any country .The mismanagement of the either of the two will lead to a precarious situation which may hinder growth and development and infuse negative investor sentiment in an economy.

Monetary policy is determined by RBI, basically concerned with the money flow in the economy and in reigning in inflation by making necessary adjustments using its liquidity adjustment tools like the repo rate , reverse repo rate , MSF , CRR etc.the finance ministry can only ask the RBI to take a necessary policy decision but can’t dictate the terms.The finance ministry’s main prerogative is to form a sound fiscal policy to deal with the receipts of money through various taxes and levies and allocating them under the head of expenditures both revenue and capital according to the policies of the government on the day by assessing the overall scenario of the economy.Balance of receipts and expenditures will lead to either deficit or surplus.How to manage the deficit or utilize the surplus are all decisions taken under the aegis of the finance ministry.

The FRBM act has made it the nodal agency and put some restrictions on the current account deficit figures as to inculcate a good financial managing culture.Though the two policies look different, they are the twin tires on which the economy must move.In a developing country like india , growth is always associated with inflation both must go in a synchronous way to reach a stable and equitable distribution of resources 3) Ethnic conflicts in South Asia.Ethnicity is the feeling of being different , either culturally , socially and a distinctiveness a group of people feel than the majority.South asia is a museum of various cultures and ethnicities.

One of the main reasons for the backwardness of SA is the ongoing conflict of interests among various groups inhabiting a common territory.Be it hindu-muslim-christian conflicts,nagas and kukis revolts, bodos,gorkhas emancipation and revolts for political p0wer and in india , rohingya muslims issues in china and mayanmar., Sinhala and tamil conflicts in sri lanka, conflicts in Philippines among various groups , revolts of balooch groups in Pakistan , issues among the thai and combodians regarding the angorvat temple all are various socio political conflicts plaguing south asia which have to be dealt with firmly to see SA as an emerging leader on the world map.GUDDU Ethnic conflicts in South Asia The nations in South asia represent the colonial legacy as the boundaries created are not natural and not on the basis of choice of the indigenous people rather has been created for perpetuation of colonialism, despite a common heritage and cultural assimilation the colonial policies of divide and rule has led to the ethnic conflicts in the region.The introduction of mass democracies in the parochial societies has added fuel to the fire.

The country of Pakistan and Sri lanka has been the worst sufferers of the ethnic conflicts.The ethnic conflicts in contemporary time is a fallout of backwardness of the society, preferential policies of state and domination of one section over the rest.abhishek 3) Intertropical Convergence Zone and Monsoon *Intertropical convergence zone is the zone of conversion of the northeastern and southeastern tradewinds in a narrow zone near the equator ITCZ depending upon the location of the sun fluctuates above and below the fluctuation is more pronounced over land than over is a zone of calmness over the seas and has been historically named as doldrums by the ancient sailors.Monsoon is the seasonal reversal of wind direction across the equator which cause torrential rains and thunderstroms in the south asian the end of winter in the northern hemisphere the ITCZ has a tendency to shift northwards from the equator,this inturn causes the reversal of southeast trade winds direction which when crosses the equator starts flowing southwest because of the earth’s coriolis SW trade wind picks up heavy misture while flowing over the indian ocean and sheds them as Monsoon In indian sub continent and parts of south process continues till ITCZ shifts back southwards To the equator and beyond.3) Intertropical Convergence Zone and Monsoon.

Ans- ITCZ can be defined as the region of convergence of north-east & south-east trade winds.This zone, that encircles the whole earth nearby the equator, changes its position throughout the year.While in summers, it shifts northward, whereas in winters, it shifts southward.As far as India is concerned, position of ITCZ lies along northern India while in winter, it shifts towards Indian ocean.Since, the monsoonal winds move toward the convergence point , this changing position of ITCZ is responsible for the monsoonal reversals.

Hence, in summer, it flows toward north India over rajasthan from Ocean, while in winters, the winds blow toward the convergence point over the Indian ocean.RV 3) Intertropical Convergence Zone and Monsoon.(100 words) The Intertropical Convergence Zone(ITCZ) is the region where the North East Trade Winds and the South East Trade Winds converge at the the apparent migration of the sun the ITCZ shifts to the north or south.As per Flohn’s concept there is an exceptional bend of ITCZ over Indian landmass in the high sun season .Due to this shift the South East moisture lade trade winds of the southern hemisphere cross over the equator and under the influence of Coriolis force between 40-60 0 E longitude are deflected to the right into the Indian landmass as South West monsoons.

This exceptional bend further acts as the boundary for the North East Trade Winds and the Sub tropical Jet and facilitates the genesis of the Tropical Easterly Jet which helps in the movement of the monsoons.RV 1) Describe the salient features of Basohli and Kangra schools of art and briefly explain the influences of other art forms on these schools.Basholi Paintings are considered to be the first school of the Pahari (Miniature) Paintings which later evolved into a more profilic Kangra School of Painting.Both these schools originated at the foothills of the Himalayas in Jammu & Kashmir and Himachal Pradesh depict the religious beliefs, poetry , music and are deeply rooted in the feelings and experiences of the hillmen .

The Basholi School has a distinctive style of using 2-Dimesnsional domain to avail greater space for detail.

Love being the main theme of these paintings these are associated with vigorous , bold and imaginative artistic style with a vigorous use of primary colours.It has a distinctive , stylized facial construct with huge eyes and the use of raised drops of white paint to depict jewellery and beetle wings for emeralds in the paintings.The Guler School is considered to be the birthplace of Kangra paintings in many ways.The effect of the Bhakti movement and Jayadev’s Gita Govind established the theme of “ shringar” dealing with the love story of Radha Krishna at the heart of this school.The feminine figures are artistically and gracefully depicted in these paintings which celebrate the themes of life and love.

The School has a distinctive style of using many shades of primary colours especially green to depict great sceneries , nocturnal scenes with elabaorate colours are made from vegetable and mineral extracts.Both these schools are greatly influenced by the Rajput School of paintings as Rajputs were the main patrons and these paintings are more of aristocratic art rather than folk art.This has had its effect with the lack of 3 dimensional depictions and absence of light and shadow effects in these paintings.lakshmi prasanna “The essence of our struggle for freedom was the unleashing of a liberating force in India.This force did not even affect the frontier people in one of the most important tribal areas”.

This was the statement made by Nehru regarding tribal inhabits in north east frontiers.Intension is to emphasis the impact of freedom struggle in raising national consciousness.As it failed to feel them as part of India and they are one among the India’s ethnic cultures.Before independence most of the north eastern part was under British control and they were undeveloped.

It lost its connection with rest of India.People residing there were not much knowing about the freedom struggle.They use to hear about the rumors of freedom struggle and react in either ways that is positive and negative because they lack in knowledge that they are also Indians.After independence many Christian missionaries encouraged them in demanding separate nationality showing their cultural differences.But missionary’s tactics were successfully thrown out by the national leaders and made it part of India named the area as north east frontier agency.

But still national consciousness was not observed due to language hurdles, ethnic difference, lack of connection with rest of India where food is supplied only through air, and illiteracy.Nehru’s influence provided them sixth schedule of india for preserving their culture and to remove people’s fears about extinction of their culture.The area was made an autonomous body administered by separate administrators with help of tribal commissions.Established schools, constructed roads for communication and tried to resolve all their problems for development.Steps like giving education in their tribal languages by using davanagari script are advisable.

Better administration and communication is needed to encourage them to develop in their own lines.Environment to make bonds between them and other parts of India is urgent to make them psychologically Indians.vipul 2) The essence of our struggle for freedom was the unleashing of a liberating force in India.This force did not even affect the frontier people in one of the most important tribal areas”.Nehru made the above statement when question of North –easte front’s integration in to the Union of India was brought in to discussion after the Independence.North eastern front was as diverse as whole of India put together.Majority of population in these regions were Tribals.

They were hundreds of groups who spoke different languages & belonged to different cultural group.What put them apart from rest of the country’s tribal population was their relatively high degree of isolation over a long period.Under British rule, these areas were given special administrative status.British did not affect the socio-political structure & polices were formed to keep the non-tribal people from away from these regions.While British let the middle men , money lenders, non tribals etc.

penetrate the tribal areas in rest of the India, their approach was totally different in NE India.British allowed Christian missionaries to enter these areas and open schools, churches & hospitals.Missionaries not only influenced the culture of local population in these regions but also kept the nationalist influence out of tribal area.Concept of India as ‘nation’ evolved during the phases of struggle for freedom.Struggle brought people from different regions, caste & class together to fight a common enemy, British Imperialism.

But spirit of freedom struggle was not successful to bring the north east people under its influence.Tribals in north east could never experience the feeling of India as a nation.Only outsiders they had contacted over a course of time were British officials or missionaries workers.Degree of Isolation was the reason that Indian government took special measure when integrating north east front in Indian union.

Majority of development policies were formed without disturbing the socio-cultural pattern in this region.

Constitution’s sixth schedule also provided special autonomy in legislative &judicial matters to the regional councils & autonomous districts.3) Intertropical Convergence Zone and Monsoon.(100 words) ITCZ are the zones near equator where trade winds flowing from south west direction in Southern continent & trade winds from north east direction in northern continent converges.This Zone is also known as doldrums due to the absence of horizontal movement of air.Normally, Inter tropical zones are found on both sides of equator from 5 degree north to 5 degree south.

But position of ITCZ is not permanent & It keeps changing throughout the year depending on land & ocean’s surface condition.Monsoon is the seasonal change in directions of winds.Monsoon patterns are found in different regions of the world like western Africa, Asia and Australia.Seasonal winds flowing from Bay of Bengal & Arabian Sea bring heavy rainfall in Indian subcontinent with in a span of one month (June-July).These seasonal winds are known as south western monsoon in India.

Though the Monsoon is linked to the rains but there are dry phases too during monsoon period.Nearly 60 percent of India agriculture land is rain-fed.Considering monsoon’s influence on agriculture sector which employs nearly 50 % of country’s population, Monsoon are sometime referred as real Finance minister of India SREEJESH 3) Inter-tropical Convergence Zone And Monsoons.The North-Easterly and South-Easterly trade winds converge in a zone around Equator known as Inter-tropical Convergence summer season these ITCZ moves towards Tropic of Cancer and extends further towards the same time intense heating of land masses takes place all over intense heating of land mass and movement of ITCZ creates a low pressure area over South-Easterly winds under “coriolis” effect deflects South-West and along with it carry loads of moisture and starts flowing towards these low pressure winds are known as “Monsoon winds” and are responsible for bringing rainfall in South-East Asia and particularly in our country.During winters, the ITCZ moves towards south of Equator intense cooling of land masses results in high pressure area and North-East winds starts blowing over the land creating dry conditions in the sub-continent.

Shubhangi “The essence of our struggle for freedom was the unleashing of a liberating force in India.This force did not even affect the frontier people in one of the most important tribal areas”.(Writing through mobile, so please forgive spelling mistakes if any.) Indian freedom struggle was a mass movement to liberate India from the exploitative rule of British.

Liberating force for this came from various ideological basis such as revolutionary nationalism, Gandhin non violence,satyagrah, swaraj and Nehruvian socialism.Indian National Congress was the main organ to unleash this liberating force to masses to ensure their wider participation.But despite the presence of Indian national movement in India and abroad, it failed to mainstream the tribal people of North East india.There were several reasons for such failure.First, tribals of NE inhabited remote and isolated areas which were difficult to approach to ensure their participation.

Second, tribals of NE were different from rest of the country culturally and racially.Third, British initially followed the policy of non interference in tribal areas and introduced land reforms and infrastructure projects at later stage.So tribal people realised the exploitative nature of British very late.And last, even many Indians left no opportunity to exploit tribals of NE as moneylender and land encroachers.Due to twin exploitation- by British and by some greedy Indians, tribals remained against both.

Various tribal movements such as Garo movement, Kuki movement and Khasi movement not only aimed at british but also at greedy Indian zamindar and moneylenders.These tribal movements were never aimed at removing British rule but only to restore earlier social order as they failed to realise that the root cause of their exploitation was in British rule.And various liberating forces of independence including congress failed to develop this vision in tribal groups of North-East.Shubhangi RV The above given statement by Pandit Nehru establishes this notion of the segregation of the Tribal areas from the influence of the national movement.However the NorthEast stayed aloof of such developments due to non intrusive policies of the British .

No one but the missionaries were allowed to venture into these areas .For tribals in other regions their socio-political structure , their dependence on forests for their livelihood , their ancient practices of agriculture , were all destroyed once the market forces entered the other tribal regions and religious beliefs and superstitions were constantly being challenged by the non tribal communities they came in contact with .The missionaries in North East tried to influence their socio-religious beliefs and at the same time imparted anti-India feelings to the tribals and kept them cocooned away from the ensuing freedom struggle.The difficult terrain of the region also restricted the benefits of new modes of communication.At the same time modern education though limited along with the increased communications in rest of India through newspapers , railways brought in new rationalist , humanist and nationalist ideas to the people.

This made them realize root cause of their exploitation which was resisted through the various peasant and tribal struggles which progressively was streamlined into the national movement.Post Independence Nehru along with Elwin sought to end this isolation through Special provisions including the Sixth Schedule , establishment of Tribal Autonomous Regions , grating of special powers to President and Governor to safeguard the tribal interests , reservation in the administrative and political domain.However the region has a long history of secessionist movements which have continued unabated to the present day and in light of these the recent amendments like PESA act, Skill Development Programme aim to further empower the people at the grass roots level to terminate the problem once and for all.Hasan 2-The essence of our struggle for freedom was the unleashing of a liberating force in India.This force did not even affect the frontier people in one of the most important tribal areas”.

Indian freedom struggle was one of the most important and unique freedom forefathers who have sacrificed for us to make this country abode of freedom of conscience,human rights and an example of development which was not there at the time of British m struggle was started with great zeal in the year 1857 and even before that and every community have sacrifice their beloved sons and daughters .But we are not able to develop the Ramrajya or Utopian system of governance which our forefathers have planned for are not able to create equality and inclusive development.Because of many reasons areas which were away from center of industries remained ,specially tribals who have their own culture and language could not come up from the vicious cycle of poverty…Jharkhand,Orissa,chattishgarh,west east ares are example of only in terms of development of industry but also in education,employment and freedom of thoughts .

Poverty backwardness,superstitions,child labour,female infanticide,child marriage have engulfed them.

Result of all this has made people to respond not rationally for their of violent movement like naxalism and maoist is result of this lack of this development.But the picture is not gloomy still there is hope .As the present rate of growth causing to send its fruits in these ares as can hope the in near future we ll be able to fulfill desire of our forefathers.3) Intertropical Convergence Zone and Monsoon India is a country dependent on monsoon for agricullture.Monsoon in itself a complex system of seasonal winds.

Intertropical convergence zone is one of the factor responsible for the reversal of direction of winds.Intertropical convergence zone is low pressure area or the month of june this low pressure area developed near Tibetan pleateau.So wind Blows from both side to converge in this trough .When winds blows from sea to land it picks moisture .Monsoon winds on reaching Indian territories divide itself into two parts one is of Arabian sea branch and other is of gulf of Bengal two monsoon ‘s branch cause heavy rainfall in India from June to september.India agriculture is heavily dependent on this monsoon Evika 1)Describe the salient features of Basohli and Kangra schools of art and briefly explain the influences of other art forms on these schools.Basohli and Kangra schools of art are famous for their miniature style.The former was the first school of Pahari paintings, which later developed into Kangra School by mid 18th century.Distinctive features of Basohli are the enthusiastic use of primary colors and an unusual facial formula that is oval in shape with a receding forehead and large expressive eyes like lotus petals.

Some paintings have a single subject placed separately into a square frame that depicts an understanding of space sense.The school developed under Raja Kripal Pal.Kangra School gives attention to details and is characterized by convoluted landscape filled with blossoming plants, creepers, leafless trees and rivulets.The paintings are huge with countless figures showing diversity of subject matter.

They use fresh and cool colors made of mineral and vegetable extracts.With the eclipse of Mughal art during Aurangzeb’s rule, Rajput kings sheltered artists from Mughal court and hence these paintings are an amalgamation of Rajput and Mughal paintings.The male and female costumes, in particular, reflect Mughal style.They also have an influence of Rajasthani paintings especially in those expressing different moods of Radha-Krishna.Evika 2)“The essence of our struggle for freedom was the unleashing of a liberating force in India.

This force did not even affect the frontier people in one of the most important tribal areas”.Due to the geographical isolation of the North-East region, there is an absence of its cultural and psychological integration with the mainland India.Even today many sections of population struggle for their freedom from India.Jawaharlal Nehru had tried to emphasize this seclusion and isolation of the NE through the above lines.The liberating force that helped in our independence could not solve the economic problems of NE and they still remain backward inspite of having abundant natural resources.The British had drawn an Inner Line beyond which only missionaries were allowed to travel.This contributed to the psychological separateness of the tribal.They encouraged tea plantations at the cost of other industries.

Post independence, communications were disrupted when the Chittagong port was handed over to Pakistan.There is a lack of market accessibility, labour mobility, migration related issues, social exclusion and concentration of industries in certain parts of Assam.There have been frequent clashes in the region and AFSPA only shows the government’s inability to solve the problem with political measures.However, in the last 3 years, due to frequent Chinese incursions, all-weather roads are being constructed in the region.ASIDE scheme has been launched for providing central assistance to develop infrastructure facilities.

NERLP project has been started with an objective to improve the livelihood, particularly of women, unemployed youth and disadvantaged sections of NE region.Evika Insights, with reference to your enlightening ‘tips for writing better answers in UPSC’ article, does ‘comment ‘mean giving a one sided view on the topic? So is the last paragraph i wrote not required? Evika, Comment doesn’t mean one sided opinion or a view – it depends on the nature of question.In the above question, you can take only one sided opinion for which you get plenty of evidences to strengthen your arguments.The final paragraph, in my opinion, is not relevant to the question.The context of the statement (given by Nehru) is the process of consolidation of India as a nation immediately after the independence.

So, you should comment on how and why NE remained isolated because of British policies in spite of nationwide opinion against the British rule.(check page 142, India Since Independence – Bipan Chandra) 2)“The essence of our struggle for freedom was the unleashing of a liberating force in India.This force did not even affect the frontier people in one of the most important tribal areas”.India’s freedom struggle was a mass movt.

Every class of society and every region contributed and strengthen the movement.But few regions of British India and its tribal population was out of that movt.They are tribal population of N-E India.But the failure to join the mass movt was not from their side.It was the failure of circumstances prevailing I British India and The failure of our nationalist leadership.

British policy towards N-E tribal population was of noninterference in their matter by other population.On the other hand , few Indian zamindars also did not loose the opportunity to exploit them.For them, there was no difference between British and Indian elite class.

They could not understand the root cause of their plight was British imperialism.Whatever movt they initiated like Garo, Kuki were against British as well as Indian zamindars.They were racially and ethnically different from Indians.They were also in distance from main stream population.These factors keep aloof the nationalist leaders from those population.

Nationalism could not spread among them.They could not be part of India as a nation.Their neutrality in Indian freedom struggle still felt when few ethnic groups show their tendency to go out of India.has given those regions special status in schedule six but at the same time has taken repressive measures to curb anti-Indian tendency.

could not make them understand they are the part of India, they are also Indian.vipul Describe the salient features of Basohli and Kangra schools of art and briefly explain the influences of other art forms on these schools.Basholi and Kangra school of painting belong to Pahari school of painting.

Pahari school of painting took its origin in Himalayan style of painting covered the regions of present day Jammu & kashmir,Himachal & Uttrakhand.Basholi is located in Jammu and place was known for its palaces and miniature painting of Basholi style.Basholi is considered as first school of Pahari style of painting.Main features of Basholi style are: Use of striking color Red borders,bold lines & rich symbols Large expressive eyes Most popular themes of painting come from Gita Govinda,Ragamala,Rasmanjari Kangra school of painting was evolved in first half of 18th is more evolved form of Basholi style of paintings.Kashmiri painters trained in Mughal art took shelter in court of Raja of Guler during this painters got influenced by the local artist & surrounding atmosphere of hills and adopted a unique style of painting.

Main features of Kangra style are: Miniature painting Depiction of springs ,rivers,trees,birds,landscapes Beautiful depiction of female figures Use of natural colours Influences from other art forms Developed in 18th centuries,Pahari school of painting is considered as legacy of Rajasthani is a faint influence of Mughal painting as ex.Hindu characters in paintings have been shown in Mughal costumes Parameters used to depict the sentiments are same as in Rajasthani style Use of colours and folk art was predominant in Basholi style like the Mewar style.Themes like Radha-Krishna,Gita Govinda etc was also prevalent in Rajasthani style of painting use of colors and beautiful depiction of female figures particularly noticeable in the Kangra style was same as in Bundi and Kishangarh styles Manish 3) Intertropical convergence zone and monsoon Near the equator (5 degree N to 5 degree S), warm air rises and colder air moves beneath it.As the warm air rises it forms huge clouds and thunderstorms over the ocean, an area called ITCZ.It is the zone along which trade wind systems of northern and southern hemispheres.

The location of ITCZ zone greatly affect the rainfall in many equatorial nations, resulting in wet and dry sessions as against cold and warm session of higher altitude.The movement of ITCZ over ocean is constrained by the distribution of the ocean temperatures but over land is movers back and forth across the equator following sun’s zenith point During northern summer, ITCZ moved northwards and asian continent is warmer than adjacent ocean.Thus warm continental air rises and air is drawn from ocean towards land.This is the time of southwest monsoon (May to Sept.The reverse is true during northern winter when the air flow is from land to the ocean.In summary, location of ITCZ affects the precipitation in equatorial regions and influence the monsoon winds of nearby latitudes (30N to 30S) 2)“The essence of our struggle for freedom was the unleashing of a liberating force in India.This force did not even affect the frontier people in one of the most important tribal areas”.Jawaharlal Nehru just after India achieved independence to emphasize on the importance of bringing frontier people of tribal areas into the mainstream of indian life.As far as this statement is concerned, the declaration of essence of freedom struggle as the unleashing of a liberating force is a bit overgeneralization.During freedom struggle, a number of forces were working in India & each of them had their own different motive.While congress initially wanted political sovereignity which, later on, turned to purna swaraj.

Muslim league, on the other hand, was only focussed on the muslim empowerment & wanted to achieve this by any means.

Liberation of muslims was their only aim.Princely states can be kept out of this purview, since they were busy in saving their provinces only.The group of english educated Indians & businessmen wanted british dominion as they were enjoying it.Peasants & laborers were interested only in the end to exploitation.Eventually they realised that it can be achieved only through Swaraj.

So, it would not be totally right to call this a liberating force.Another point stated is that frontier tribal people were totally unaffected by the freedom struggle.This statement is true for some of the tribal areas but can’t be generalized to all of them.A number of uprisings did happen in tribal areas.Santhal uprising, Koli uprising, Bhil uprising, Pagal panthis & Faraizi’s revolts etc.

Most of them were against zamindars & oppressive policies.Being only localised in nature, they failed to make any substantial changes.

Daily answer writing challenge insights

Their aim was liberation from oppression, not british rule.As far as other tribes are concerned, they were totally unaware of national affairs.

Britishers also ignored them due living in difficult terrains, not so productive for economy, added burden on administration etc This work has started at “Dunărea de Jos” University of GalaŃi, Romania, following the preoccupation for wind energy conversion research area of Professor Emil CEANGĂ. I thank him for accepting the scientific supervision of this work from the moment he directed my activity towards the problems concerning wind turbines..Britishers also ignored them due living in difficult terrains, not so productive for economy, added burden on administration etc.

Shubham 1) What were the proposals of the Cabinet Mission? Analyze the reactions of the Congress and the League to the proposals.Answer- As the Congress and the Laegue could not come to any agreement on the fundamental issue of the unity or patition of India, the Cabinet mission was send to India to seek in association with the Viceroy an agreement with Indian Leaders of the principles and procedures realting to the constitutional issues Need to buy an dissertation energy conversion technology Harvard Academic American Proofreading.Answer- As the Congress and the Laegue could not come to any agreement on the fundamental issue of the unity or patition of India, the Cabinet mission was send to India to seek in association with the Viceroy an agreement with Indian Leaders of the principles and procedures realting to the constitutional issues.Firstly, they rejected the Muslim League’s demand for Pakistan on various grounds.The establishment of Pakistan would not solve the problem of communal minorities yunclillos.com/report/who-can-help-me-write-a-astronomy-report-university-turabian-3-days-confidentially.

The establishment of Pakistan would not solve the problem of communal minorities.

Also, disintegrating the transportation, postal and telegraph systems and dividing the armed forces of India would be injurious.So the mission suggested that there should be one central government covering atleast some specified subjects.The part of the proposals concerned with province-wise grouping was interpreted differently.Muslim League took the compulsory grouping of the provinces to be the corner-stone of the whole edifice of these proposals and would not even think of a compromise on that issue.Congress on the other hand thought that making of groups was optional for the provinces.

Finally, the mission decided in favour of the League’s view.With some reservations, the cabinet mission was accepted by Muslim League and Congress.However after the July 1946 elections which gave the Congress 209 seats in an assembly on 296, fearing that this will eclipse Muslim League in the assembly, a huff resolution was passed by Muslim League withdrawing its acceptance of the Cabinet Mission Plan and to register their annoyance they passed the Direct Action resolution for the achievement of Pakistan.You have used 1st para for telling the proposals.You have used ‘firstly’ but then further enumerations are missing.You have written the logic behind the proposals which was also not required.In 2nd para, you have analysed the stance of congress & ML toward one of the proposals.

Others proposals are totally missing which was explicitly asked in the question.In last para, as a conclusion you have told about the fate of proposal & reaction of ML but not analysed it.Itsmesagar 1) What were the proposals of the Cabinet Mission? Analyze the reactions of the Congress and the League to the proposals.Ans- Cabinet mission plan was proposed to achieve the dual objective of coming up with a mechanism for Independent India & of making an interim government.The proposals can be enumerated as- (1) No division of India & restriction on communal representation.

(2) Interim cabinet to be made of indians.(3) Constituent assembly to be formed on democratic principles.It is to be formed of the representatives from provinces & princely states.Finance, foreign affairs & communications.(5) All residuary powers in the hand of provinces & princely states.(6) Representation of provincial legislature to be divided into 3 different groups of provinces.

Congress accepted some of the proposals while rejected others.

While it accepted the proposals on constituent assembly, it rejected the proposals on weak centre & interim govt.This stance of congress can be understood from the fact that accepting a weak centre could have provided more powers to provinces & princely states.At that time, there was a lack of nationality in the provinces.This could culminate into the governance with a weak centre & may lead to division of India in future.was concerned, one of the three groups that were made, contained all the provinces which were demanded by muslim league to be formed as Pakistan.This could lead to division of India & Pakistan too & congress was totally against the division of India.The apprehensions of ML were that congress could change the plan after getting majority in constituent assembly.This can lead to compromise of muslim interests.

Moreover, demand of pakistan was rejected in the plan, which irritated the ML & they thought that the plan is not a pro-muslim plan.lakshmi prasanna What were the proposals of the Cabinet Mission? Analyze the reactions of the Congress and the League to the proposals.Cabinet mission plan is a composition of three cabinet ministers of England appointed by British government in1946 to negotiate with Indian leaders for transfer of powers to India.After coming to India it as given following recommendations: They rejected the proposal of dividing India and restricted communal representation.Two tiered federal plan for union of states of India and allowing center to interfere only in finance defense and communication.

It allotted all subjects except union subjects and all residuary powers to provincial states.All subjects and residuary powers to princely states.Proposed establishment of interim government where all members are Indians and viceroy with minimum influence.Constituting constitution assembly having elected members of 293 from British provinces and 93 members from princely states.For this they again divided British provinces into three sections recognized India’s right to cede from commonwealth.

Congress accepted the proposal of constitution assembly.But rejected interim government because disproportionate representation is given to Muslim league.They opposed weak center and dividing India into small states because they are against to decentralization and interested in strong center.Muslim league initially accepted the proposal but congress declared that it would change the proposal through its majority in constitution assembly, for these they rejected it.Later they gave strong move towards demanding Pakistan and declared it is the only course left to the Muslim league.

Fixed Direct action day on 1946 august 16 RV In the aftermath of the Quit India movement ,Cripps offer , revolt by the INA and the vacillating loyalty Indian Civil services the British were convinced that nothing short of transfer of power would pacify the Indians .Hence the Cabinet Mission Plan comprising of A.Alexander , Pethick Lawrence and Sir Stafford Cripps were designated the task of chalking out a plan for peaceful transition of power to India.The main proposals included rejection of the notion of Pakistan as it would have entailed administrative , economic and defence problems besides affecting regional ties and establishing a community based division which would be seen as a failure of British bureaucracy .

However they did suggest three grouping of states A denoting Hindu majority and B,C muslim dominated regions and regions were allowed to come out of groups after a period of 10 years.They suggested setting up of a Constituent Assembly through indirect elections by the provincial assembly members.The groups A,B, C were to have individual and joint sittings to frame the constitution .They sought to establish a three tier government at provincial ,state and Central level in the meantime defence , communications and external affairs would be vested in a common centre.Congress welcomed a unified India approach and accepted the Proposals with Nehru’s view that once the Constituent Assembly was formed they would be sovereign to make their own decisions.

They however objected to the compulsory grouping norm that went against provincial autonomy and also wanted elected members from the Princely states.The Muslim League envisioned the grouping of B and C as bedrock for future Pakistan but Nehru’s statements led them to withdraw their support and launch Direct Action with the slogan of “Lekar Rahenge Pakistan , Larke Lenge Pakistan” which led to unprecedented communal feelings and mass killings.vipul How did economic nationalism mirror the work of the early nationalist leadership in India? First generation of nationalleadership emerged during the freedom struggle.At that time, leadership was raising it voice against the alien rule.Until they were able to analyze the nature and purpose of alien (British) rule, it would have been difficult to frame their strategies to carry forward the national struggle.

Indian intellectuals initially believed that British prowess in Industries development could be utilized in rapid industrialization of India.But their hopes remain unrealized with the passage of time.At the same time, wide spread poverty among Indians caught the attention of national leaders.The believed that most important problem of Indian population was the economic one and that rapid industrialization was the one ray of hope to overcome poverty.National leaders like Dada Nairoji, G,K Gokhale, Surendra Nath Banerjee directly or indirectly blamed economic policies of British rule for the underdevelopment of country.

National leaders considered that import of handicraft, export of raw material, use of Indian soldiers in wars and expansion adventures, agriculture rent hike, railways, salaries & retirement benefits of British employes in india etc, as big burden on Indian economy.National leaders mentioned that India has been deprived of it capital & wealth to serve the non-Indian (British )interest.National leader’s earlier demands for the reform of administration and sharing the political power were based on their assumption to use this instrument for influencing the economic policies for the welfare of people.National leaders succeeded to make people conscious about the economic exploitation of British rule over a course of time.

RV The early nationalist realized that behind the visage of “benevolent rule” laid the grim reality of economic exploitation and subjugation in the realms of trade , finance and c colonialism of British progressed in three phases later identified by the nationalist which were : 1.

Merchant Capital Phase post battle of Plassey 2.Free trade Capitalism between 18th and 19th Century and 3.Finance capitalism from 19th Century till Independence The earliest economic critique was provided by Dadbhai Naoroji through his “ Poverty and Un-British Rule in India “ in 1867 which established the drain theory through the various home charges , interests and works by R.Dutt and Mahadev Govind Ranade further stressed on the destruction of handicrafts and indigeneous industries with the evil twins of trade barriers and foreign capital investment in the country.

The earlier hopes of modernization of the country at the hands of the British was shattered and that the Indians earned were the bleeding local industries and agricultural plains bleached by the bones of the impoverished farmers and labourers.This realization was to make economic nationalism the mainstay of the political struggle in the times to come The early nationalist leaders stressed on the fact that economic development was of paramount importance and hence there was a need to favour the setting up of manufacturing industries with Indian Capital and protect the interests through trade barriers for imported goods.The British prided themselves with the increased exports and remittances back home .Their policy of plundering the banks of Ganga of all its goods and pouring them down at Thames stirred even the Moderates and led to the proclamation of Swaraj and Swadeshi in the later years.This realization was to make economic nationalism the mainstay of the political struggle in the times to come.

In the article you provided: ” the subsequent history section identifies economic nationalism’s rise in the late 19th century, the impetus of crisis after 1929 and its institutionalisation after 1945″ Economic nationalism was a sort of movement in the West during and after the Great Depression.In India it stemmed from the work of early nationalists.What I infer is, work of early nationalists contributed to the growth of economic nationalism which in turn led to political nationalism.During this transition phase, the nature of economic nationalism was such that it mirrored the work of early nationalists.You may take the argument to post independence India’s economic policies too.

But I doubt the context doesn’t demand it.May be one can just mention it in the conclusion.(Moreover, the question was asked in the history section of the 1998 GS-I question paper:-) Also I searched many economic books and nowhere found the mention of ‘economic nationalasim’ as policy or strategy in the post-independence India.Bipan Chandra has written a whole book on it but it is restricted to national movement phase.vipul 1) What were the proposals of the Cabinet Mission? Analyze the reactions of the Congress and the League to the proposals.

Cabinet mission arrived India in March, 1946.Unlike Cripps mission, Cabinet mission was sent to India to conclude the freedom of India.Cabinet mission’s main objective was to make arrangement for interim government and to devise a mechanism to frame the constitution of India.Cabinet mission had discussion with all political leaders and announced its recommendations in May 1946.Some of the important proposals of Cabinet mission were: 1) Cabinet mission supported the idea of undivided India and rejected the Muslim league’s demand for separate Pakistan.

Cabinet mission did not favor the communal representations.2) Cabinet mission also proposed to form of constituent assembly with representation of provincial & princely states.Provincial legislatures were break up in 3 groups.Punjab, Sindh, Baluchistan, NWFP were put together in group to protect the minority (Muslims) autonomy.Majority of this group falls under today’s Pakistan.

3) Cabinet Mission also proposed of forming an interim government with all Indian members except for viceroy.4) Mission also recognized India’s right to separate from the common wealth.5) Cabinet mission proposed for a three-tier loose federal structure.It gave very limited powers to center (first tier) to deal with foreign, finance and communication matters.The intermediate tier was to comprise “groups” to be formed by Provinces (if they chose) to deal with certain common the residue powers were vested in provinces & princely states (bottom tier).

Congress had its reservation on the Cabinet mission’s proposals.Congress accepted the idea of formation of constituent assembly but it was not in favor of a weak center as proposed.Congress also did not like the proposal of having so many fragmented states.Congress did not like the idea of having an interim government with viceroy who would still retain the overriding powers.But this proposal pleased Muslim league to counter the congress dominance.

Muslim league initially approved the plan.But fearing that congress could change the proposal once in majority, Muslim league rejected the plan.Muslim league reiterated their demand for a separate Pakistan.The question asks you to write a ‘note’ – which, according to Merriam Webster dictionary, means ‘a scholarly or technical essay shorter than an article and restricted in scope’.

Here, from first sentence you are giving salient features of the Mughal Architecture.Instead, you have to briefly explain its evolution, extent, important contributors, its form and its influence.umesh cabinet mission of 1946 to india aimed to transfer power from british raj to india leadership along with independence .formulated at intiative celement atlee ,the prime minister of the united kingdom,the mission consiSted the lord pathick lawerencr sir stafford cripps, der.

purpose of the mission was to:hold prepotory disscusion with the elected reprentatives of british india and the indian states in order to secure agreement to framing the constitution,setup a constitution body,set up an executive council with help of indian parties the mission held to talks about two majour indian parties indian national congress and all-india muslim league .

both partise planned to determine a power sharing between hindu and muslims to avoid the communal came up some ideas likes muslim majority provinces stay together and hindu majority states be together …in power the centre would be dealings with foreingers affairs and defence and of the up to states goverment ….muslim league couldnot accept any changes to the terms ……it was the plam 16may…….but it didnot workout because ofv indian national congress wanted to the more powerfull centre goverment.british came with this idea india should be divided in to majority as hindu majority india and muslim majority india after known as pakistan…….Shubhangi “How did economic nationalism mirror the work of the early nationalist leadership in India?” Economic nationalism which developed during the beginning of 20th century aimed at mobilizing the masses by highlighting the exploitative nature of economic policies of British which ruined traditional handicraft and village industries in India and left it to abject poverty.

Economic nationalism developed due to work of early nationalist such as Dadabhai Naroji and R.Many other nationalist during late 19th century highlighted economic exploitation of India in various ways.Naroji explained outflow of Indian capital in the form of salaries, interest payment and as payment of Home charges.Second, many nationalist related poverty and destruction of handicraft industreis to laissez faire policy of Britsh.Tilak promoted economic nationalism by boycotting British goods and promoting Swadesi.

And finally, skewed tariff structure agaist Indian goods and triangular trade system with China were not unknown to early nationalist as other means of deindustrialising India.The above developments in economic nationalism especially drain of wealth and Swadeshi became the agenda of INC to mobilize the masses during Non-cooperation and Civil Disobedience movement.Moderates and extremist both demanded reduction in government expenditure on the basis of drain theory.Idea of Swadeshi became the part of constructive program of Gandhi during 1920s.Swarajist demaned reduction of tariff from within the legislature.

Birla supported economic nationalism through financing INC to gain better protection to Indian goods and industries.Karachi resolution on Economic planning extended idea of swadeshi by seeking nationalisation of key Industries and reserving some industries such as coastal shipping for Indians.Economic socialism of Nehru also had its root in the works of early nationalists.

Therefore, the early work of nationalist to reveal exploitative nature of British developed as a political force of economic nationalism to throw British out of India at later stages.315 words (limit is 250 words) abhish Agarwal I somehow find there is a disconnect between the question and mention of 1991 reforms.I would have avoided mentioning that rather than I would have mentioned terms like colonial economy, drain of wealth.You should also mentioned about R C Dutta, Poverty and Unbritish rule by Naroji.

I remember one of the points of discussion in 1850’s was rupee-sterling conversion, plantation labor issues, imposition of import tariff, Lytton’s Afghan adventure causing economic burden.These were also early demands of INC after its foundation.These are all signify economic nationalism.tushar 2)How did economic nationalism mirror the work of the early nationalist leadership in India? Economic nationalism refers to the detailed study of the ill effects of British colonialism on Indian economy done by the earlier nationalist.

They carried out detailed and scientific study to assess the actual impact of colonialism on Indian economy.These findings were then used to educate the common masses and build a feeling of resentment against foreign rule among the masses.The early nationalist leaders like Dadabhai naraoji, Romesh Chandra Dutta did not start mass political movements.the feeling of nationalism was quite low and there was not much clear understanding of the ill effects of colonial rule in India.through their works like naraoji’s Poverty and un-British rule in India and R C Dutt’s ‘An aconomic history of India’, they were able to establish the ‘econoic drain theory’.

they asserted that British had subjugated Indian economy for their own interests.The British rule was projected as a benevolent rule good for the Indian masses.There were relatively better law and order conditions and the British administrators declared that the british rule was good for India.however, the economic drain theory brought by the nationalists exposed the real face of colonialism.

Farmers, artisans, traders were made aware that there growing poverty was due to the british rule in India.

Money draining out from India in the form of Home charges, biased trade policy was bleeding India economically.The economic critique of colonial rule was an effective step in building consciousness among the masses that the foreign rule was not good for them.A topic as simple and related to the reasons for economic hardship was easily understood by them.Thus it proved to be strong tool for building nationalist feeling against common enemy.This resulted in reducing the british hegemony as well.

This consciousness helped the later leaders to build various movements and spread them to large areas.I felt you could have mentioned few more important names and their critique – Ranade, G V Joshi, Gokhale must be mentioned as the question asks about ‘work of early national leadership’.tushar Thanks for suggestions! Yeah I missed this part.Should have included the criticism of British economic policy and budget in the legislatures also.Need to revise! SwaS The Cripps Mission was an initiative of Clement Attlee in 1946,the PM of UK and mission consisted of Lord Pethick-Lawrence,Sir Stafford Cripps and A.The purpose of the mission was to hold talks with the elected members of provinces and princely states to secure an agreement for framing the constitution and set up a constituent body for the same.

Proposal of Cripps Mission in May,1946:It was promulgated in May 16,1946 ,it recommended to create united dominion of India as a loose confederation of provinces .creation of united dominion of India 2.Muslim majority states to be grouped together (i.e Sind,Punjab and NWFP as one group and Assam and Bengal as another group)and Hindu majority states to form a separate group.

The Central Government would have powers to make legislation on defence,commuincations and foreign affairs while the rest of powers would belong to the provinces coordinated by the groups.The plan was not successful as Congress opposed the idea of grouping of provinces with the intention of balancing each other at the Central ,the British proposed an alternative plan on June 16,1946 .This plan sought an arrangement of dividing India into Hindu majority area and Muslim majority area later renamed as princely states were permitted to either accede to dominion or declare July 10 ,Jawarhar Lal Nehru held a press conference in Bombay declaring that Congress had only agreed to be part of Constituent Assembly and it regarded itself free to change the Cabinet plan as it thought Congress opposed the plan as it would make Indian didvided into smaller Viceroy began organizing the transfer of power to a Congress-League coalition.But Jinnah and the League condemned the new government, and vowed to agitate for Pakistan by any means possible.

and organized Direct Action Day where over 5,000 people were killed across India,To end the disorder and rising bloodshed, Wavell encouraged Nehru to ask the League to enter the government.While Congress leaders were opposed to conceding to a party that was organizing disorder, Nehru conceded in hope of preserving communal peace.This led to the eventual proposal, and acceptance of the partition of India.The word limit is 250 words (you have used 419 words).

You just have to analyze main reactions of both the parties.Also, formation of constituent assembly is not mentioned as one of most important proposal is not mentioned in your answer.SwaS phani What were the proposals of the Cabinet Mission? Analyze the reactions of the Congress and the League to the proposals.labour party came to power in England and had sent a cabinet mission to give a raod amp for an early and dignified exit of the british from india under sir Stanford cripps , pathic Lawrence and Alexander.

The cabinet mission plan proposed a union of india containing both british india and princely states with provinces divided into three groups with Group A being the hindu majority areas , Group B being the muslim majority areas and group C containing Bengal and assam.They were against the partition of india for political , financial and security reasons.The powers rest with the federative center are defence , communications and the residuary powers went to the provinces which can confer some of their powers to the regional groupings .the provinces should not change the constitution for 10 years and later have the option to form their own.Power will be transferred to an interim government and a constituent assembly will write a constituent for the federation.

Initially both congress and league accepted the proposals as INC thought the provincial autonomy would not dither the federation as they had a chance upto 10 years and League considered the Group B states had the pretext of a separate muslim country.The difference of opinion regarding the constitution of the interim government at the center finally lead to INC reverting back followed suit by the muslim league fearing the majority of caste hindus in the constituent assembly would not give them ample and adequate opportunities phani phani Write a note on Mughal Architecture (150 word) Unlike the british , mughals came to india and made it their peramanent residence , this attitude shows in their architecture.Mughal architecture is a culmination on indo-persian style.Many building constructed in Maharashtra and other parts of north india show the elegance of indo saarsanic style of mughals.The architectural history of mughals start with akbar , went to its zenith during shajahan.

the main features of mughal larchitecture are construction of mausoleums in large park like enclosures , double dome , extraordinary pietra dura and calligraphy on the monuments.They constructed forts ,Palaces , gardens , mausoleums , masjids.Fatehpur sikri , jama masjid , humayun tomb ,buland darwaza , taj mahal , hazrat mahal , mughal gardens, akbars tomb etc are standing testimony for mughal architectural grandeur.Placing of massive dome above the four walled enclosures and minarets are standing features of mughal architecture.

Anjali procedure, but failed to evolve consensus and proposed its own plan.

Though Congress and Muslim League accepted it, later ML withdraw its acceptance to the plan.*There should be Union of India with Executive and legislature which will deal with Foreign affairs, Defence and communication and raise finances.*Provinces with full autonomy and residuary powers.*Formed three group of states with hindu majority, muslim majority, and Bengal and Assam in separate group.

*Constituent Assembly would be elected by Provincial Legislative Assemblies *The members of each provincial legislative assembly would be divided into three groups General, Muslims and Sikhs and each group would elect its own representative.Congress and Muslim league interpreted the plan in their own way.Congress assumed Plan rejected Muslim Leagues demand of separate Pakistan.But its objection was to the grouping of states in three it joined interim govt, participated in elections and joined constituent assembly.Muslim League was quite unhappy as plan directly rejected its demand of separate Pakistan but it felt that basis of Pakistan implied in Plans scheme of compulsory joined the interim govt participated in elections but disturbed by the overwhelming majority of Congress in Constituent assembly and refused to join it.

As congress went ahead with Constituent assembly meeting ML launched direct Action day to fulfill its demand of Pakistan anyway.Proposed Constituent Assembly could have been provided a apportunity to Congress and ML to iron out differences and evolve consensus to address minority concerns, but fear of ML of majoritarianism prevented it from joining Constituent Assembly and it led to partition of country.Anjali Anjali, It is a very good answer.I think you should directly type into the comment box.

About answer, you have mentioned all good points.SREEJESH 3) Write a note on Mughal Architecture: The Mughal architecture occupies a significant place in the history of Indian Mughal architecture developed with the efforts of successfully incorporated foreign influences into indigenous of the well known features of Mughal architecture are round domes, high minarets,mehrab,open courtyards,pillars etc.A notable feature of the Mughal architecture was the use of red were extensively used for the building of forts and palaces such as Humayun’s Tomb,Agra Fort,city of Fatehpur Sikri r during later period the red sandstones were replaced with white marbles when the stress was more on the beautification of buildings with the use of coloured design,precious and semi-precious stones,gold and silver waters and minute carvings.The glory of Mughal architecture reached its zenith during the reign of Shahjahan who was credited with the construction of several architecture marvels ; “Taj-mahal” being the foremost of them and Red Fort, Jama Masjid, Moti Masjid etc.

SREEJESH hasan 1) What were the proposals of the Cabinet Mission? Analyze the reactions of the Congress and the League to the proposals.Cabinet mission plan was constituted by then prime minister of Britian Clement Atlee .Stafforfd Cripss was one of the member of this plan .The basic aim of cabinet mission plan was to transfer power from British empire to responsible Indian the said purpose cabinet mission plan came India in the year 1946 .

Mission’s member hold discussion with two largest party of that time Congress and Muslim Leage.Congress was in favour of strong centre while Muslim wanted a united India but states must be given right to secede from Union if it t mission Plan has proposed to form constituent assembly to frame constitution for India.Constituent assembly was formed in the leadership of Pandit Nehru designated as vice president .Later On Muslim League joined constituent assembly the view of congress and Muslim League were antagonistic with each other so this led to withdrawal of muslim League from constituent assembly.Congress also declared Muslim Leage’s demand for weak centre as invalid .

It also declared that throughout freedom struggle the ideals of secularism was followed so at the end of this movement it cant declared itself as representing Hindu iterest.On the other Muslim league demanded safeguard for Muslims .When Muslim League withdrawal from constituent assembly it vigorously demanded creation of Pakistan as separate Action was initiated by led to wide scale communal violence throughout country .Ultimately cabinet Mission plan failed to fulfill Its this juncture ,British Government sent Mounbatein As viceroy and divide country into two separate sovereign state.2)How did economic nationalism mirror the work of the early nationalist leadership in India? Nationalism is a feeling for love and well being of ones’s ic nationalism means to take care and to fight for the economic loss of one’s national asset or wealth.

If we see early national movement of India we have great examples before us who have not only criticized British empire for economic drain but also presented a chronological picture of economic exploitation of colonial of the early nationalist in this area was Dadabhai Naroji.He has studied economic condition of 100 years of colonial rule of India and compare it with that of Mughals and Ancient has found that the condition of peasant ,artisian,potters,blacksmiths,businessmen etc were much better than in colonial were starving,tax collection were increasing day by day but in leau of those taxes mere lip service has been done .Whatever development is being carried out by colonial power in India was only was its economic exploitation .Railways for raw material and colleges were not adequate .Whatever school and colleges were opened ,these were to create man power for help British administration .

For the first time people of India and intelligentsia realized this economic exploitation through work of Dadabhai Naraoji.SREEJESH How did economic nationalism mirror the work of the early nationalist leadership in India? By the later part of 19th century the Britisher’s policy of exploitation and subjugation resulted in the large scale poverty and wide spread famine and hunger events drew the attention of intellectuals such as Dada Bhai Narauji, , etc.They analyzed the situation and came to conclusion that the so-called benevolent British regime by their discriminatory trade and tariff policies were actually emptying the treasury of India and making it poor day by day.Dada Bhai Narauji in particular,in his book ‘Poverty and Un-Brithish Rule in India’ explained the drain of wealth Britishers through their policies were sucking the money out of India.The whole British Administration,the maintainance of army,their ambitious expansionist policies,home charges paid by poor Indians.

The early Nationalists quickly understood that it can be prevented only by forming some formal association.The Indian National Congress was established by these intellectuals in 1885 to persuade their colonial masters not to exploit India anymore.The work done by these economists aroused the conciousness of Indian middle class.The concept of Nation and Nationalism pitched high day by work done by these early Nationalist provided platform for more radical leaders such as Lal-Bal- Pal to arouse the feeling of Nationalism and led to glorious struggle for independence from the clutches of Britishers.

SREEJESH thank you, It answers only half the question.

We have to explain how economic nationalism during national movement mirrored the work of early nationalists – which can be shown through few examples of strategies adopted by the later leadership.Swadeshi movement is one classic example.The language and flow is very good though.Evika 1) What were the proposals of the Cabinet Mission? Analyze the reactions of the Congress and the League to the proposals.The Cabinet Mission announced its resolution in May 1946.

Federal government at the centre embracing both British India and princely states.The Union would deal with defence, foreign affairs, communications and raising finance.The rest of the powers would be vested with the provinces and states.India would be divided into 3 groups of provinces so that one would have hindu majority and the rest muslim majority.A constituent assembly would be formed to draft the Union constitution.

The representatives of the Provinces were to meet separately to draw upon the constitution of the provinces in each group.An interim government would be established.And the Viceroy’s executive council will have portfolios filled by Indian leaders.The congress accepted the proposal relating to Constituent Assembly.

However, it had objections over grouping of states that provided disproportionate representation to Muslim League, an interim government and the minimal powers given the centre, which made it weak.The Muslim League had objections due to its rejected demand for a separate state of Pakistan.Nevertheless, it accepted the proposals initially.But when Congress declared that it could change the scheme through its majority in the Constituent Assembly, it rejected the plan.The plan was not satisfactory to any section of Indian people, however with its rejection the last opportunity to avoid the partition of India was lost.

Gandhiji had said that it was ‘the best that the British Government could have produced.’ Evika You have answered it very well.Yes ‘analyze’ part is tricky – but with practice it become easy.Analyze doesn’t mean explaining through lengthy sentences (some think so).You have examined the stand taken by the Congress and League separately as question demanded.Does straight away telling the reaction of congress & ML counts as analysis? And if this is analysis, then if the statement of question would be something like- What were the reactions of the Congress and the League to the proposals? How should the answer of Evika change accordingly? Observe the words ‘However’ in the penultimate paragraph and ‘nevertheless’ in the last paragraph and its following sentence.Within one or two sentences she has examined the stand taken by both the parties.

May be she would have given 4 important proposals of the Cabinet mission and analyzed latter part more, but within the word limit (she has used 242 words), the answer is good.“However, it had objections over grouping of states that provided disproportionate representation to Muslim League, an interim government and the minimal powers given the centre, which made it weak.” and “Nevertheless, it accepted the proposals initially.But when Congress declared that it could change the scheme through its majority in the Constituent Assembly, it rejected the plan.” Are these statements stating the reactions or analyzing the reactions.

In my view, these are just stating the reactions.Analyzing would have included more in-depth explanation for the reactions in my view.Appreciate your help in clarifying my doubt.Sagar: Writing directly that congress was against grouping and providing the reason abt it being disproportionate representation are different.

The later is what constitutes an analysis.Likewise, reasoning out ML’s withdrawing their agreement and the last para forms part of analysis.Or so I guess on the basis of Insights review.I shud reduce the no of proposals and try to give a more in depth answer as u rightly pointed out.

Evika 2) How did economic nationalism mirror the work of the early nationalist leadership in India? Economic nationalism refers to an economic critique of colonialism, which was the most important contribution to the development of nationalist movement in India by its early leaders.

In the 1st half of the 19th century, there was a general agreement on the importance of the British in modernizing India.agreed that ‘economic transformation on the basis of capitalist enterprise’ should be made the primary economic policy.Dadabhai Naoroji, an industrialist, pioneered the task of making Indian aware of the economic disabilities of foreign domination.He put forward the idea that Britain was ‘draining and bleeding’ India which was the reason for perpetual poverty.Also, he established subsistence-based poverty line that helped Indians gain a realistic idea of the prevailing situation.

, e and closely analysed the different aspects of economy and raised question regarding nature and purpose of British rule.The early nationalists also highlighted the plight of traditional Indian handicraft, which had suffered due to British policies.They also criticized the taxation policies of the British saying that it overburdened the poor while making the bureaucrats richer.Tilak pointed out that railway was not to serve India’s industrial needs, but to help foreign goods reach domestic markets.The economic drain theory formed the basis for Swaraj movement, as prior to the theory, the nationalists had merely demanded a share in power.

Dadabhai Naoroji had laid down the goal of national movement as self-government.It also helped in mobilizing the masses for India’s freedom struggle.vipul Mughal Empire was founded in 15th century .First two rulers Babar, Humayun mostly spent their tenure in between wars.Reign of Akbar was more or less peaceful.

Grand mosque and palaces built in Akbar’s time had influences of Islamic and Indian traditional architecture.Palaces and mosque at Fateh pur Sikri (First planned city of Mughal Empire) and Akbar tomb in Sikandara are great examples of this amalgamation.Tajmahal constructed by Shahjahan in memory of his wife is the supreme masterpiece of Indo-Islamic architecture.Some of the prominent features of Mughal architecture are: • Use of domes with constricted necks • Use of red stone & white marble as building material • Use of Slender minarets, large hall, massive gateways and delicate ornamentation • Mughal architecture major difference from other Islamic architecture is that Mausoleums were architectural masterpieces in comparison to the mosques.

• Influence of Persian architecture (Char bagh style) is clearly visible in Mughal architecture Humayun Tomb & Tajmahal are famous examples of Char Bagh style of persian culture, where main building is put at the center of garden divided by walkways in four smaller parts, are most famous examples of Persian influence on Mughal architecture.• Akbar tomb at Sikandara- This tomb is an excellent example of the fusion of Indian architecture ( use of post and beam structure)& Islamic architecture (Use of geometry) .• Puran Qila ,Red fort, Bualnd darwaja,Moti Masjid, Tomb of salim Chisti are also some splendid monuments confirming the greatness of Mughal architecture.Manish Q) How did economic nationalism mirror the work of early nationalist leadership in India? A) Nationalism implies sense of belonging with one’s nation.The history is full of examples whenever alien powers tried to rule by exploitation, sense of nationalism had led the revolution.

Economic nationalism is also the urge to protect jobs and capital of own economy by favouring the goods and services produced in own country.Though, in the ongoing depression of world economy, the degree of economic nationalism has both merits and demerit.Economic nationalism could be achieved by both stimulating the demand of local products and providing supply protection.In the case of demand stimulation, economic nationalism has lot of similarities with early nationalist movement.In 1905, a fraction of Indian national congress led by Bal gangadhar tilak, Bipin Chandra pal and Lala lajput rai led down the foundation of swarajhya.

In three big states Maharastra, Punjab and Bangal they urged people to use domestic goods.The struggle to release the excess taxation and duties on domestic industries and locally produced goods to make them competitive were the critical areas of Swarajhya movement.The Champaran movement of 1917 and non-cooperation movement of 1922 are examples of promoting production and consumption of domestic goods.Though economic nationalism by providing supply protection is a popular mode but it has little in common with early nationalist movements as it was used against the domestic goods to destroy the domestic industries.But while the early nationalist leadership was fighting against the exploitation of nation’s resources and bringing self-reliance; in present context of integrated world economy, economic nationalism might endanger the overall economy.

Hri phani Shubhangi I have two questions which are very probable in one way or the other.Sagar, RV,Lakshmi, Vipul, Abhish, Tushar and everyone else here) to help me out.“BRICS BANK WILL NOT SUPPLANT BUT SUPPLIMENT WORLD BANK AND IMF.

“Will BRICS OUTSHINE IBSA? WHAT WAY SHOULD IBSA BE EVOLVED TO MAINTAIN IIMPORTANCE.Shubhangi, “Centralized questioning authority!!” – that is rude.I am pasting questions based on feedback and following a pattern here.

If you want to ask questions and seek answers from people here, absolutely there is no restriction.You are free to do so as long as it leads to a meaningful discussion.And tomorrow you will say I am the ‘Centralized Answering Authority’ – this is the reason I desist from commenting on answers.🙂 Shubhangi Sorry I did not mean that….

in fact your centralised command is much needed to guide the fragmented aspirants because it provides guidelines and discipline which otherwise would lead to chaos.

You are a true, genuine and honest guide for us and your valuable comments are more important than anything else for us.lakshmi prasanna “BRICS BANK WILL NOT SUPPLANT BUT SUPPLEMENT WORLD BANK AND IMF.“- COMMENT This was the statement made by BRICS explaining conditions which led to formation of BRICS bank.According to them bank provides collective foreign exchange and funds for financial developmental projects in addressing the needs of emerging and poor economies.It tackles under development and currency volatility.

The 2008 economic crisis made developed nations to follow protectionist policies which are not conducive for global recovery.International financial institutions like World Bank and IMF are failing in meeting the growing demands for funds.So they are interested in reforming these institutions using huge savings of country for investment.Also they would like to bypass the need for rushing to these western dominated and Britain woods system which grants loans with attached conditions.

Most often these conditions are not conducive to implement in the sociopolitical condition of the targeted country.In such a situation BRICS is feeling that this bank will be supplementary to that of existing banks.They don’t have the plans to replace these traditional institutions.On the other hand World Bank is willing to make partnership with this.But before that bank should have clear ideas like capital composition, governance structure location and bank president.

At the time of Asian economic crisis in 1997 Japan came with similar proposal like Asian monetary fund in line of IMF but later U.So BRICS should take care all such problems.BRICS is having 40% in world’s population and 25% of worlds GDP.So BRICS bank will have the capacity to influence the global economic condition lakshmi prasanna Manish In BRICS fifth annual summit, the idea of BRICS development bank has taken firm shape and since then through multi-level interactions it progressed towards making firm proposal in 2014’s summit.

Though it has raised concerns over taking power from existing multilateral organizations like IMF, World Bank or ADB; the leaders of BRICS have maintained their views that it will just complement existing institutions.The need for BRICS bank arises from following factors: – The funds availability from IMF or World bank are insufficient to meet the demand of BRICS – The poor governance increases the delays in financing – BRICS accounts for 40% of world currency reserves ($ 3.67 trillion) which could be used to drive economic growth in key areas – It will allow BRICS to exercise its influence on world economic and geopolitical issues Though there has been fears that BRICS might attempt to abandon to expand free trade or even roughshod over aid conditions in poor countries, but many also argues that BRICS fundamentally lacks coherence which limits its chances of big changes.Great disparity in size of economy & intense competition within the group, lack of clarity over BRICS role in post-2015 development agenda and individual geopolitical & economical ambition might limit the potential of BRICS bank.Issues of funding capital requirement, distribution of voting rights and capital allocation are yet to be addressed by BRICS group.

In this context, it’s important to note that even a successful CMIM plan to create forex reserve pool between china, Japan, Korea and ASEAN has been able to create fund of only $240 bn which is only 1.Thus it indicates that creating an institution which can supplant IMF or World Bank requires a lot of co-operation and trust which at present, BRICS don’t enjoy.Thus, it is safe to assume that BRICS bank would increase the investments in critical areas and increase the trade among the members but unless BRICS create a desired coherence to succeed it will just be supplement of existing multilateral institutions.Manish With more brainstorming 🙂 the response could be written as – Explain the need of BRICS bank following up with an para to highlight how it could be very good supplement of IMF or WB -Explain the challenges like lack of cohesion in BRICS and dependability on developed countries > following up with a para to summarize Shubhangi Insights I have on confusion regarding question cum answer booklet.

I have a habit of framing points in rough before writing actual answer.In new Qtn cum Answer booklet would it be possible to do this? I think they will provide space for rough work at the end of the paper.In UGC-NET question paper, I don’t find such space though.May be you can frame your points with pencil in the margins and then write answer.Shubhangi Shubhangi Anjali I think agriculture is state subject and land distribution and dependency ratio is not same in all states, it varies in each state, and resource distribution like minerals also varies so state only can protect its interest, if given to center then it cannot fully do justice and it will act in collective manner, if concurrent centers law prevails whenever center feels it can act in own manner so it may have been in state list.

Awesome Possum We are a quasi union state.Whichever way you look at it, land has to be a state subject.First of all there is the problem of distribution of land that was faced by each part of the country upon independence.This not only entailed various systems of working the land (ryotwari; zamindari etc.

) but also the fact that the land was predominantly concentrated in the hands of a few sections of society- Zamindars, The jenmi’s etc.Therefore land reforms had to account for this as well.Moreover, once you give something like taxes of Agriculture to the state, you cannot state that the State only has a usufructuary right in the land.What you want to do is have a gander at Entry 18 and 30 of the State list in the Seventh schedule to the Constitution of India.Draw a connection between those two things with what is stated above.

To add another element to this: remember that land reforms were started (if I am not mistaken) In Madras presidency by the Rajagopalachari administration after the 1937 provincial elections; the point being that in any system once a certain privilege is provided to a group, to withdraw the same is impossible.Anjali gates public buildings including sarais, humams, baolis etc.Characteristics of Mughal Architecture are, *regularity and symmetry *dome supported by slender minarets, graceful kiosk, arches on all sides and fine white inlay work.* running water in palaces and pleasure resorts.

Gardens with running water laid down during Babur’s reign.

Nishat Bgh, Kashmir, Shalimar Garden, Lahore, Pinjore Garden, Kalka.Mosque of his period are Ayodhya and Sambhal.Famous buildings of Akbar’s reign are fort at Agra, diwan-i-am, diwan-i-khas, Man mandir, Buland Darwaza.During Shahjahan reign Red Fort,Jama Masjid, in Delhi,Taj-mahal were built.

RV Social Forestry pertains to management and protection forests , and promoting afforestation activities on barren lands for environment preservation, promotion and sustainable use of forest goods.The needs of villages including fuelwood , fruits , gums and lac from trees are essentially growing and with the increasing demographic pressure on land there is an urgent need for plantation and preservation of forests.Through its four components of farm forestry , community forestry ,extension forestry and agro forestry the programme aims to use the community and personal lands of villagers to grow more trees .This not only provide additional sources of income but also help in reclaiming degrade land , moisture and nutrient conservation , prevents further soil erosion and creates environmental awareness.In villages of Kerala social Forestry has been combined with MNREGA for constructive afforestation work on the community lands and seeing the benefits especially of silviculture which combines agricultural crops with orchard farming , livestock ranching and tree growing , it has been adopted on personal farm lands as well .

There is a need to promote such activities and hold events like Vanmahotsava, Environment Day more often on national scale as well.bhushanupsc 2)Form a critical assessment of the non-cooperation movement.The Congress-Khilafat non-cooperation movement was aimed at reverting the wrongs of Treaty of Sevres , Jallianwala Bagh and Rowlatt Acts and to attain Swaraj.The programme included both constructive and destructive programmes.Constructive being the promotion to khadi , swadeshi , national schools and colleges ,hindu-muslim unity and abolition of untouchability.

The destructive program of renunciation of honours of titles , boycott of government schools and services and above all boycott of foreign products bleeded the British coffers and their pride.Gandhi introduced important changes in Congress by adopting a peaceful manner for attainment of Swaraj instead of the earlier clause of constitutional manner , brought down the membership fees and instructed reorganized ward and provincial communities on linguistic lines .This was to have more impact on the locals and help the masses be inducted into the movement.The programme was hugely successful all over the country with the exception of communal colour the movement got in r the events of Chauri Chaura forced him to withdraw the movement.This led to much resentment amongst many people including Congress leaders and was seen as a failure of Gandhi .

It may looked he was protecting the capital class and was scared of movement slipping out of his hands to radical elements the reality is different.This was the first mass scale movement and everyone looked upto Gandhi for all leadesrship at all the stages.If Gandhi had allowed the movement post Chauri Chaura it would have attracted widespread repression from the government as movement was no longer would have demoralized and dented their confidence for future action.By taking the blame on himself Gandhi actually shielded the people from both repression and demoralization .Evika ‘bleeded the British coffers and their pride’ is a very strong statement that u used.

Anyway, I liked the points on constitutional change and communal color in Kerela.But u spent too many words justifying Gandhiji’s withdrawl of the movement.Is it asked for in the qn? KARAN RAJ I have posted answer to the non cooperation question.U’ll find that in the comment box in the end of the look into the answer and give ur valuable comments Anjali RV, I don’t think NCM had limited aims, which u stated in introduction.Gandhiji himself assured people to free themselves of foreign rule within one year.

RV Hi Evika thanx fr your comments ! Since they asked for critical assessment i provided all the necessary points and focused on the part that withdrawal had created a resenment amongst people and academics are still divided on the question whether it was correct or not ! if could tell me why is it coffers and pride thing wrong ? RV Hi Anjali ! Maybe i was wrong to put it up as aim but they movement wanted to reverse the wrongs and attain swaraj ! and it is infact one of the criticisms that movement couldnot get the wrongs reversed ! Anyways thanx fr your comments would review again ! RV 1)How did the movement for the liberation of women receive a great stimulus from the rise and growth of the nationalist movement? Leaders since the very beginning were pained by the deplorable condition of women who faced discrimination right from her birth to death.If she was lucky enough to survive infanticide she was subjugated forever in the patriarchal social setup with evils of illiteracy , child marriage, and harrowing act of Sati plaguing her life.The British earlier had resisted from interfering with the local customs of the people .With the penetration of modern education , humanism and rationalism people like Raja Ram Mohun Roy, Ishwar Chand Vidyasagar and Anand Dutt sought to rational and scientific thinking and throught this impressed upon the British to pass acts like Sati Abolition and Widows Remarriage Act.Women education was increasingly recognised as powerful means of empowerment and promoted through the Bethune School under Vidyasagar , works of Jyotibha Phule,others and later through the constructive programs .

These educated women like Kadambini Ganguly , Sarojini Naidu later themselves catalysed the awareness and liberation of women and hence it had a multiplication effect .The brave acts of Rani lakshibai and later women like Rani Gadirchilu, Aruna Asaf Ali , Madame Cama rekindled the strength and confidence in women to break their chains of homely restrictions and participate in the national movement shoulder to shoulder with men.Through the adoption of mass struggle programme the leaders recognised the inherent contribution of women in protests , alcohol and drugs picketing , khadi spinning , renunciation of foreign goods , and their determined commitment to the national cause .Hence during non cooperation , civil disobedience and others there were special instructions given to them and women responded by coming out in large numbers responding to the faith shown in them .SREEJESH 3) Meaning and aim of Social Forestry: Social Forestry is defined as the planting of trees outside the conventional forest Social Forestry project was launched by National Commission On Agriculture in 1976.

The main aim of Social Forestry was to reduce the pressure on the forests which were indiscriminately cut down for fuel,timber,forest products Forestry project was launched as a community driven local people were made aware to plant trees on their land be it agricultural land or their private they were encouraged to grow trees on barren Government also started planting trees alongside railway tracks,highways,canals were grown in village common land,Government wastelands and Panchayat plantation done helps in soil conservation and bring rights of people living on the periphery of the forests have been recognized by the Government b introducing this scheme.vipul In year 1919, sentiment across all India was of discontent.Several measures like Rowaltt act,Jaliawala Bagh massacre, failure of Monatague -chelmsford reforms & poor treatment of Turkey after the war etc.had dis appointed each and every section of Indian society.Khilafat leaders had left all the hopes that British would save the Turkey empire whom Muslims used to treat as their Spiritual leaders.

Gandhi Ji convinced the Khilafat leaders to raise a non-violent,non-cooperation protest against the government.On 1 August,1920 Gandhi ji officially launched the Non-cooperation movement.Congress at the same time was not seeing any political advance through constitutional means and launched its non-cooperation movement at later point of time.Main features of NCM were surrender of titles, awards or honours, boycott of government schools, non-payment of taxes, boycott of foreign cloths etc.

Gandhi ji also proposed the idea of setting up national schools & colleges, Panchayats to settle disputes, hand spinning units and promising unity across caste & Ji believed that all these measures would lead India to Swaraj.

Congress also supported the means of extra-constitutional mass action.Congress changed it objective to attainment of Swaraj from self –government.Within few months, thousands of people left the government schools and joined the national schools.Boycott of foreign cloth was very successful.Government revenue showed a considerable decline during this period of boycott.Khilafat leaders also asked muslims to Boycott the british laborer in tea planation went on ce of forest laws becma epopualr in andhra.Punjab Akali movement peaked its activties to get control of gurudwaras from corrupt mahants.British government found it completely on back foot.

NCM was successful to reach every nook & corner of country and involve each & every section of society.But suddenly movement started turning violent.After Chora-Chori incident Gandhi ji decided to with draw the movement despite the criticism from his own Ji knew that British might was still capable enough to suppress a violent movement in moments.Shubhangi “How did the movement for the liberation of women receive a great stimulus from the rise and growth of the nationalist movement?” Indian society was creeping with various evils such as child marriage, female infanticide, purdah system, devdasi and sati during British period.Socio-economic-political conditions of women were at bottom due to male dominance and illiteracy.

Early nationalist and reformist realized that without liberating women from clutches of social evils freedom for India was difficult and process of India as nation in making was only possible through women empowerment.Liberating forces for women such as legal measures, education and western ideas progressed with the rise and growth of national movement.First phase of which was characterized by abolition of various evils such as sati and child marriage and by supporting widow remarriage.Ranade and ri succeeded winning favor of British to pass various legislations to curb these evils.Second phase was dominated by spread of education to masses especially to women.British and Indian nationalist favoured western education.

A number of schools were set up due to efforts of J.Education developed rationality and sense of morality.

Education also brought in western ideas such as liberty, equality and human rights.Third phase was period of increasing participation of women in political and national organization.Various women leaders such as Annie Besant, Sarojini Naidu and Corneli Sorabjee acted as catalyst in establishing women centric organizations like AIWC and WIA.Above three phases progressed sequentially with the rise and growth of nationalist movement which was evident from progressive rise of participation of women in national movement from swadeshi, non-cooperation, CDM to Quit India movement.And WHY DID part of question but I tried to stick to HOW DID THE MOVEMENT…….The question can be reread as ‘How did the growth of nationalist movement stimulated women’s liberation movement?’ I think focus should be on how national movement provided a platform/launchpad/encouragement for the liberation movement of women.Here, one should ask what constituted ‘women’s liberation movement’ during the national movement.In your answer you have explained how reformers tried to liberate women.

How national movement influenced their work is missing.But I am not sure about the timeline u provided by dividing the answer into phases.Even Raja Ram Mohan lended his support for women education.I don’t have much idea about this topic.So i wont be able to say anything specific about the content.But after reading your answer I could see it is lucidly written.

As insights has mentioned relation to the national movement and women liberation movement is not clear.

vipul 3) Meaning and aim of Social Forestry.(150 words) Social forestry is an approach to reduce the pressure of forest produce like wood, fodder & grass on the traditional forest area.Under this system, individuals & communities are encouraged to plant trees on their holdings, barren lands to meet the local demand for forest produce.Social forestry includes agro-forestry, community forestry, commercial & noncommercial forestry.India’s forest cover is 23 % which is far below the target of 33 % set in National forest policy 1952.

In time of ever growing demand for forests resource due to population explosion & rising Industrial needs, Social forestry may be an effective approach to protect the forests.Main aims of social forestry system are: 1) Reduce the resource pressure on traditional forests 2) Meet the local population forest produce needs from social forestry system 3) Afforestation on barren land 4) Improve community participation in forest managements 5) Source of additional revenue for farmers sai Non-cooperation movement (1919-22) also known as the khilafat-non cooperation movement is the important event in the indian freedom struggle.It is built around the concept of khilafa of Turkey and the bad treatment meted out to him after the first world war.Though it started by muslim leaders later it was taken over by indian national congress.Though many leaders like tilak opposed the issue of khilaf being taken at the national level Gandhi wanted to use this opportunity to build the hindu-muslim unity, which was straining by the divisive politics of british.

The methods employed were completely gandhian, non-violent.Use of Khadi and ban on use of import clothes, non use of liverpool salt are the main measures.Methods like hartals, picketing shops which sell liquor are also employed.But the movement was called off when the violent mob torched the police station at chaura chauri.This has shocked the entire nation but all have obliged.

Later the khilafa issue itself is settled down because of the turkish revolution.So ultimately the movement is fizzled out.The movement has brought the hitherto untouched sections into the fold of national struggle.This has shown the power of mob and demonstrated the efficacy of non-violent form of the struggle.From now on the nature of freedom struggle has changed forever.

On the flip side it has communalised the politics which had very grave consequences to the nation ahead.sai Shubhangi Critical assessment is skewed….only single line negative side while many for positive.Should have mentioned positive and negative of NCM in balanced and lucid style.Tilak swaraj fund, spinning wheel distri, khadi promotion, hindu muslim unity are missing.

But positive sides are first, word limit perfect….second, language simple though not well structured.Please review my answer for HOW DID LIBERATION OF WOMEN……… sai Thank you very much for your well judged comments.I do see the points you made and try to correct in future.

You can try this small exercise – read your answer from third paragraph til the end and then write an introduction.I am sure it will be a different but very good introduction.

🙂 Evika 2) Form a critical assessment of the non-cooperation movement.Gandhiji launched NCM in response to the unfortunate Jallianwala Bagh incident, Rowlatt Act and most importantly the Khilafat movement.As a result, the movement saw the height of Hindu Muslim unity.In fact, it was the Muslim participation that gave it a national character.Also, it was the first mass movement in the sense that it touched the remotest sections of the society including peasants, workers, artisans, professionals and students, spread all over the country.

For the movement, people surrendered titles and boycott government schools, law courts and foreign cloth.The promotion of charkha and khadi and village reconstruction program helped in economic revival.They showed audacity in resigning from government services and mass civil disobedience including non-payment of taxes.Hence, INC disproved the charge hurled at it by the British about it representing a ‘microscopic minority’.It increased the self-confidence of the people.It showed that national freedom was an elemental urge and not a foray by the rich and the educated Indians.It also demonstrated the willingness and ability of the masses to endure hardships and make sacrifices.Moreover, the revolutionary terrorists pledged support to the movement to adopt non-violent ways.

It was during the course of NCM that significant changes were introduced in the organizational structure of the Congress.

It adopted a new constitution, which had provisions like reducing the membership fees and decentralization of Congress.So, even though Gandhiji’s decision to withdraw the NCM is criticized by many sections to this day and it failed to attain its goal of Swaraj, the movement had far-reaching consequence on the people and national struggle.But a more light could have been brought on the criticisms as well.But it is a good answr RV bhushanupsc The answer would hv been more complete with including more criticism on NCM made in history like – 1.

religious colour given to NCM by Gandhiji by supporting Khilafat, 2.unacceptance of early withdrawal of NCM by revolutionary terrorists and significant no of youth including Bhagat Singh leaning more towards path of terrorist revolution 3.Chauri Chaura incident showed that Gandhiji and INC had not deepened the thought of non-violence before starting a national movt.Evika 3) Meaning and aim of Social Forestry (150 words) As opposed to commercial forestry, social forestry is the practice of maintenance and protection of forests in and around human settlements for local needs.

It includes afforestation on barren lands.This is done in four ways: farm forestry, community forestry, extension forestry and agro forestry.Farm forestry is the tradition of growing trees on private farmland to meet domestic needs or for shade, soil conservation and utilization of fallow land.Community forestry means growing trees on community land where the government supplies seeds and fertilisers and the community people protect the trees and use the forest produce.Afforestation along roadside, canals and railway lines constitutes extension forestry is a sustainable land use system that encourages growing trees and livestock ranching along with farming on the same land.

The main purpose is to help in environmental, social and rural development.It’s done to protect the traditional forests from the consistent demand for fuel wood by the growing population, which largely depends on forest products like timber, fuel wood and fodder.Evika Vicky… Evika you have not pointed out the various advantages like food, employment , income generated from other forest produces.I think instead of pointing out each type of SF , you should have concentrated more on the advantages and elaborated them a bit more… Please check my answers too Evika Yeah I was confused where to give more weightage-the meaning or the aim of social forestry.I checked u concentrated more on advantages.

Thank u! 🙂 tushar 1)How did the movement for the liberation of women receive a great stimulus from the rise and growth of the nationalist movement? Issues related to women were the centre of most of the reforms beginning in the first half of 19th century.Female infanticide, sati, child marriage, polygamy etc were some of the major problems affecting womenfolks.However, the real push to these reform movements was provided by the nationalist movement.The nationalist leaders were well aware of the importance of women participation in the nationalist struggle.

Gandhiji realized that the women folk need to step out of the house and take part in the movements.Thus he gave great importance to the participation of women in all his movements and constructive works.The various modes of struggle included picketing of liquor shops, spinning khadi clothes using charkha, boycott of foreign goods.These issues were most relevant for the welafare of the women and when these became the mainstay of gandhian strategy, they gave a huge boost to the movement for liberation of women.This new found freedom was fully utilized by the women and a lot of them came forward to join the national movement.

Kasturba Gandhi, Sarojini Naidu, Aruna Asaf Ali, Usha Mehta inspired women to participate in the national movement.The success in their efforts was visible in the heavy participation of women in Civil Dispobedience movement and Quit India movement.Vicky… 1)How did the movement for the liberation of women receive a great stimulus from the rise and growth of the nationalist movement? Answer : The liberation of women get emphasis as major backdrop in the development of India when social reformers like Raja Ram Mohan Roy, I.Ranade etc decided to propagate and fight for the upliftment of women.Among many social evils like Sati, Pudah, child marriage, restricted widow marriage, female infanticide etc , was the major problems of low status and illiteracy given to the women.Although crusaders like Phule contributed a great deal in promoting girl education, but significant progress was taken up when nationalism started growing in the minds of the people.Women was not considered as an liability rather an asset , and her equal participation was sought in the struggle.

This automatically lead to raising her status, promotion of girl education, from employed as cheap labour in the fields they were asked to spin cloth, women starting organizing their own groups, marched hand in hand with students and men during various movements whether is may be swadeshi or non cooperation or quit india .Gandhiji beleived in equal participation of women in every sphere of life, hence was promoted the idea of women activation by him.Many women leaders came to the front, like Annie besant, Kadambini Ganguly, Sarojini Naidu, Usha Mehta etc who contributed significantly in different capacities during different periods of struggle.They came out as the symbols of liberation of women.Even some women joined revolutionaries as was seen in Kakori consiparacy case, chittagong loot, jhansi brigade of INA.

Many ladies like Madam Bikaji Cama also took the pride of women to international stage and unfurled the capacity of woman working from abroad for the national movement .Thus all these events and digninatories, throw the light on the greater participation and liberation of women during the nationalist movement Vicky… pavan 1)How did the movement for the liberation of women receive a great stimulus from the rise and growth of the nationalist movement? Answer Rise of pace of nationalist movement was in sync with rise of liberation movement of women.Indian national movement which was aimed at political freedom of country spread to all sections of society.Participation of Women was one of major factor in its political and reform movements.

Which in turn not only provided greater strength to nationalist movement but also provided emancipation of women who was till that time tied in shackles of customs and Maryadas.

In first decade of 20th century status of women was largely unchanged with few exceptions such as laws against sati and widow remarriage.Their political participation was negligible, their literacy rate was much worse than their male counterpart.With the Bandematram movement after Bengal participation and Home rule movement under leadership of Annie Basant, Women found role models.Real change observed after arrival of Gandhi on centre stage in Freedom struggle.Gandhiji encouraged participation of women in freedom movement and started this from his home.

KAsturba gandhi was active participant in activities Gandhiji.All these things prepared base for women empowerment and many women leaders emerged in national congress such as Sarojini Naidu among others.With civil disobedience women participated in masses.This single movement changed perspective of society toward women as well perspective of women toward them self.Karachi session of Indian national congress acknowledged women’s right and in its right’s declaration it seeks equal rights for men and women.

Women who participated in nationalist movement simultaneously provided leadership to feminist movements in country.Thus struggle of independence for nation had deep impact on struggle for emancipation of women in country.(150 words) Answer Social forestry is afforestation strategy which try to combine goal of plantation of trees with community participation along with economic empowerment of community.It rope in civil society and local community to participate in afforestation on waste land, deforested public land and provide motivation of economic benefit which will result from these forests.

To empower local community by providing alternative means of livelihood.To increase accountability and responsibility of local people toward forests.pavaniiit Vicky… Answer: Non-cooperation movement(NCM) was launched on 1st August 1920.The basic ideology of the movement was to protest peacefully but all legitimate means, even if they might be non constitutional.

They included boycott of government services and goods.Holding hartals, strikes, prossessions, demonstations, prayers, bonfires of foreign cloth etc were common sights.This period elevated the concept of swadeshi.Indianisation of goods and services was promoted and practiced.Khadi was promoted , National schools and colleges came into being, judicial courts were boycotted and instead private panchaya